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Youth Gangs in American Society,9780534615697
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Youth Gangs in American Society

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534615697

ISBN10:
0534615694
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
9/8/2003
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $138.00

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Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 9/8/2003.
What is included with this book?
  • The Used copy of this book is not guaranteed to inclue any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included.

Summary

Preface. Foreward. 1. Introduction. 2. What do Gangs and Gang Members Look Like? 3. The Gang Subculture. 4. Criminal Activities of Gangs. 5. Girls and Gangs. 6. Why are There Gangs? 7. Gangs in Context: Inequality in American Society. 8. Community-Based and National Intervention Strategies. 9. Legal Intervention Strategies. 10. Conclusions. Reference. Name Index. Subject Index.

Table of Contents

FOREWORD BY TODD CLEAR x
PREFACE xii
1 INTRODUCTION: A BRIEF HISTORY OF GANGS 1(38)
The Recent Growth of Gangs: A Focus on Los Angeles, Milwaukee, and Chicago
8(9)
Los Angeles Gangs
9(4)
Milwaukee Gangs
13(1)
Chicago Gangs
14(2)
Some Concluding Thoughts on the Recent Growth of Gangs
16(1)
What Is a Gang?
17(5)
Chicago's Use of Descriptors to Gang-Related Crime
22(2)
Stereotypes of Gangs
24(2)
How Many Gangs and Gang Members Are There?
26(4)
Gang Migration
30(6)
Are There Gangs in Rural Areas?
32(4)
Summary
36(1)
Notes
37(2)
2 WHAT DO GANGS AND GANG MEMBERS LOOK LIKE? 39(30)
A Word of Caution
39(1)
An Overview of Gang Structures
39(2)
Illustrations of Gang Typologies
41(4)
Types of Gangs
42(1)
Types of Gang Members
43(2)
The Supergangs of Chicago: People and Folks
45(2)
Hybrid Gangs
46(1)
Ethnic and Racial Typologies of Gangs
47(8)
Chicano Gangs
47(2)
Asian Gangs
49(5)
African-American Gangs
54(1)
White Gangs
55(6)
Some Common Characteristics of Gang Members
61(6)
Gang Members as Defiant Individualists
62(1)
Gang Members as Victims and Victimizers
63(4)
Summary
67(1)
Notes
67(2)
3 THE GANG SUBCULTURE 69(35)
The Nature and Origins of and Socialization into the Gang Subculture
69(7)
Joining a Gang
76(6)
Reasons for Deciding to Join a Gang
77(2)
Gang Recruitment
79(1)
Additional Comments on Gang Recruitment
80(1)
Who Does Not Join a Gang?
81(1)
Leaving the Gang
82(2)
Belief Systems of Gang Members
84(2)
A Case Example: The Code of the Streets
86(4)
Social Control in the Gang
90(1)
Gang Members and their Families
91(3)
Gang Graffiti and Tattoos
94(9)
Purposes and Styles of Graffiti
95(8)
Summary
103(1)
Notes
103(1)
4 CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES OF GANGS 104(32)
Introduction: An Overview of Gangs and Crime
104(4)
Entrepreneurial Activities of Gangs
108(3)
The Gang as a Business: A Case Study of the Diamonds
111(4)
Gang Violence
115(8)
Individual Violence by Gang Members
118(3)
Organizational Gang Violence
121(2)
Gangs and Drugs
123(4)
The Drug-Dealing Business of Gangs: Skolnick's Study
127(7)
Limitations of Skolnick's Study and Some
Counter-Evidence
132(2)
Summary
134(1)
Notes
134(2)
5 GIRLS AND GANGS 136(41)
Trends in Girl Gang Membership
139(4)
Girl Gang Membership and Their Crimes
139(3)
Types of Female Gangs
142(1)
Moving Beyond the Stereotypes: The Social Context of Girl Gangs
143(32)
Class and Race
143(3)
Crime and Drugs
146(5)
Reasons for Joining the Gang
151(6)
Relationships with Males and Male Gangs
157(5)
Family-Related Issues
162(9)
School and Work
171(3)
Some Concluding Thoughts
174(1)
Summary
175(1)
Notes
176(1)
6 WHY ARE THERE GANGS? 177(30)
Social Disorganization/Social Ecology Theory
179(4)
Strain/Anomie Theory
183(7)
Strain Theory and the Institutional Structure of Society: Crime and the American Dream
185(3)
Differential Opportunity Structures
188(1)
Social Embeddedness
188(2)
Cultural Deviance Theories
190(1)
Cohen's Culture of the Gang
190(1)
Lower Class Focal Concerns
190(1)
Control Theory
191(3)
Social Learning Theory
194(2)
Gangs and Maslow's Hierachy of Needs
196(1)
Rational Choice Theory
197(3)
The Labeling Perspective
200(2)
Critical/Marxist Perspectives
202(2)
Summary
204(1)
Notes
205(2)
7 GANGS IN CONTEXT: INEQUALITY IN AMERICAN SOCIETY 207(24)
Some Introductory Comments
207(1)
Recent Changes in the U.S. Economy
208(5)
The Development of the Underclass
213(4)
Recent Changes in the Labor Market
217(4)
Isolation in the Inner Cities
221(3)
Poverty and Family Structure
224(2)
How These Changes Relate to the Growth in Gangs
226(2)
Summary
228(1)
Notes
229(2)
8 COMMUNITY-BASED AND NATIONAL INTERVENTION STRATEGIES 231(32)
Introduction
231(2)
Types of Intervention Strategies
233(8)
Spergel and Curry's Typology of Interventions
233(2)
The Perceived Effectiveness of These Strategies
235(1)
Other Intervention Typologies
236(5)
A Risk-Focuses Approach
241(1)
The Social Development Strategy
242(2)
Components of Successful Programs
244(1)
Some Specific Illustrations of Community-Based Interventions and Programs
245(9)
A Model Program: The Detention Diversion Advocacy Project
251(3)
Broad-Based National Strategies
254(7)
Summary
261(1)
Notes
261(2)
9 LEGAL INTERVENTION STRATEGIES 263(29)
A Historical Overview
263(2)
The Legal Response to Youth Gangs
265(24)
Law Enforcement
265(12)
Prosecution
277(2)
The Courts
279(4)
Legislatures
283(3)
Three Strikes and You're Out
286(3)
Summary
289(1)
Notes
290(2)
10 CONCLUSIONS 292(9)
Notes
300(1)
BIBLIOGRAPHY 301(22)
INDEX 323


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