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Writing Research Papers : A Complete Guide,9780321049803

Writing Research Papers : A Complete Guide

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780321049803

ISBN10:
0321049802
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/1/1998
Publisher(s):
Longman Publishing Group
List Price: $25.33

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This is the 9th edition with a publication date of 6/1/1998.
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Summary

The definitive research paper guide, Writing from Sources combines a traditional and practical approach to the research process with the latest information on electronic research and presentation. Step-by-step instruction in a clear, non-intimidation writing style, takes the reader from the selection and narrowing of a topic, through research, note taking, planning, drafting, revising, to preparation of the finished document.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Introduction 1(2)
Finding a Topic
3(20)
Generating Ideas for a Research Paper Project
4(4)
Using Personal Experience for Topic Discovery
4(1)
Talking with Others to Find a Subject
5(1)
Speculating About Your Subject to Discover Ideas
5(3)
Using a Computer Search to Discover a Topic
8(5)
Surfing the Internet for a Topic
8(1)
Using CD-ROM to Find a Topic
9(2)
Using the Public Access Catalog (PAC) to Find a Topic
11(2)
Using Printed Sources to Formulate a Topic
13(2)
Scanning Periodicals and Books
13(1)
Scanning an Encyclopedia Article
14(1)
Searching the Headings in the Printed Indexes
14(1)
Drafting a Research Proposal
15(6)
The Short Proposal
15(1)
The Long Proposal
16(1)
Explaining Your Purpose in the Research Proposal
17(1)
Identifying Your Audience in the Research Proposal
17(1)
Checklist on Addressing the Reader
18(1)
Identifying Your Role as a Researcher in the Proposal
18(1)
Expressing Your Thesis Sentence in the Research Proposal
18(2)
Using an Enthymeme
20(1)
Narrowing the General Subject to a Specific Topic
21(2)
Narrowing the Topic by a Comparison
21(1)
Restricting and Narrowing with Disciplinary Interests
21(1)
Narrowing the Topic to Match Source Materials
22(1)
Gathering Data
23(46)
Learning the Organization of Your Library
24(3)
Circulation Desk
24(1)
Reference Room
25(1)
Public Access Catalog (PAC)
25(1)
CD-ROM Database Facilities
26
Reserve Desk
25(1)
Stacks
26(1)
Interlibrary Loans
26(1)
Photocopiers
26(1)
Nonprint Materials
26(1)
Archives and Special Collections
26(1)
Library Etiquette
27(1)
Developing a Working Bibliography
27(1)
The Electronic Library: Using a Computer Search
28(10)
Using a Search Engine
30(1)
Bookmarks
31(1)
Using a Subject Directory
31(1)
Using a Key-Word Search
32(1)
Accessing Online Magazines and Journals
33(1)
Using Online Versions Rather than Print Versions
34(1)
Using Gopher, FTP, Telnet, and Other Protocols
35(1)
Examining Library Holdings Via Internet Access
36(1)
Using CD-ROM
37(1)
Using the Printed Bibliographies
38(6)
Starting the Search with General Bibliographies
38(1)
Using the Trade Bibliographies
39(1)
Using a Shortcut: Searching the Specialized Bibliographies
40(4)
Searching the Printed Indexes
44
Searching the Printed Indexes to Periodicals
45(2)
Searching an Index to Abstracts
47(3)
Searching the Biographical Indexes for Authors and Personalities
50(2)
Searching the Newspaper Indexes
52(1)
Searching the Pamphlet Files and Pamphlet Indexes
53
Searching the Indexes to Government Documents
5(52)
Searching for Essays within Books
57(1)
Using the Microforms
57(1)
Using the Printed Catalog Cards
57(4)
Distinguishing the Dewey Decimal System from the Library of Congress System
59(2)
Collecting Data Outside the Library
61(8)
Interviewing Knowledgeable People
61(2)
Writing Letters
63(1)
Examining Audiovisual Materials, Television, and Radio
63(1)
Attending Lectures and Public Addresses
64(2)
Reading Personal Papers
66(1)
Conducting a Survey with a Questionnaire
