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Writing Research Papers : A Complete Guide,9780321082084

Writing Research Papers : A Complete Guide

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Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780321082084

ISBN10:
0321082087
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $40.40

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Summary

The definitive research paper guide, Writing from Sources combines a traditional and practical approach to the research process with the latest information on electronic research and presentation. Step-by-step instruction in a clear, non-intimidation writing style, takes the reader from the selection and narrowing of a topic, through research, note taking, planning, drafting, revising, to preparation of the finished document.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Instructor xiii
Preface to the Student xix
Writing From Research
1(9)
Why Do Research?
1(1)
Learning Format Variations
2(1)
Understanding a Research Assignment
3(5)
Understanding the Terminology
3(5)
Establishing a Schedule
8(2)
Finding A Topic
10(22)
Relating Your Personal Ideas to a Scholarly Problem
11(5)
Connecting Personal Experience to Scholarly Topics
12(1)
Speculating about Your Subject to Discover Ideas and to Focus on the Issues
13(3)
Talking with Others to Refine the Topic
16(2)
Personal Interviews
16(1)
Internet Discussion Groups
17(1)
Using the World Wide Web to Refine Your Topic
18(1)
Using an Internet Subject Directory
18(1)
Using an Internet Keyword Search
19(1)
Using the Library's Electronic Databases to Narrow the Subject
19(2)
Using a Library's Electronic Book Catalog
21(2)
Using Compact Diskettes
23(1)
Using Printed Materials to Evaluate Your Potential Topic
23(3)
Scanning Periodicals and Books
23(2)
Searching the Headings in the Printed Indexes
25(1)
Drafting a Research Proposal
26(3)
The Short Proposal
26(1)
The Long Proposal
26(1)
Explaining Your Purpose in the Research Proposal
27(1)
Identifying Your Audience in the Research Proposal
28(1)
Identifying Your Role as a Researcher in the Proposal
28(1)
Expressing Your Thesis
29(3)
Using an Enthymeme
30(1)
Your Research Project
31(1)
Gathering Data In The Library
32(22)
Launching the Search
32(1)
Developing a Working Bibliography
33(1)
Finding Books on Your Topic
34(6)
Using Your Library's Electronic Book Catalog
35(1)
Using the Online and Printed Bibliographies
36(4)
Finding Articles in Magazines and Journals
40(6)
Searching the Electronic Indexes to Periodicals
40(1)
Finding Indexes Devoted to Your Discipline
40(2)
Using the H. W. Wilson Indexes
42(1)
Searching for an Index to Abstracts
43(3)
Searching for a Biography
46(1)
Searching for Articles in the Newspaper Indexes
47(1)
Searching the Indexes to Pamphlet Files
47(2)
Searching for Government Documents
49(2)
Searching for Essays within Books
51(1)
Using the Microforms
52(2)
Your Research Project
53(1)
Searching the World Wide Web
54(24)
Reading an Internet Address
54(3)
Using a Search Engine
57(6)
Subject Directory Search Engines
57(3)
Robot-Driven Search Engines
60(1)
Metasearch Engines
60(1)
Specialized Search Engines
61(1)
Educational Search Engines
62(1)
Using a Subject Directory
63(1)
Using a Keyword Search
63(3)
Tips for Searching
63(3)
Accessing Online Sources
66(4)
Home Pages
66(1)
Articles
66(1)
Journals
67(1)
Magazines
67(1)
Newspapers and News Sources
68(1)
Books
69(1)
Using Online Rather than Print Versions
70(1)
Using Gopher, FTP, Telnet
70(1)
Using Listserv, Usenet, and Chat Groups
71(2)
Listserv E-mail News Groups
71(1)
Real-Time Chatting
71(2)
Examining Library Holdings Via Internet Access
73(1)
Finding an Internet Bibliography
73(1)
Conducting Archival Research
74(4)
Your Research Project
77(1)
