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Writing Today : Contexts and Options for the Real World, Text with Web Access Card

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780073011486

ISBN10:
0073011487
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/30/2004
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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  • Writing Today
    Writing Today




Summary

Writing Today: Contexts and Options for the Real World is a text designed to help students see reading and writing as practical tools both in college and in the world of work. This text focuses on both academic and professional contexts for writing.

Table of Contents

PART 1: APPROACHES

Chapter 1: The Essay: Determining Purpose, Audience, and Approach

Characteristics of the Essay

Rhetorical Context

Defining Your Purpose

Defining Your Audience

Rhetorical Structures

The Classical Pattern of Organization

Anticipating Rhetorical Options

Reading with a Writers Eye

Consider the Writers Rhetorical Context and Rhetorical Structures

Consider Your Purposes as a Reader

Suzanne Britt, Neat People vs. Sloppy People

Essay Analysis

The Essays Rhetorical Context

The Essays Rhetorical Structure

Writing with a Readers Eye

STUDENT ESSAY: "A Very Secret Santa"

The Writing Process

Using the Internet

Chapter 2: Shaping Your Essay: Prewriting, Organizing, and Drafting

Why Should You Plan an Essay?

Choosing Your Topic

Establishing Your Rhetorical Context

Prewriting Strategies

Considering Your Purpose and Audience

Considering Your Learning Style

Aural Learners: Brainstorming with Peers

Aural Learners: Brainstorming with a Recorder

Verbal Learners: Written Brainstorming

Verbal Learners: Freewriting

Verbal Learners: Invisible Writing

Verbal Learners: Looping

Visual Learners: Clustering and Chart Making

Focusing Strategies

Establishing Your Working Thesis

Focusing Your Thesis

Organizational Strategies

Structuring Your Prewriting

Informal Outlines

Sentence Outlines

Formal Outlines

Drafting Strategies

Drafting In-class Essays

Drafting Out-of-Class Essays

Drafting with a Computer

Establishing Your Voice

STUDENT ESSAY: Verlindas First Draft of "A Very Secret Santa"

Using the Internet

Chapter 3: Developing Strong Paragraphs: Exploring Your Options

Paragraphs in Context

Introductory Paragraphs

Positioning the Thesis

Getting Your Readers Attention

Body Paragraphs

Description

Narration

Exemplification

Process Analysis

Causal Analysis

Definition

Classification

Comparison/Contrast

Argument

Concluding Paragraphs

Writing Effective Topic Sentences

Topic Sentence at the Paragraphs Beginning

Ending with the Topic Sentence

Topic Sentence within the Paragraph

Topic Sentence Used for Two Paragraphs

The Implied Topic Sentence

Achieving Unity

Achieving Coherence

Using Effective Transitions

Achieving Coherence Through Careful Choice of Nouns and Pronouns

Using Parallelism

Achieving Specificity Through the Use of Concrete Details

Using the Internet

Chapter 4: Reshaping Your Essay: Global Revision

Peer Response and Review

Peer Review Checklist

Responding to Suggestions for Revision

STUDENT ESSAY: Peer-Reviewed Draft of "A Very Secret Santa"

Using a Word Processor to Revise

Revising Essays

Checking for Unity

Improving Coherence

Using the Appropriate Language Level

Making Your Language More Concrete and Specific

Finding the Right Tone

Checking Your Introductory Paragraphs and Thesis

Checking Your Topic Sentences and Body Paragraphs

Checking Your Conclusion

Completing Your Essay on Computer

Writing an Effective Title

Using the Internet

Chapter 5: Refining Your Essay: Editing and Proofreading

Combining Sentences

Merging and Submerging Related Ideas

Merging

Submerging

Coordinating and Subordinating Related Ideas

Using Coordinating Conjunctions

Using Conjunctive Adverbs/Transitional Expressions

Using Subordinating Conjunctions

Using Correlative Conjunctions

Using Hybrid Sentence Patterns

Compound Sentences

Complex Sentences

Compound-Complex Sentences

Using Periodic and Climactic Sentence Structure to Create Emphasis

Choosing Words Carefully

Striving for Parallelism

Including All Necessary Words

Avoiding Awkward Repetition

Using Only Words That Matter

Avoiding Redundancy

Avoiding Euphemisms

Using Figurative Language Appropriately

Avoiding Clichs

Learning to Use Denotation and Connotation

Using Idiomatic English

Using Active, Specific Language

Using the Internet

PART 2 : STRUCTURES

Chapter 6: Description

How Does Description Work?