66(1)
Writing a Case Study
66(1)
Conducting Experiments, Tests, and Measurements
66(3)
Organizing Ideas and Setting Goals
69(14)
Charting a Direction and Setting Goals
69(4)
Using Your Research Proposal to Direct Your Note Taking
69(1)
Listing Key Words and Phrases to Set Directions for Note Taking
70(1)
Writing a Rough Outline
70(1)
Using Questions to Identify Issues
71(1)
Setting Goals by Using the Modes of Development
71(1)
Using Approaches Across the Curriculum to Chart Your Major Ideas
72(1)
Using Your Thesis to Chart the Direction of Your Research
72(1)
Revising Your Goals During Research
73(1)
Revision Checklist
73(1)
Using Academic Models (Paradigms) to Stimulate Your Note Taking
73(4)
A General All-Purpose Model
74(1)
Paradigm for Advancing Your Ideas and Theories
74(1)
Paradigm for the Analysis of Creative Works
75(1)
Paradigm for Argument and Persuasion Papers
75(1)
Paradigm for Analysis of History
76(1)
Paradigm for a Comparative Study
76(1)
Writing a Formal Outline
77(6)
Using Standard Outline Symbols
78(1)
Writing a Formal Topic Outline
78(1)
Writing a Formal Sentence Outline
79(1)
Using Your Notes, Photocopies, Internet Printouts, and Research Journal to Enrich an Outline
80(1)
Using Basic, Dynamic Order to Chart the Course of Your Work
81(2)
Finding and Reading the Best Sources
83(22)
Finding the Best Source Materials
83(5)
Consulting with Your Instructor and the Librarians
83(1)
Using Recent Sources
84(1)
Evaluating Internet Sources
84(1)
Using Journals Rather than Magazines
84(1)
Using Scholarly Books Rather than Trade Books and Encyclopedias
85(1)
Using Biographies to Evaluate an Author
85(1)
Conducting a Citation Search
86
Using Biographies to Evaluate an Author
85(1)
Conducting a Citation Search
86(1)
Examining the Book Reviews
86(2)
Reading All or Part of a Source
88(4)
Evaluating an Article
89(1)
Evaluating a Book
89(3)
Responding to the Sources
92(3)
Selecting Key Ideas for Your Notes
92(1)
Outlining the Key Ideas of a Source
93(1)
Making Notations on Photocopied Materials
94(1)
Writing a Summary or a Precis
94(1)
Selecting a Mix of Both Primary and Secondary Sources
95(2)
Citing From Primary and Secondary Sources
96(1)
Preparing an Annotated Bibliography
97(2)
Preparing a Review of the Literature on a Topic
99(6)
Writing Notes
105(18)
Creating Effective Notes
106(3)
Using a Computer for Note Taking
107(1)
Developing Handwritten Notes
108(1)
Writing Personal Notes
109(1)
Writing Direct Quotation Note Cards
109(3)
Quoting the Primary Sources
110(1)
Quoting the Secondary Sources
111(1)
Writing Paraphrased Notes
112(2)
Writing Summary Notes
114(1)
Writing Precis Notes
115(2)
Use of Precis to Review Briefly an Article or Book
115(1)
Use the Precis to Write an Annotated Bibliography
116(1)
Use the Precis in a Plot Summary Note
116(1)
Use the Precis as the Form for an Abstract
116(1)
Writing Notes from Field Research
117(1)
Avoiding Plagiarism
117(6)
Documenting Your Sources for a Purpose
117(1)
Critical Thinking Tip
118(1)
Understanding Plagiarism So You Can Avoid It
118(1)
Rules for Avoiding Plagiarism
119(1)
Checklist for Common Knowledge Exceptions
120(2)
Required Instances for Citing a Source
122(1)
Writing the Paper
123(32)
Writing a Final Thesis Sentence
124(2)
Use Questions to Focus the Argument
124(1)
Use Key Words to Focus Your Argument
125(1)
Final Thesis Checklist
125(1)
Adjust Your Thesis During Research if Necessary
126(1)
Writing a Title
126(1)
Understanding Your Purpose and Your Role as a Writer
127(1)
Drafting the Paper from Your Notes and Outline
127(6)
Citing More Than One Source in a Paragraph
128(1)
Writing from Your Outline and Notes
129(1)
Safeguarding Your Work on a Computer
130(1)
Transferring Graphics into the Text
130(1)
Writing in the Proper Tense
130(1)
Using the Language of the Discipline
131(1)
Writing in the Third Person
132(1)
Writing with Unity and Coherence
132(1)
Writing the Introduction of the Paper
133(4)
Checklist for the Introduction
133(1)