Collecting Data Outside The Library
78(9)
Investigating Hometown Sources
78(4)
Interviewing Knowledgeable People
78(1)
Writing Letters and Corresponding by E-mail
79(1)
Reading Personal Papers
80(1)
Attending Lectures and Public Addresses
80(1)
Investigating Government Documents
81(1)
Examining Audiovisual Materials, Television, and Radio
82(1)
Conducting a Survey with a Questionnaire
82(1)
Conducting Experiments, Tests, and Observation
83(4)
Your Research Project
85(2)
Organizing Ideas and Setting Goals
87(15)
Charting a Direction and Setting Goals
87(5)
Using Your Research Proposal to Direct Your Note-Taking
88(1)
Listing Key Words and Phrases to Set Directions for Note-Taking
88(1)
Writing a Rough Outline
89(1)
Using Questions to Identify Issues
89(1)
Setting Goals by Using the Modes of Development
89(1)
Using Approaches across the Curriculum to Chart Your Major Ideas
90(1)
Using Your Thesis to Chart the Direction of Your Research
91(1)
Using Academic Models (Paradigms)
92(4)
A General All-Purpose Model
93(1)
Paradigm for Advancing Your Ideas and Theories
93(1)
Paradigm for the Analysis of Creative Works
94(1)
Paradigm for Argument and Persuasion Papers
94(1)
Paradigm for Analysis of History
95(1)
Paradigm for a Comparative Study
95(1)
Writing a Formal Outline
96(6)
Using Standard Outline Symbols
97(1)
Writing a Formal Topic Outline
97(2)
Writing a Formal Sentence Outline
99(1)
Using Your Notes, Photocopies, Internet Printouts, and the Research Journal to Enrich Your Organizational Plan
100(1)
Using a Basic, Dynamic Order to Chart the Course of Your Work
100(1)
Your Research Project
101(1)
Finding and Reading the Best Sources
102(21)
Finding the Best Source Materials
102(7)
Selecting a Mix of Primary and Secondary Sources
109(2)
Reading All or Part of a Source
111(6)
Reading the Key Parts of an Article
111(1)
Reading the Key Parts of a Book
111(4)
Reading the Key Parts of an Internet Article
115(2)
Responding to the Sources
117(2)
Selecting Key Ideas for Your Notes
117(1)
Outlining the Key Ideas of a Source
118(1)
Making Notations on Photocopied Materials
118(1)
Writing a Rough Summary
119(1)
Preparing an Annotated Bibliography
119(1)
Preparing a Review of the Literature on a Topic
120(3)
Your Research Project
122(1)
Practicing Academic Integrity
123(10)
Using Sources to Establish Your Credibility
123(1)
Placing the Source in Its Proper Context
124(1)
Honoring Property Rights
124(1)
Avoiding Plagiarism
125(4)
Common Knowledge Exceptions
126(1)
Borrowing from a Source Correctly
127(2)
Sharing Credit in Collaborative Projects
129(1)
Honoring and Crediting Sources in Online Classrooms
130(1)
Seeking Permission to Publish Material on Your Website
131(2)
Your Research Project
132(1)
Writing Notes
133(13)
Creating Effective Notes
134(2)
Honoring the Conventions of Research Style
134(1)
Using a Computer for Note-Taking
134(2)
Developing Handwritten Notes
136(1)
Writing Personal Notes
136(1)
Writing Direct Quotation Notes
137(2)
Quoting Primary Sources
138(1)
Quoting Secondary Sources
138(1)
Writing Paraphrased Notes
139(2)
Writing Summary Notes
141(1)
Writing Precis Notes
142(2)
Use the Precis to Review Briefly an Article or Book
142(1)
Use the Precis to Write an Annotated Bibliography
143(1)
Use the Precis in a Plot Summary Note
143(1)
Use the Precis as the Form for an Abstract
143(1)
Writing Notes from Field Research
144(2)
Your Research Project
144(2)
Drafting the Paper In An Academic Style
146(13)
Focusing Your Argument
147(1)
Maintaining a Focus on Objective Facts and Subjective Ideas
148(1)
Refining the Thesis Sentence
148(3)
Using Questions to Focus the Thesis
149(1)
Using Key Words to Focus the Thesis
150(1)
Adjust or Change Your Thesis During Research if Necessary
151(1)
Writing an Academic Title
151(1)
Drafting the Paper from Your Research Journal, Notes, and Computer Files