Reading the Descriptive Essay with a Writers Eye

Thomas McGuane, Roanie

Maxine Hong Kingston, Photographs of My Parents

Hildegard Knef, From The Gift Horse

Sherman Alexie, Family Portrait

Writing the Descriptive Essay with a Readers Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Audience and Language Level

Description and Narrative

Objective Description versus Subjective Description

Structuring Your Description

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Revising a Descriptive Essay

STUDENT ESSAYS: Jennifer Janisz, "Help! Anyone!"

Jennifers Final Draft

Jennifers First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 7: Narration

How Does Narration Work?

Reading the Narrative Essay with a Writers Eye

Lynda Barry, The Sanctuary of School

Sandra Cisneros, Only Daughter

Annie Dillard, The Chase

George Orwell, A Hanging

Writing the Personal Narrative with a Readers Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Using Time Economically

Transitions

Paragraphing and Topic Sentences

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Revising a Narrative

STUDENT ESSAY: Claire Reid, "After the Fray"

Claires Final Draft

Claires First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 8: Exemplification

How Does Exemplification Work?

Reading the Exemplification Essay with a Writers Eye

Phyllis Rose, Shopping and Other Spiritual Adventures in America Today

Brent Staples, Just Walk on By

Lars Eighner, On Dumpster Diving

Harry F. Waters, Life According to TV

Writing the Exemplification Essay with a Readers Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Sources of Examples

Relevant and Representative Examples

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Revising an Exemplification Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Jennifer Janisz, "Three Families"

Jennifers Final Draft

Jennifers First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 9: Process Analysis

How Does Process Analysis Work?

Reading the Process Analysis Essay with a Writers Eye

Jerry Jesness, Why Johnny Cant Fail

Joan Gould, Binding Decisions

Malcolm X, My First Conk

Umberto Eco, How Not to Use the Fax Machine and the Cellular Phone

Writing the Process Analysis Essay with a Readers Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Audience Analysis

Language Level

Voice

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing a Process Analysis Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Manny Meregildo, "Get the Right Job"

Mannys Final Draft

Mannys First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 10: Causal Analysis

How Does Causal Analysis Work?

Reading the Causal Analysis Essay with a Writers Eye

Barbara Ehrenreich, The Cult of Busyness

Natalie Angier, Is War Our Biological Destiny?

Gore Vidal, Drugs

Richard Rhodes, Hollow Claims about Fantasy Violence

Writing the Causal Analysis Essay with a Readers Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Weighing the Causes or Effects

Choosing Internal Strategies

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing a Causal Analysis Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Noelani Jones, "Worlds Apart"

Noelanis Final Draft

Noelanis First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 11: Definition

How Does Definition Work?

Reading the Definition Essay with a Writers Eye

Judy Brady, Why I Want a Wife

William Raspberry, The Handicap of Definition

Annie Dillard, So This Was Adolescence

Tony Earley, The Quare Gene

Writing the Definition Essay with a Readers Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Using Brief Definitions

Using Negative Definitions

Objective Definition and Subjective Definition

Strategies for Developing a Definition

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing an Extended Definition

STUDENT ESSAY: Curtis Ray Mosley, "Trailer Park Girls"

Curtiss Final Draft

Curtiss First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 12: Classification

How Does Classification Work?

Reading the Classification Essay with a Writers Eye

Fran Lebowitz, The Sound of Music: Enough Already

Tom Kuntz, Not Sold by Intellectual Weight

Martin Luther King Jr., Three Types of Resistance to Oppression

Paul Fussell, Notes on Class

Writing the Classification Essay with a Readers Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Methods of Explaining Categories

Informative Classification Versus Personal Classification

Language Level

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing a Classification Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Sam Leininger, "Fraud Alert"

Sams Final Draft

Sams First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 13: Comparison and Contrast

How Does Comparison/Contrast Work?

Reading the Comparison/Contrast Essay with a Writers Eye

Ellen Currie, Two Varieties of Killers

Bharati Mukherjee, Two Ways to Belong in America

David Sedaris, Family Engineering

Barbara Mellix, From Outside, In

Writing the Comparison/Contrast Essay with a Readers Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

Balanced Subjects

Using Transitions

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing a Comparison/Contrast Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Sam Leininger, "The Two Sides of the Aisle"

Sams Final Draft

Sams First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 14: Argument

How Does Argument Work?

