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Writing Today

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780073533223

ISBN10:
007353322X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/28/2008
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $138.71

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Summary

Writing Today begins with a chapter helping students learn the skills they will need to thrive throughout college and continues to promote reading and writing as practical tools both in college and in the work world. Full chapters on Group Projects and Oral Presentations teach students how to not only be successful in the classroom, but in the world of work as well. Now with a full-color design, students are sure to be engaged as they focus on the both the academic and professional contexts of writing.

Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

ACHIEVING STUDENT SUCCESS

The Successful Student

A Serious Approach to College Life

Information Access

Preparation and Organization

Classroom Decorum

Study Habits

Time Management

Part 1: Approaches

Chapter 1

THE ESSAY: DETERMINING PURPOSE, AUDIENCE, AND APPROACH

00

Characteristics of the Essay

Rhetorical Context
Rhetorical Structures

Reading with a Writer's Eye

Consider the Writer's Rhetorical Context and Rhetorical Structures

Consider Your Purposes as a Reader

Suzanne Britt, Neat People vs. Sloppy People

Essay Analysis

Writing with a Reader's Eye

STUDENT ESSAY: A Very Secret Santa

The Writing Process

Chapter 2

SHAPING YOUR ESSAY: PREWRITING, FOCUSING, ORGANIZING, AND

DRAFTING

Choosing Your Topic

Establishing Your Rhetorical Context

Prewriting Strategies

Considering Your Purpose and Audience

Considering Your Learning Style

Focusing Strategies

Establishing Your Working Thesis

Focusing Your Thesis

Organizational Strategies

Structuring Your Prewriting

Drafting Strategies

Drafting In-Class Essays

Drafting Out-of-Class Essays

Drafting with a Computer

Establishing Your Voice

STUDENT ESSAY: Verlinda's First Draft of A Very Secret Santa 47

Chapter 3

DEVELOPING STRONG PARAGRAPHS: EXPLORING YOUR OPTIONS 51

Paragraphs in Context

Introductory Paragraphs

Body Paragraphs

Concluding Paragraphs

Writing Effective Topic Sentences

Topic Sentence at the Paragraph's Beginning

Ending with the Topic Sentence

Topic Sentence Within the Paragraph

Topic Sentence Used for Two Paragraphs

The Implied Topic Sentence

Achieving Unity

Achieving Coherence

Using Effective Transitions to Improve Coherence

Achieving Coherence Through Careful Choice of Nouns and

Pronouns

Using Parallelism to Improve Coherence

Achieving Specificity Through the Use of Concrete Details

Chapter 4

RESHAPING YOUR ESSAY: GLOBAL REVISION, EDITING, AND

PROOFREADING

Global Revision

Peer Response and Review

BOX: Peer Review Checklist

Responding to Suggestions for Revision 82

STUDENT ESSAY: Peer-Reviewed Draft of A Very Secret Santa

Using a Word Processor to Revise 85

Revising Essays

Checking for Unity

Improving Coherence

Using the Appropriate Language Level

Making Your Language More Concrete and Specific

Finding the Right Tone

Checking Your Introductory Paragraphs and Thesis

Checking Your Topic Sentences and Body Paragraphs

Checking Your Conclusion

Writing an Effective Title

BOX: Completing Your Essay on a Computer

Editing and Proofreading

Combining Sentences

Merging and Submerging Related Ideas

Coordinating and Subordinating Related Ideas

Using Hybrid Sentence Patterns

Using Periodic and Climactic Sentence Structure to Create Emphasis

Choosing Words Carefully

Striving for Parallelism

Including All Necessary Words

Avoiding Awkward Repetition

Avoiding Faulty Comparisons

Using Only Words That Matter

Avoiding Redundancy

Avoiding Euphemisms

Using Figurative Language Appropriately

Avoiding Clichés

Learning to Use Denotation and Connotation

Using Idiomatic English

Using Active, Specific Language

Part 2: Structures

Chapter 5

DESCRIPTION

How Does Description Work?

Reading the Descriptive Essay with a Writer's Eye

Thomas McGuane, Roanie

Maxine Hong Kingston, Photographs of My Parents

Hildegard Knef, from The Gift Horse

Writing the Descriptive Essay with a Reader's Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

STUDENT ESSAY: Jennifer Janisz, Help! Anyone!

