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Writing in Responseis a flexible, brief rhetoric that offers a unique focus on the critical practices of experienced readersanalysis and reflectionthe skills at the heart of academic writing. It helps students compose academic essays by showing how active reading and exploratory writing bring fresh ideas to light and how informal response is developed into polished, documented prose. Extensively class tested, Writing in Responseemphasizes the key techniques common to reading, thinking, and writing throughout the humanities and social sciences by teaching students the value of a social, incremental, and recursive writing process.
Matthew Parfitt (Ph.D., Boston College) is an Associate Professor of Rhetoric and Chair of the Division of Rhetoric at Boston University’s College of General Studies. In 2002 he received the Peyton Richter Award for interdisciplinary teaching. He is coeditor of Conflicts and Crises in the Composition Classroom—And What Instructors Can Do About Them and Cultural Conversations: The Presence of the Past.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Writing in Response to Reading “What Does the Professor Want?” The Values of the Academy Academic Discourse Why Do College Instructors Assign Writing? Critical Thinking “Live the Questions” CHECKLIST FOR UNDERSTANDING ACADEMIC DISCOURSE
Part I, Responsive Reading Chapter 1, Reading with a Purpose Making Sense Academic Reading: “Reading with a Purpose” Context GUIDELINES FOR ANALYZING RHETORICAL CONTEXT Your Own Contexts GUIDELINES FOR ANALYZING THE PURPOSE OF READING GUIDELINES FOR ANALYZING YOUR MOTIVES FOR READING Identifying the Genre of a Text Clearing Space to Concentrate Some Sources of Difficulty Identifying Arguments Ad Council, Start Talking Before They Start Drinking [advertisement] Thomas Ball, The Freedmen’s Memorial [photograph] Reading Critically The Principle of Charity CHECKLIST FOR READING WITH A PURPOSE
Chapter 2, Active Reading Reading through the Text for the First Time Martin Luther, Colloquia Mensalia(Annotations by Samuel Taylor Coleridge) Student Sample Annotated Paragraph, First Reading Student Sample Annotated Paragraph, Second Reading Reading Journal: Thoughts, Claims, and Questions Re-reading A Basic Dialectical Notebook Reading Journal: Further Thoughts Mariana Gonzalez’s Second Entry in Her Reading Journal CHECKLIST FOR ACTIVE READING
Chapter 3, Further Strategies for Active Reading Variations on the Dialectical Notebook Taking Double or Triple Entry Notes on a Computer Adapting the Dialectical Notebook Method to Suit Your Own Needs and Style Analyzing the Argument Lewis Thomas, To Err is Human Mapping the Text What It Says/What It Does Constructing a Radial Map of the Text Evaluating the Argument Reading With and Against the Grain Believing and Doubting Representing Another’s Idea’s Fairly and Accurately Writing a Letter to the Author Talking Out Your Ideas CHECKLIST OF FURTHER STRATEGIES FOR ACTIVE READING
Part II, Composing and Revising Chapter 4, Writing to Discover and Develop Ideas The Value of Exploratory Writing CHECKLIST FOR EXPLORATORY WRITING René Magritte, The Liberator [painting] The Benefits of Writing Daily Making Meanings You Can Always Write More Focused Exploratory Writing CHECKLIST FOR FOCUSED EXPLORATORY WRITING
Chapter 5, Developing an Argument Argument as Structure The Components of Argument: Motive, Claim, and Support The Modes of Persuasion: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Types of Reasoning Deduction Induction Types of Evidence Drafting a Thesis Statement The Role of the Thesis Statement Drafting the Argument Drafting Paragraphs Revising: A Recursive Process Revising Your Thesis Revising Paragraphs Beginning the Paragraph: Transition, Topic, and Claim Varying Paragraph Length Concluding Paragraphs A Case Study of Paragraph Structure James Surowiecki, A Drug on the Market CHECKLIST FOR DEVELOPING AN ARGUMENT