Reading the Argument Essay with a Writers Eye

Walter S. Minot, Students Who Push Burgers

Deborah Tannen, The Triumph of the Yell

Caryl Rivers, What Should Be Done about Rock Lyrics?

Michael Levin, The Case for Torture

Writing the Argument Essay with a Readers Eye

Issues to Keep in Mind

The Language of Argument

Supporting the Essays Claims

Logical Fallacies

Consider Your Audience and Purpose

Choosing a Topic

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

The Introduction

The Body

The Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing an Argument Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Sam Leininger, "My Simple and Modest Plan"

Sams Final Draft

Sams First Draft

Exercise: Revising

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

Chapter 15: The Blended Essay

How Does the Blended Essay Work?

Reading the Blended Essay with a Writers Eye

Scott Russell Sanders, The Men We Carry in Our Minds

Anthony Bourdain, Dont Eat Before Reading This

Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, On the Fear of Death

Robert B. Reich, Why the Rich Are Getting Richer and the Poor Poorer

Writing the Blended Essay with a Readers Eye

Prewriting

Organizing

Drafting

Revising Your Draft

Questions for Reviewing a Blended Essay

STUDENT ESSAY: Kevin Hunkovic, "Three Years Without Liberty"

Additional Writing Topics

Responding to a Photograph

Writing about Film

Using the Internet

PART 3 : APPLICATIONS

Chapter 16: Essay Examinations

Study for the Exam

Read the Directions

Short Answers

Paragraphs

Essays

Allocate Your Time

Interpret Key Words

Prewriting Essay Responses

Drafting Essay Responses

Sample Essay Exam Response

Chapter 17: Business Formats

E-Mail, Memos, and Business Letters

E-Mail

The Practical Context

The Rhetorical Context

Memos

Formatting

Examples

Writing Assignments

Business Letters

Formatting

Elements of the Letter

Examples

Writing Assignments

Rsums and Letters of Application

Elements of a Rsum

Elements of an Application Letter

Writing Assignments

Chapter 18: Quoting Text

General Principles for Quoting Text

Incorporating Direct Quotations: MLA Guidelines

Incorporating Direct Quotations: APA Guidelines

Chapter 19: Writing about Literature

General Guidelines for Reading Literature

General Guidelines for Writing About Literature

Writing about Fiction

Useful Terms for Writing about Fiction

Naguib Mahfouz, The Answer Is No

Analysis

Student Responses to The Answer is No

Writing about Poetry

William Wordsworth, Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802

Student Response: Beauty in a Strange Context

Useful Terms for Writing About Poetry

Chapter 20: The Research Process

Narrowing Your Topic and Framing a Research Question

Beginning with Tools from the Reference Room

Using Primary and Secondary Sources

Creating a Working Bibliography

Locating Books and Articles on Your Topic

Computerized Book Catalogues

The Traditional Card Catalogue

Periodical Indexes

Electronic Databases

Searching the Internet

A Brief Glossary of Internet Terms

Internet Search Tools: URLs, Directories, and Search Engines

A Brief List of Popular Search Engines

Three Tips on Using Search Engines

Evaluating Sources

Tips on Evaluating Sources for Your Research Paper

Tips on Evaluating Electronic Sources for Your Research Paper

Taking Notes

Avoiding Plagiarism

Chapter 21: The Research Paper

General Strategies for the Research Paper

The MLA-Style Research Paper

Parenthetical (In-Text) Citations

The Works Cited List

The Basic Works Cited Format

MLA Citations--Books

MLA Citations--Periodical Articles

MLA Citations--Online Sources

MLA Citations--Miscellaneous Sources

MLA Research Paper Format

Sample Research Paper in MLA Format: Valerie Richfield, "Child Care and the Working Poor"