BOX: Questions for Reviewing a Descriptive Essay

Description and Visual Representations

Chapter 6

NARRATION

How Does Narration Work? 174

Reading the Narrative Essay with a Writer's Eye 176

Lynda Barry, The Sanctuary of School 176

Sandra Cisneros, Only Daughter 179

Annie Dillard, The Chase 182

Writing the Personal Narrative with a Reader's Eye 190

Issues to Keep in Mind

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

BOX: Questions for Reviewing a Narrative Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Claire Reid, After the Fray

Narration and Visual Representations

Chapter 7

EXEMPLIFICATION

How Does Exemplification Work?

Reading the Exemplification Essay with a Writer's Eye

Brent Staples, Just Walk on By

Lars Eighner, On Dumpster Diving

Harry F. Waters, Life According to TV

Writing the Exemplification Essay with a Reader's Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

BOX: Questions for Reviewing an Exemplification Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Jennifer Janisz, Three Families

Exemplification and Visual Representations

Chapter 8

PROCESS ANALYSIS

How Does Process Analysis Work?

Reading the Process Analysis Essay with a Writer's Eye

Jerry Jesness, Why Johnny Can't Fail

Malcolm X, My First Conk

Umberto Eco, How Not to Use the Fax Machine and the Cellular Phone

Writing the Process Analysis Essay with a Reader's Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

BOX: Questions for Reviewing a Process Analysis Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Manny Meregildo, Get the Right Job

Process Analysis and Visual Representations

Chapter 9

CAUSAL ANALYSIS

How Does Causal Analysis Work?

Reading the Causal Analysis Essay with a Writer's Eye

Barbara Ehrenreich, The Cult of Busyness

Gore Vidal, Drugs

Richard Rhodes, Hollow Claims About Fantasy Violence

Writing the Causal Analysis Essay with a Reader's Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

BOX: Questions for Reviewing a Causal Analysis Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Noelani Jones, Worlds Apart

Causal Analysis and Visual Representations

Chapter 10

DEFINITION

How Does Definition Work?

Reading the Definition Essay with a Writer's Eye

Judy Brady, Why I Want a Wife

William Raspberry, The Handicap of Definition

Annie Dillard, So This Was Adolescence

Writing the Definition Essay with a Reader's Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

STUDENT ESSAY: Curtis Ray Mosley, My "Moment of Truth"

BOX: Questions for Reviewing an Extended Definition

Definition and Visual Representations

Chapter 11

CLASSIFICATION

How Does Classification Work?

Reading the Classification Essay with a Writer's Eye

Fran Lebowitz, The Sound of Music: Enough Already

Martin Luther King, Jr., Three Types of Resistance to Oppression

Paul Fussell, Notes on Class

Writing the Classification Essay with a Reader's Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

BOX: Questions for Reviewing a Classification Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Sam Leininger, Fraud Alert

Classification and Visual Representations

Chapter 12

COMPARISON AND CONTRAST

How Does Comparison/Contrast Work?

Reading the Comparison/Contrast Essay with a Writer's Eye

Bharati Mukherjee, Two Ways to Belong in America

David Sedaris, Family Engineering

Barbara Mellix, From Outside, In

Writing the Comparison/Contrast Essay with a Reader's Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

BOX: Questions for Reviewing a Comparison/Contrast Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Sam Leininger, The Two Sides of the Aisle

Comparison/Contrast and Visual Representations

Chapter 13

ARGUMENT

How Does Argument Work?

Reading the Argument Essay with a Writer's Eye

Walter S. Minot, Students Who Push Burgers

Caryl Rivers, What Should Be Done About Rock Lyrics?

Michael Levin, The Case for Torture

Writing the Argument Essay with a Reader's Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

BOX: Questions for Reviewing an Argument Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Sam Leininger, My Simple and Modest Plan

Argument and Visual Representations

Chapter 14

THE BLENDED ESSAY

How Does the Blended Essay Work?