152(5)
Writing from Your Notes
152(1)
Writing with Unity and Coherence
153(1)
Writing in the Proper Tense
154(1)
Using the Language of the Discipline
154(1)
Using Source Material to Enhance Your Writing
155(1)
Writing in the Third Person
155(1)
Writing with the Passive Voice in an Appropriate Manner
156(1)
Placing Graphics Effectively in a Research Essay
156(1)
Avoiding Sexist and Biased Language
157(2)
Your Research Project
158(1)
Blending Reference Material Into Your Writing
159(21)
Blending Reference Citations into Your Text
159(2)
Making a General Reference without a Page Number
159(1)
Beginning with the Author and Ending with a Page Number
160(1)
Putting the Page Number Immediately after the Name
160(1)
Putting the Name and Page Number at the End of Borrowed Material
160(1)
Citing a Source When No Author Is Listed
161(1)
Citing the Title of a Magazine Article
161(1)
Citing the Title of a Report
161(1)
Citing the Name of a Publisher or a Corporate Body
161(1)
Identifying Nonprint Sources That Have No Page Number
161(1)
Identifying Internet Sources
162(1)
Omitting Page Numbers to Internet Citations
163(1)
Citing Indirect Sources
164(1)
Citing Frequent Page References to the Same Work
165(1)
Citing Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies
166(1)
Adding Extra Information to In-text Citations
167(1)
One of Several Volumes
167(1)
Two or More Works by the Same Writer
167(1)
Several Authors in One Citation
167(1)
Additional Information with the Page Number
168(1)
Punctuating Citations Properly and With Consistency
168(3)
Commas and Periods
168(1)
Semicolons and Colons
169(1)
Question Marks and Exclamation Marks
170(1)
Single Quotation Marks
170(1)
Indenting Long Quotations
171(1)
Citing Poetry
172(1)
Quoting Two LInes of Poetry or Less
172(1)
Quoting Three Lines or More
172(1)
Signaling Turnovers for Long Lines of Poetry
173(1)
Handling Quotations from a Play
173(1)
Altering Initial Capitals in Some Quoted Matter
174(1)
Omitting Quoted Matter with Ellipsis Points
174(3)
Altering Quotations with Parentheses and Brackets
177(3)
Parentheses
177(1)
Brackets
177(1)
Your Research Project
178(2)
Writing the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion
180(15)
Writing the Introduction of the Paper
180(5)
Provide the Thesis Statement
180(1)
Relate to the Well Known
181(1)
Provide Background Information
181(1)
Review the Literature
182(1)
Review the History and Background of the Subject
182(1)
Take Exception to Critical Views
183(1)
Challenge an Assumption
183(1)
Provide a Brief Summary
183(1)
Define Key Terms
184(1)
Supply Data, Statistics, and Special Evidence
185(1)
Writing the Body of the Research Paper
185(5)
Relate a Time Sequence
186(1)
Compare or contrast Issues, Critical Views, and Literary Characters
186(1)
Develop Cause and Effect
187(1)
Define Your Key Terminology
187(1)
Explain a Process
188(1)
Ask Questions and Provide Answers
188(1)
Cite Evidence from the Source Materials
189(1)
Use a Variety of Other Methods
189(1)
Writing the Conclusion of the Research Paper
190(5)
Restate the Thesis and Reach Beyond It
191(1)
Close with an Effective Quotation
191(1)
Return the Focus of a Literary Study to the Author
192(1)
Compare the Past to the Present or the Present to the Future
192(1)
Offer a Directive or Solution
192(1)
Discuss Test Results
193(1)
Your Research Project
194(1)
Revising, Proofreading, and Formatting The Rough Draft
195(29)
Conducting a Global Revision
195(3)
Revising the Introduction
196(1)
Revising the Body
196(1)
Revising the Conclusion
196(1)
Participating in Peer Review
197(1)
Formatting the Paper to MLA Style
198(3)
Title Page or Opening Page
198(1)
Outline
199(1)
Abstract
199(1)
The Text of the Paper
200(1)
Content Endnotes Page
200(1)
Appendix
200(1)