Chapter 6, Organizing the Essay Thinking Like a Reader Organizing an Argument Essay Drafting an Organizational Plan GUIDELINES FOR CREATING CLUSTER DIAGRAMS ON A COMPUTER Revising Organization: Constructing a Sentence Outline GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTING AN OUTLINE Organizing an Argument Essay: A Basic Model Marc Dumas, Human Rights for Apes: A Well-Intentioned Mistake [student paper] Organizing an Argument Essay: A Second Example Wendy Sung, A Campaign for the Dignity of the Great Apes [student paper] Clarification Strategies CHECKLIST FOR ORGANIZING AN ARGUMENT ESSAY Organizing an Exploratory Essay Comparing the Exploratory Essay and the Argument Essay Sample Essay in Argument Form Kelly Rivera, A Fatal Compromise: President Franklin Pierce and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 [student essay] Sample Essay in Exploratory Form Greg Fernandez, Exploring the “Whys” of History: Franklin Pierce and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 [student essay] CHECKLIST FOR ORGANIZING AN EXPLORATORY ESSAY
Part III, Attending to Style Chapter 7, Crafting Sentences Sentence Grammar Phrases GUIDELINES FOR USING GRAMMAR CHECKERS Grammatical Sentence Types Rhetorical Sentence Types Writing Longer Sentences Sentence Combining: Subordinating and Coordinating Telling a Story with Active Sentences Expletive Constructions CHECKLIST FOR CRAFTING SENTENCES
Chapter 8, Writing with Style Some Famous Styles ( John Lyly, Walter Pater, Virginia Woolf, Martin Luther King, Jr., Annie Dillard) Plain Style Principles of Plain Style Use Clear and Direct Vocabulary The Roots of English: Simple Words Use Verbs to Bring Life and Action to Sentences Use Figures of Speech and Metaphors with Care Avoid Monotonous Sentence Patterns “Copious” Style: Develop Key Ideas Achieve a Balance of Rich and Plain Academic Style CHECKLIST FOR WRITING WITH STYLE
Part IV, Research and Documentation Chapter 9, Conducting Research The Purpose of Research Managing the Research Process Developing a Research Strategy Two Sample Schedules for Writing a Paper Getting Started: Scouting for a Topic Understanding the Big Picture Selecting Sources and Narrowing Your Focus Finding Scholarly Articles Working with Books Sample Working Bibliography Using Specialized Reference Works Types of Sources and their Characteristics, a Table Other Sources Evaluating Sources Reading Critically to Develop a Position Drafting and Revising CHECKLIST FOR CONDUCTING RESEARCH
Chapter 10, Documentation Documentation and Scholarship The Function of Documentation in a Scholarly Conversation James Watson and Francis Crick, From Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids Gisela Bock, From Racism and Sexism in Nazi Germany: Motherhood, Compulsory Sterilization, and the State GUIDELINES FOR WHAT TO CITE Soledad Gonzalez, Do High School Students Share the Right to Free Speech? Avoiding Plagiarism Writing an Acceptable Paraphrase WHY AND HOW TO PARAPHRASE Writing a Summary or Abstract Documentation in MLA, Chicago, and APA Styles MLA Style Charlene Wynn, Chaucer’sClerk’s Tale and the Peasants’ Revolt [student essay] Chicago Style Serge Mogan, Congestion Pricing for New York: A Practical Solution [student essay] APA Style Ellen Kang, The Effectiveness of Music Therapy in the Treatment of Disease [student essay] Latin Documentation Terms Tools to Help with Citation CHECKLIST FOR DOCUMENTATION
Part V, Readings Adam Gopnik, Looking for Mr. Ravioli Kathryn Schulz, Two Models of Wrongness Jane Tompkins, At the Buffalo Bill Museum, June 1988 Frans de Waal, Are We In Anthropodenial? Cornel West, Malcolm X and Black Rage