Reading the Blended Essay with a Writer's Eye

Scott Russell Sanders, The Men We Carry in Our Minds

Anthony Bourdain, Don't Eat Before Reading This

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On the Fear of Death

Writing the Blended Essay with a Reader's Eye

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

BOX: Questions for Reviewing a Blended Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Kevin Hunkovic, Three Years Without Liberty

Blended Approaches and Visual Representations

Part 3: Applications

Chapter 15

WRITING PROPOSALS

From Problem to Solution

Purpose: Understand the Problem and Propose a Solution

Scope: Decide How Far to Go and Consider Alternatives

Audience: See the Problem from the Reader's Perspective

Preparing to Write: Issues to Keep in Mind

Choosing a Topic: Determining Purpose and Scope

Writing and Research

Organizing

Other Aspects to Consider When Writing Proposals

Sample Internal Proposal

Revising Your Draft

Chapter 16

WRITING CRITIQUES

Reviewing, Evaluating, and Persuading

What Is the Purpose of a Critique?

What a Critique Is Not

Deciding on Criteria for Evaluation

Planning the Critique

Focus on a Topic

Decide on a Preliminary List of Criteria

Gather Information and Formulate a Thesis

Develop Your Critique by Using Appropriate Methods

BOX: A Guide to Critiquing Written Texts

Reading Critiques

Manohla Dargis, A Ghastly Conflagration, A Tormented Aftermath

Brooks Atkinson, First Night at the Theater: A Review of Tennessee Williams' A

Streetcar Named Desire

Is Fox News "Fair and Balanced"? Two Critiques of the Popular News Network

Brian C. Anderson, Fox News: Enraging Liberals for 10 Years

Steve Rendall and Julie Hollar, Still Failing the "Fair & Balanced" Test

Chapter 17

BUSINESS FORMATS

E-mail, Memos, and Business Letters

E-mail

Memos

Business Letters

Résumés and Letters of Application

Elements of a Résumé

Submit Your Résumé Online

Elements of an Application Letter

Chapter 18

GROUP PROJECTS AND ORAL PRESENTATIONS

Working in Groups

Define Your Group's Purpose

Assign Roles

Work Toward Greater Accountability

Developing Effective Oral Presentations

Creating a Script

Developing the Final Script

Using Visual Aids

The Group Oral Presentation

Chapter 19

ESSAY EXAMINATIONS

Study for the Exam

Read the Directions

Short Answers

Paragraphs

Essays

Allocate Your Time

Interpret Key Words

Prewriting Essay Responses

Drafting Essay Responses

Sample Essay Exam Response

Chapter 20

THE RESEARCH PROCESS

Narrowing Your Topic and Framing a Research Question

Beginning with Tools from the Reference Room

Using Primary and Secondary Sources

Creating a Working Bibliography

Locating Books and Articles on Your Topic

Computerized Book Catalogues

The Traditional Card Catalogue

Periodical Indexes

Electronic Databases

Searching the Internet

Internet Search Tools: URLs, Directories, and Search Engines

Evaluating Sources

Tips on Evaluating Sources for Your Research Paper

Tips on Evaluating Electronic Sources for Your Research Paper

Taking Notes

Avoiding Plagiarism

Quoting Text

Incorporating Direct Quotations: MLA Guidelines

Incorporating Direct Quotations: APA Guidelines

Chapter 21

THE RESEARCH PAPER

General Strategies for the Research Paper

The MLA-Style Research Paper

Parenthetical (In-Text) Citations

The Works-Cited List

MLA Research Paper Format

SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER IN MLA FORMAT: Valerie Richfield, Child Care

and the Working Poor

The APA-Style Research Paper

In-Text Citations

The Reference List

APA Research Paper Format

Chapter 22

WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE

Writing About Fiction

Useful Terms for Writing About Fiction

Naguib Mahfouz, The Answer Is No

STUDENT RESPONSE: An Ongoing Equilibrium

Writing About Poetry

Useful Terms for Writing About Poetry

William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802

STUDENT RESPONSE: Beauty in a Strange Context

Part 4: Grammar and Mechanics

Chapter 23

PARTS OF SPEECH

23a Nouns
23b Pronouns
23c Adjectives
23d Articles
23e Prepositions
23f Conjunctions
23g Verbs
23h Verb Tense
23i Verb Mood
23j Verb Voice
23k Verbals
23l Adverbs
23m Placement of Adverbs
23n Interjections