Works Cited
201(1)
Editing Before Typing or Printing the Final Manuscript
201(1)
Using the Computer to Edit Your Text
202(1)
Proofreading on the Screen and on the Printed Manuscript
202(22)
Your Research Project
203(1)
Short Literary Research Paper
203(6)
Long Research Paper
209(15)
Works Cited: MLA Style
224(53)
Formatting the Works Cited Page
225(3)
Bibliography Form-Books
228(15)
Bibliography Form-Periodicals
243(7)
Bibliography Form-Newspapers
250(2)
Bibliography Form-Government Documents
252(2)
Bibliography Form-Electronic Sources
254(10)
Citing Sources Found on the Internet
254(1)
World Wide Web Sites
255(9)
Bibliography Form-CD-ROMs
264(2)
Bibliography Form-Other Electronic Sources
266(1)
Bibliography Form-Other Sources
267(10)
Writing in APA Style
277(33)
Writing Theory, Reporting Test Results, or Reviewing Literature
277(1)
Theoretical Article
277(1)
Report of an Empirical Study
278(1)
Review Article
278(1)
Writing in the Proper Tense for an APA Paper
278(1)
Using In-text Citations in APA Style
279(7)
Preparing a Working Draft or Publishing the Manuscript
286(1)
Preparing the References List
287(8)
Book
288(2)
Periodical
290(1)
Abstract
291(1)
Review
291(1)
Report
291(1)
Nonprint Material
291(1)
Internet Sources
292(3)
CD-ROM Material
295(1)
Variations on the APA Style for Other Disciplines in the Social Sciences
295(2)
Linguistics
295(2)
Sociology and Social Work
297(1)
Formatting an APA Paper
297(2)
Theoretical Paper
297(1)
Report of Empirical Research
298(1)
Review Article
298(1)
Writing the Abstract
299(1)
Sample Paper in APA Style
299(11)
CMS Style: Using Footnotes or Endnotes
310(26)
Inserting a Superscript Numeral in Your Text
311(1)
Formatting and Writing the Footnotes
312(2)
Book
313(1)
Collection or Anthology
313(1)
Journal Article
313(1)
Magazine Article
313(1)
Newspaper Article
314(1)
Review Article
314(1)
Writing Footnotes for Electronic Sources
314(1)
Scholarly Project
314(1)
Journal Article Online
314(1)
Database not on the world Wide Web
314(1)
Article from an Online Service
314(1)
Book Online
315(1)
CD-ROM Source
315(1)
Electronic Bulletin Board
315(1)
E-mail
315(1)
Writing Subsequent Footnote References
315(1)
Writing Endnotes rather than Footnotes
316(1)
Writing Content Notes
316(3)
Using the CMS System for Papers in the Humanities
319(2)
Using the CMS System for Papers in the Fine Arts
321(1)
Writing a Bibliography Page
322(1)
Sample Research Paper in the CMS Style
322(14)
CBE Style for the Natural And Applied Sciences
336(16)
Writing in-Text Citations with Numbers
337(1)
Using Numbers with Bibliography Entries
338(2)
Writing In-Text Citations with Name and Year
340(2)
Using Name and Year with Bibliography Entries
342(1)
Arranging the Cited References List by Name and Year
343(1)
Sample Paper Using the CBE Number System
344(8)
Preparing Electronic Research Projects
352
Getting Started
352(1)
Using Word Procesing
353(1)
Building Electronic Presentations
354(1)
Research Paper Web Pages and Sites
355(4)
Creating a Single Web Page
356(1)
Creating a Website with Multiple Pages
357(1)
Using a Web Page Editor to Create Web Pages
358(1)
Importing, Entering, and Modifying Text
358(1)
Citing Your Sources in a Web Research Paper
358(1)
Planning Electronic Research Papers
359(1)
Creating a Plan for Your Research Paper
359(1)
Designing Your Electronic Research
359(1)
Using Graphics in Your Electronic Research Paper
360(1)
Graphic File Formats
360(1)
Creating Your Own Digital Graphics
360(1)
Using Sound and Video in Your Electronic Research Paper
361(1)
Delivering Your Electronic Research Paper to Research Project
362
Your Research Project
362
Appendix A: Glossary of Manuscript Style A-1
Appendix B: Finding Sources for a Selected Discipline A-31
Credits C-1
Index I-1


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