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Writing in Response is a flexible, brief rhetoric that offers a unique focus on the critical practices of experienced readers, analysis and reflection, the skills at the heart of academic writing. It helps students compose academic essays by showing how active reading and exploratory writing bring fresh ideas to light and how informal response is developed into polished, documented prose. Extensively class tested, Writing in Response emphasizes the key techniques common to reading, thinking, and writing throughout the humanities and social sciences by teaching students the value of a social, incremental, and recursive writing process. The new edition includes more on working with digital tools, more help for writing, and updated readings.
Matthew Parfitt (Ph.D., Boston College) is an Associate Professor of Rhetoric and Chair of the Division of Rhetoric at Boston University’s College of General Studies. In 2002 he received the Peyton Richter Award for interdisciplinary teaching. He is coeditor of Conflicts and Crises in the Composition Classroom—And What Instructors Can Do About Them and Cultural Conversations: The Presence of the Past.
Table of Contents
Preface for InstructorsAbout the AuthorIntroduction: Writing in Response to Reading"What Does the Professor Want?" The Values of the Academy Academic Discourse Why Do College Instructors Assign Writing? Critical Thinking"Live the Questions"Checklist for Understanding Academic Discourse Part I. Responsive ReadingChapter 1. Reading with a PurposeMaking Sense Academic Reading: Reading with a Purpose Context Guidelines for Analyzing Rhetorical ContextYour Own ContextsGuidelines: Analyzing the Purpose of ReadingIdentifying the Genre of the TextGuidelines: Analyzing Your Motives for ReadingClearing Space to ConcentrateSome Sources of DifficultyIdentifying Arguments Ad Council, Start Talking Before They Start Drinking [advertisement]Thomas Ball, The Freedmen’s Memorial [photograph]Reading Critically The Principle of Charity Checklist for Reading with a Purpose Chapter 2., Active Reading Reading through the Text for the First TimeRead From Beginning to EndKeep a Notebook and Pen NearbyMark Up the Text*Ralph Waldo Emerson, The American Scholar (annotated by student Katelyn Richerts)*Student Sample Annotated Paragraph, First Reading *Student Sample Annotated Paragraph, Second ReadingNote the Knowledge Problem, Thesis Statement, and Key ClaimsNote Divisions, Turning Points, and SignpostsNote Things That Puzzle YouGloss Unfamiliar ReferencesReading Journal: Thoughts, Claims, and QuestionsRecord Your First Thoughts*Student Sample Reading Journal, First EntryIdentify the Problem (If Possible)Restate Two or Three ClaimsAsk Two or Three QuestionsRe-readingRead SlowlyDevelop Your MarginaliaA Basic Dialectical Notebook Layers: The Dialectical Notebook as Palimpsest*Double-Entry Notebook with a First Layer of Notes *Double-Entry Notebook with a Second Layer of Notes *Double-Entry Notebook with a Third Layer of NotesReading Journal: Further ThoughtsTimed Free-WritingTwo or Three More ClaimsRespond to Your First QuestionsWrite Down Two More QuestionsChecklist for Active Reading Chapter 3. Further Strategies for Active ReadingVariations on the Dialectical NotebookA Question-Centered Triple-Entry NotebookGuidelines: Taking Double- or Triple-Entry Notes on a ComputerA Quotation-Centered Triple-Entry Notebook Adapting the Dialectical Notebook Method Analyzing the ArgumentWhat It Says/What It Does*Partial Analytical Outline of "Be a Gamer, Save the World" Constructing a Radial Map of the TextEvaluating the ArgumentReading With the Grain and Against the GrainBelieving and DoubtingRepresenting Another’s Idea’s Fairly and AccuratelyWriting a Letter to the AuthorTalk Out Your IdeasUse Class DiscussionDiscuss With a Friend, Classmate, Tutor, or ProfessorChecklist of Further Strategies for Active Reading Part II. Composing the EssayChapter 4. Writing to Discover and Develop IdeasThe Value of Exploratory Writing The Writerly versus the Readerly Exploratory WritingKnots and QuestionsSample Exploratory WritingChecklist for Exploratory WritingThe Benefits of Writing DailyRené Magritte, The Liberator [painting]Guidelines: Keeping the Censor at BayMaking Meanings You Can Always Write MoreFocused for Focused Exploratory Writing Checklist for Exploratory Writing Chapter 5. Developing an ArgumentArgument as StructureThe Components of Argument: Motive, Claim, and SupportMotiveClaimSupportA Typical WorkflowDrafting a Thesis Statement The Role of the Thesis StatementDrafting the ArgumentThe Modes of Persuasion: Ethos, Pathos, and LogosTypes of ReasoningDeductionInductionTypes of EvidenceAn Argument MatrixGuidelines: Making a Three-Column DocumentAnticipating and Incorporating CounterargumentsDrafting ParagraphsDrafting Introductory ParagraphsDrafting Body ParagraphsDrafting Concluding ParagraphsRevising: a Recursive ProcessRevising Your Thesis StatementLimiting Your ThesisHedgingRevising ParagraphsTransitionTopicClaimStrengthening Paragraph CohesionVarying Paragraph LengthConcluding ParagraphsChecklist for Developing an Argument Chapter 6. Organizing the EssayThinking Like a ReaderOrganizing an Argument EssayKeep Your Own Argument in the ForegroundSeparate Out Claims