Chapter 24

SENTENCE PARTS AND SENTENCE TYPES

Sentence Parts

24a Subjects
24b Predicates
24c Objects
24d Complements
24e Phrases
24f Clauses

Sentence Types

24g Creating Emphasis and Variety: Compound Sentences
24h Creating Emphasis and Variety Through Subordination

Chapter 25

MAJOR SENTENCE ERRORS

Sentence Fragments

25a Phrases as Fragments
25b Dependent Clauses as Fragments
25c Intentional Fragments

Avoiding "Run-ons": Fused Sentences and Comma Splices

25d Use a "Full Stop" (Period, Semicolon, or Colon) Between the Independent
Clauses
25e Use a Comma and Coordinating Conjunction (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet) to

Connect the Two Independent Clauses

25f Change One of the Two Independent Clauses to a Dependent Clause or to a

Phrase

Other Sentence-Level Problems

25g Problems with Parallelism
25h Avoiding Faulty Comparisons
25i Avoiding Mixed Constructions

Chapter 26

PROBLEMS WITH VERBS

Subject-Verb Agreement

26a Subjects Connected by and
26b Compound Subjects Treated as Singular Constructions
26c Subjects Connected by or, nor, either . . . or, neither . . . nor, and not only . . .

but also

26d Subjects That Are Indefinite Pronouns
26e Subjects That Are Collective Nouns
26f Other Collective Nouns That Cause Agreement Problems

Special Situations

26g Subjects Separated from Their Verbs
26h Subjects and Linking Verbs
26i Subjects That Follow Verbs: Inverted Sentence Structures

Verb Shifts

26j Tense Shifts
26k Voice Shifts
26l Mood Shifts

Chapter 27

PROBLEMS WITH PRONOUNS

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

Determining Whether the Antecedent Is Singular or Plural

27a Antecedents That Use and and Other Connectors
27b Antecedents Joined by or, nor, either . . . or, neither . . . nor, and not only . . .
but also
27c Antecedents That Are Indefinite Pronouns
27d Antecedents That Are Collective Nouns
27e Other Collective Nouns That Cause Agreement Problems

Pronoun Reference

27f Pronouns Without Appropriate Antecedents
27g Pronouns with Unclear Antecedents
27h Avoiding Shifts of Person

Pronoun Case

27i The Subjective Case, the Objective Case, and the Possessive Case
27j Pronouns That Are Subject Complements
27k Pronouns in Comparisons
27l Pronouns That Are Subjects of Clauses
27m Reflexive Pronouns and Intensive Pronouns

Chapter 28

PROBLEMS WITH MODIFIERS

28a Misplaced and Ambiguous (Squinting) Modifiers
28b Dangling Modifiers
28c Incorrect Substitution of Adjectives and Adverbs
28d Problems with Comparatives and Superlatives
28e Problems with Adjective Order
28f Problems with Split Infinitives
28g Problems with Articles

Chapter 29

PUNCTUATING SENTENCES WITH COMMAS

29a Commas with Independent Clauses
29b Commas with Introductory Clauses, Phrases, and Words
29c Commas and Nonessential Elements
29d Commas and Items in a Series
29e Commas with Coordinate Adjectives
29f Commas with Other Expressions
29g Commas and Conventional Uses
29h Unnecessary Commas

Chapter 30

PUNCTUATING SENTENCES WITH OTHER PUNCTUATION MARKS

30a Periods
30b Semicolons
30c Question Marks and Exclamation Marks
30d Colons
30e Dashes
30f Parentheses
30g Brackets
30h Double Quotation Marks
30i Single Quotation Marks
30j Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation
30k Apostrophes
30l Slashes

Chapter 31

MECHANICS

31a Capitalization
31b Italics and Underlining
31c Numbers and Numerals
31d Hyphens

Chapter 32

DICTION, USAGE, AND SPELLING

32a Using the Right Word
32b Denotation and Connotation
32c General Versus Specific Nouns and Verbs
32d Writing Lean Sentences
32e Avoiding Sexist Language
32f Using Figurative Language and Avoiding Clichés
32g Avoiding Fillers, Euphemisms, and Jargon
32h Using the Appropriate Language Level
32i Using a Consistent Language Level
32j Using the Correct Idiom
32k Improving Your Spelling

A GLOSSARY OF USAGE

APPENDIX: DESIGNING DOCUMENTS

Credits

Index



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