Opening With Your Thesis Statement
133(1)
Relating to the Well Known
134(1)
Providing Background Information
134(1)
Reviewing the Literature
134(1)
Reviewing the History and Background of the Subject
135(1)
Taking Exception to Critical Views
135(1)
Challenging an Assumption
136(1)
Providing a Brief Summary
136(1)
Defining Key Terms
136(1)
Supplying Data, Statistics, and Special Evidence
137(1)
Avoiding Certain Mistakes in the Opening
137(1)
Writing the Body of the Research Paper
137(5)
Checklist for the Body of the Paper
137(1)
Relating a Time Sequence
138(1)
Comparing or Contrasting Issues, Critics, and Literary Characters
139(1)
Developing Cause and Effect
139(1)
Defining Your Key Terminology
139(1)
Showing a Process
140(1)
Asking Questions and Providing Answers
140(1)
Citing Evidence from the Source Materials
141(1)
Using a Variety of Other Methods
141(1)
Writing the Conclusion of the Research Paper
142(3)
Restating the Thesis and Reaching Beyond It
142(1)
Closing With an Effective Quotation
143(1)
Returning the Focus of a Literary Study to the Author
143(1)
Comparing Past to Present
143(1)
Offering a Directive or Solution
144(1)
Discussing the Test Results
144(1)
Avoiding Certain Mistakes in the Conclusion
144(1)
Revising the Rough Draft
145(2)
Global Revision
145(1)
Global Revision Checklist
145(1)
Revision of the Introduction
145(1)
Revision of Your Paragraphs
145(1)
Paragraph Revision Checklist
146(1)
Revision of the Conclusion
146(1)
Using the Computer for Revision of the Whole Work
146(1)
Editing before Typing or Printing the Final Manuscript
147(6)
Editing Checklist
147(1)
Using the Computer to Edit Your Text
148(2)
Editing To Avoid Sexist and Biased Language
150(3)
Proofreading Before the Final Computer Printout
153(1)
Proofreading Checklist
154(1)
Participating in Peer Review of Research Writing
154(1)
Checklist for Peer Review
154(1)
Blending Reference Material Into Your Writing
155(18)
Blending a Reference into Your Text
156(1)
Making a General Reference Without a Page Number
156(1)
Beginning with the Author and Ending with a Page Number
156(1)
Putting the Page Number Immediately after the Name
156(1)
Putting the Name and Page Number at the End of Borrowed Material
157(1)
Citing a Source When No Author Is Listed
157(1)
Citing the Title of a Magazine Article
157(1)
Citing the Title of a Report
157(1)
Citing the Name of a Publisher or a Corporate Body
157(1)
Identifying Unprinted Sources That Have No Page Number
158(1)
Identifying Internet Sources
158(1)
Establishing the Credibility of the Source
159(1)
Citing Indirect Sources
160(1)
Citing Frequent Page References to the Same Work
161(1)
Citing Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies
161(2)
Adding Extra Information to In-Text Citations
163(1)
Punctuating Citations Properly and with Consistency
164(2)
Commas and Periods
164(1)
Semicolons and Colons
165(1)
Question Marks and Exclamation Marks
166(1)
Single Quotation Marks
166(1)
Indenting Long Quotations
166(1)
Citing Poetry
167(2)
Quoting Short Passages of Poetry
168(1)
Signaling Turnovers for Long Lines of Poetry
168(1)
Altering Initial Capitals in Some Quoted Matter
169(1)
Omitting Quoted Matter with Ellipsis Points
169(2)
Altering Quotations with Parentheses and Brackets
171(2)
Handling Format
173(60)
Preparing the Final Manuscript in MLA Style
173(4)
Title Page or Opening
173(2)
Outline
175(1)
Abstract
175(1)
The Text of the Paper
175(2)
Content Endnotes
177(1)
Appendix
177(1)
Works Cited
177(1)
Glossary: Techniques for Preparing the Manuscript in MLA Style
177(37)
Abbreviations
177(8)
Accent Marks
185(1)
Acknowledgments
185(1)
Ampersand
185(1)
Annotated Bibliography
186(1)
Arabic Numerals
186(3)
Asterisks
189(1)
Bible
189(1)
Borders
189(1)
Bullets and Numbers
189(1)
Capitalization
189(2)
Character Sets
191(1)
Clip Art
191(1)
Content Endnotes
191(3)
Copyright Law
194(1)
Corrections
194(1)
Covers and Binders
195(1)
Dates
195(1)
Definitions
195(1)
Documentation of Sources
195(1)
Etc.