and Develop Each Argument FullyAddress the CounterargumentsEstablish Common Ground with the ReaderDrafting an Organizational PlanClustering and DiagrammingGuidelines: Creating Cluster Diagrams on a ComputerRevising Organization: Constructing a Sentence OutlineWork Out the Nucleus of Your ArgumentGet Started with a Basic Sentence OutlineRevise the OutlineGuidelines: Constructing an OutlineLook for Relationships That Suggest an Organizational PlanOrganizing a Long EssayRevised Sample Sentence OutlineOrganizing an Argument Essay: A Basic ModelMarc Dumas, Human Rights for Apes: A Well-Intentioned Mistake [student essay]Organizing an Argument Essay: A Second ExampleWendy Sung, A Campaign for the Dignity of the Great Apes [student essay]Clarification StrategiesMetadiscourse and Programmatic StatementsTransitional ExpressionsDefinitionsComposing TitlesChecklist for Organizing an Argument EssayOrganizing an Expository EssayOrganizing an Exploratory EssayComparing the Argument Essay and the Exploratory EssaySample Essay in Argument FormKelly Riveria, A Fatal Compromise: President Franklin Pierce and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 [student essay] AnalysisSample Essay in Exploratory FormGreg Fernandez, Exploring the "Whys" of History: Franklin Pierce and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 [student essay] AnalysisRogerian RhetoricChecklist for Organizing an Exploratory Essay Part III. Attending to StyleChapter 7. Crafting SentencesSentence Grammar ClausesPhrasesGrammatical Sentence TypesGuidelines: Using Grammar CheckersRhetorical Sentence TypesPunctuationWriting Longer Sentences by Using Coordination and SubordinationTelling a Story with Active SentencesExpletive ConstructionsChecklist for Crafting Sentences Chapter 8. Writing with StyleSome Famous Styles John Lyly Walter PaterVirginia WoolfMartin Luther King Jr.Annie DillardPlain StylePrinciples of Plain StyleWays of Pruning Excess Verbiage1. Seek Out Empty Phrases2. In General, Prefer the Active Voice3. As a Rule, Cast Sentences in Positive Form4. Avoid Unnecessary QualifiersChoosing Specific and Concrete Words1. Ways of Finding Specific Words2. Choosing Concrete Words3. Use Caution with "Fancy" Words, Jargon, and Neologisms4. Using Verbs to Bring Life and Action to Sentences5. Using Metaphors and Figures of SpeechAvoiding Monotonous Sentence Patterns1. Use a Variety of Sentence Types2. Experiment with Word OrderThe Roots of English: Simple WordsOld EnglishMiddle EnglishModern English"Copious" Style: Developing Key IdeasAchieving a Balance of Rich and PlainWriting in Academic StyleSome Principles of Academic StyleChecklist for Writing with Style Part IV. Conducting ResearchChapter 9. Getting Started on a Research Project The Purpose of ResearchManaging the Research ProcessDeveloping a Research StrategyTwo Sample Schedules for Writing a PaperA Three-Week ScheduleA Seven-Week ScheduleGetting Started: Scouting for a TopicUnderstanding the Big PictureUsing an EncyclopediaA Note on WikipediaSelecting Sources and Narrowing Your FocusUsing College Research LibrariesUsing Your Library’s Electronic CatalogFinding Books Online with Google Books and Open LibraryWorldCat and Interlibrary LoanFinding Scholarly ArticlesWhat Are Scholarly Journals and Articles?Using an Interdisciplinary Full-Text Database as a Starting PointUsing Databases to Find Scholarly ArticlesGoogle Scholar Finding Newspaper and Magazine ArticlesConsulting a Reference LibrarianDigging DeeperChecklist for Planning a Project and Finding Sources Chapter 10. Working with SourcesWorking with Scholarly ArticlesWorking with BooksRefining Your ResearchNarrow Down Your Topic to a Particular Question or ProblemUse Citation Notes and Bibliographies to Point You to Other SourcesKeep a Working BibliographySample Working BibliographyUse Specialized Reference WorksOther SourcesField ResearchObservationsInterviewsSurveysDynamic Internet SourcesEvaluating SourcesBooks and Periodicals (Print and Electronic)Web Sites, Blogs, and Other Internet SourcesWeb Site Evaluation GuideReading Critically to Develop a PositionRead for the Gist: Identify the Writer’s Argument, Purpose, and PositionTake NotesDrafting and RevisingEstablish Your Own Position and Develop a Working ThesisForeground Your VoiceUse Quotations PurposefullyIntegrate Sources EffectivelyWriting an Acceptable ParaphraseGuidelines: When and How to ParaphraseWriting a Summary or AbstractUse Sentence TemplatesEdit and PolishProofreadChecklist for Working with Sources Part V. Readings *Michelle Alexander, Drug War Nightmare: How We Created a Massive Racial Caste System in America*Nicholas Carr, Is Google Making Us Stupid?*Geoff Dyer, Blues for Vincent*Rana Foroohar, What Ever Happened to Upward Mobility?*Malcolm Gladwell, The Order of ThingsAdam Gopnik, Bumping into Mr. Ravioli*Jane McGonigal, Be a Gamer, Save the World Appendix: DocumentationDocumentation and ScholarshipThe Function of Citation in a Scholarly ConversationAvoiding PlagiarismGuidelines: What to CiteSoledad Gonzalez, Do High School Students Share the Right to Free Speech? [student essay]Documentation in MLA, Chicago, and APA StylesMLA StyleMain FeaturesChicago StyleMain FeaturesAPA StyleMain FeaturesLatin Documentation TermsTools to Help with CitationChecklist for DocumentationGlossaryIndex