Checklist for MLA-Style Research Papers

The APA-Style Research Paper

In-Text Citations

The Reference List

The Basic Reference Format

APA Citations--Books

APA Citations--Periodical Articles

APA Citations--Online Sources

APA Citations--Miscellaneous Sources

APA Research Paper Format

Checklist for APA-Style Research Papers

PART 4: GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS

Chapter 22: Parts of Speech

22a Nouns

22b Pronouns

22c Adjectives

22d Articles

22e Prepositions

22f Conjunctions

22g Verbs

22h Verb Tense

22i Verb Mood

22j Verb Voice

22k Verbals

22l Adverbs

22m Placement of Adverbs

22n Interjections

Chapter 23: Sentence Parts and Sentence Types

Sentence Parts

23a Subjects

23b Predicates

23c Objects

23d Complements

23e Phrases

23f Clauses

Sentence Types

23g Creating Emphasis and Variety: Compound Sentences

23h Creating Emphasis and Variety Through Subordination

Chapter 24: Major Sentence Errors

Sentence Fragments

24a Phrases as Fragments

24b Dependent Clauses as Fragments

24c Intentional Fragments

Avoiding "Run-ons": Fused Sentences and Comma Splices

24d Use a Full Stop (Period, Semicolon, or Colon) Between the Independent Clauses

24e Use a Comma and Coordinating Conjunction (And, But, For, Nor, Or, So Yet) to Connect the Two Independent Clauses

24f Change One of the Two Independent Clauses to a Dependent Clause or to a Phrase

Other Sentence-Level Problems

24g Problems with Parallelism

24h Avoiding Faulty Comparisons

24i Avoiding Mixed Constructions

Chapter 25: Problems with Verbs

Subject-Verb Agreement

25a Subjects Connected by and

25b Compound Subjects Treated as Singular Constructions

25c Subjects Connected by Or, Nor, Either...Or, Neither...Nor, and Not Only...But Also

25d Subjects That Are Indefinite Pronouns

25e Subjects That Are Collective Nouns

25f Other Collective Nouns That Cause Agreement Problems

Special Situations

25g Subjects Separated from Their Verbs

25h Subjects and Linking Verbs

25i Subjects That Follow Verbs: Inverted Sentence Structures

Verb Shifts

25j Tense Shifts

25k Voice Shifts

25l Mood Shifts

Chapter 26: Problems with Pronouns

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

26a Antecedents That Use and and Other Connectors

26b Antecedents Joined by Or, Nor, Either...Or, Neither...Nor, and Not OnlyBut Also

26c Antecedents That Are Indefinite Pronouns

26d Antecedents That Are Collective Nouns

26e Other Collective Nouns That Cause Agreement Problems

Pronoun Reference

26f Pronouns Without Appropriate Antecedents

26g Pronouns with Unclear Antecedents

26h Avoiding Shifts of Person

Pronoun Case

26i The Subjective Case, the Objective Case, and the Possessive Case

26j Pronouns That Are Subject Complements

26k The Subjective Case and Comparisons

26l Pronouns That Are Subjects of Clauses

26m Reflexive Pronouns and Intensive Pronouns

Chapter 27: Problems with Modifiers

27a Misplaced and Ambiguous (Squinting) Modifiers

27b Dangling Modifiers

27c Incorrect Substitution of Adjectives and Adverbs

27d Problems with Comparatives and Superlatives

27e Problems with Adjective Order

27f Problems with Split Infinitives

27g Problems with Articles

Chapter 28: Punctuating Sentences with Commas

28a Commas with Independent Clauses

28b Commas with Introductory Clauses, Phrases, and Words

28c Commas and Nonessential Elements

28d Commas and Items in a Series

28e Commas with Coordinate Adjectives

28f Commas with Other Expressions

28g Commas and Conventional Uses

28h Unnecessary Commas

Chapter 29: Punctuating Sentences with Other Punctuation Marks

29a Periods (.)

29b Semicolons (;)

29c Question Marks (?) and Exclamation Marks (!)

29d Colons (:)

29e Dashes (--)

29f Parentheses ( )

29g Brackets ([ ])

29h Double Quotation Marks ( )

29i Single Quotation Marks ( )

29j Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation

29k Apostrophes ()

29l Slashes (/)

Chapter 30: Mechanics

30a Capitalization

30b Italics and Underlining

30c Numbers and Numerals

30d Hyphens

Chapter 31: Diction, Usage, and Spelling

31a Using the Right Word

31b Denotation and Connotation

31c General Versus Specific Nouns and Verbs

31d Writing Lean Sentences

31e Avoiding Sexist Language

31f Using Figurative Language and Avoiding Clichs

31g Avoiding Fillers, Euphemisms, and Jargon

31h Using the Appropriate Language Level

31i Using a Consistent Language Level

31j Using the Correct Idiom

31k Improving Your Spelling

Chapter 32: A Glossary of Usage

Index



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