195(1)
Footnotes for Documentation
195(1)
Figures and Tables
195(5)
Fonts
200(1)
Foreign Cities
200(1)
Foreign Languages
200(1)
Graphics
201(1)
Headers and Footers
201(1)
Headings
201(1)
Hypertext Link
201(1)
Hyphenation
201(1)
Indentation
202(1)
Italics
202(1)
Length of the Research Paper
202(1)
Margins
202(1)
Monetary Units
202(1)
Names of Persons
203(1)
Numbering
203(1)
Paper
204(1)
Percentages
204(1)
Proofreaders' Marks
205(1)
Punctuation
205(4)
Roman Numerals
209(1)
Running Heads
209(1)
Short Titles in the Text
209(1)
Slang
210(1)
Spacing
210(1)
Spelling
210(1)
Statistical and Mathematical Copy
211(1)
Superscript Numerals in the Text
211(1)
Table of Contents
211(1)
Theses and Dissertations
211(1)
Titles Within Titles
211(1)
Typing
212(1)
Underscoring
212(2)
Word Division
214(1)
Sample Paper: A Short Essay with Documentation
214(4)
Sample Paper: A Formal Research Paper
218(15)
Works Cited: MLA Style
233(40)
Formatting the ``Works Cited''
233(4)
Bibliographic Form---Books
237(13)
Sample Bibliographic Entries---Books
242(8)
Bibliographic Form---Periodicals
250(5)
Sample Bibliographic Entries---Periodicals
252(3)
Bibliographic Form---Newspapers
255(2)
Bibliographic Form---Government Documents
257(1)
Electronic Sources (CD-ROM, Internet, E-Mail, Databases)
258(6)
Citing Sources Found on the Internet
258(1)
World Wide Web Sites
259(5)
Bibliographic Form---Other Sources
264(9)
Writing in APA Style
273(30)
Writing in the Proper Tense for an APA Styled Paper
273(3)
Index to Bibliographic Models: APA Style
275(1)
Establishing a Critical Approach
276(1)
Using Subheads
276(1)
Using In-Text Citations in APA Style
277(3)
Citing Internet Sources
280(3)
Preparing a Working Draft or Publishing the Manuscript
283(1)
Preparing the List of References
284(7)
Books
284(2)
Periodicals
286(2)
Citing Internet Sources in APA Style
288(3)
Writing the Abstract
291(1)
Sample Paper in APA Style
292(11)
Form and Style for Other Disciplines
303(30)
Using The Name and Year System
304(9)
Using the Name and Year System for Papers in the Social Sciences
305(3)
Using the Name and Year System for Papers in the Biological and Earth Sciences
308(4)
Using the Name and Year System for Papers in Business and Economics
312(1)
Using the Number System
313(11)
Using the Number System for Papers in the Applied Sciences
315(3)
Using the Number System for Papers in the Medical Sciences
318(1)
Sample Paper Using the Number System
319(5)
Using the Footnote System
324(9)
Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Humanities
329(1)
Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Fine Arts
330(1)
Writing a Bibliography for a Paper That Uses Footnotes
331(2)
Appendix A Reference Sources 333(34)
Appendix B Finding Internet Sources for A Selected Discipline 367(6)
Index 373(13)
Credits 386


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