Abnormal Psychology

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  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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This distinguished book is considered the most comprehensive in its field, and the author team includes the most preeminent and respected researchers in abnormal psychology today. The new 13th edition introduces a striking new design, new topics, fresh insights, streamlined writing, and a sharper focus on research in psychopathology have emerged.

Table of Contents

Abnormal Psychology: An Overviewp. 1
What do we Mean by Abnormal Behavior?p. 3
Why Do We Need to Classify Mental Disorders?p. 6
What Are the Disadvantages of Classification?p. 8
The DSM-IV Definition of Mental Disorderp. 9
How Does Culture Affect What Is Considered Abnormal?p. 10
Culture-Specific Disordersp. 11
How Common Are Mental Disorders?p. 12
Prevalence and Incidencep. 12
Prevalence Estimates for Mental Disordersp. 13
Treatmentp. 14
The Mental Health "Team"p. 14
Research Approaches in Abnormal Psychologyp. 15
Sources of Informationp. 16
Forming Hypotheses about Behaviorp. 17
Sampling and Generalizationp. 18
Criterion and Comparison Groupsp. 18
Studying the World As It Is: Observational Research Designsp. 19
Retrospective versus Prospective Strategiesp. 19
Manipulating Variables: The Experimental Method in Abnormal Psychologyp. 20
Studying the Efficacy of Therapyp. 20
Single-Case Experimental Designsp. 21
Animal Researchp. 23
The Focus of This Bookp. 24
Summaryp. 25
Key Termsp. 26
Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behaviorp. 27
Historical Views of Abnormal Behaviorp. 28
Demonology, Gods, and Magicp. 28
Hippocrates' Early Medical Conceptsp. 28
Early Philosophical Conceptions of Consciousness and Mental Discoveryp. 29
Later Greek and Roman Thoughtp. 30
Abnormality during the Middle Agesp. 31
Toward Humanitarian Approachesp. 35
The Resurgence of Scientific Questioning in Europep. 35
The Establishment of Early Asylums and Shrinesp. 36
Humanitarian Reformp. 37
Nineteenth-Century Views of the Causes and Treatment of Mental Disordersp. 40
Changing Attitudes toward Mental Health in the Early Twentieth Centuryp. 41
Mental Hospital Care in the Twentieth Centuryp. 41
Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behaviorp. 44
Biological Discoveries: Establishing the Link between the Brain and Mental Disorderp. 45
The Development of a Classification Systemp. 46
Causation Views: Establishing the Psychological Basis of Mental Disorderp. 46
The Evolution of the Psychological Research Tradition: Experimental Psychologyp. 49
Summaryp. 54
Key Termsp. 55
Causal Factors and Viewpointsp. 57
Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behaviorp. 58
Necessary, Sufficient, and Contributory Causesp. 58
Feedback and Circularity in Abnormal Behaviorp. 60
Diathesis-Stress Modelsp. 60
Viewpoints for Understanding the Causes of Abnormal Behaviorp. 63
The Biological Viewpoint and Biological Causal Factorsp. 63
Neurotransmitter and Hormonal Imbalancesp. 64
Genetic Vulnerabilitiesp. 66
Temperamentp. 71
Brain Dysfunction and Neural Plasticityp. 72
The Impact of the Biological Viewpointp. 73
The Psychosocial Viewpointsp. 74
The Psychodynamic Perspectivesp. 74
The Behavioral Perspectivep. 80
The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspectivep. 83
What the Adoption of a Perspective Does and Does Not Dop. 87
Psychosocial Causal Factorsp. 88
Early Deprivation or Traumap. 89
Inadequate Parenting Stylesp. 91
Marital Discord and Divorcep. 94
Maladaptive Peer Relationshipsp. 95
The Sociocultural Viewpointp. 97
Uncovering Sociocultural Factors through Cross-Cultural Studiesp. 97
Sociocultural Causal Factorsp. 101
The Sociocultural Environmentp. 101
Pathogenic Societal Influencesp. 101
Impact of the Sociocultural Viewpointp. 103
Summaryp. 105
Key Termsp. 106
Clinical Assessmentp. 107
The Basic Elements in Assessmentp. 108
The Relationship between Assessment and Diagnosisp. 108
Taking a Social or Behavioral Historyp. 109
The Influence of Professional Orientationp. 110
Trust and Rapport between the Clinician and the Clientp. 110
Assessment of the Physical Organismp. 111
The General Physical Examinationp. 111
The Neurological Examinationp. 111
The Neuropsychological Examinationp. 113
Psychosocial Assessmentp. 114
Assessment Interviewsp. 114
The Clinical Observation of Behaviorp. 116
Psychological Testsp. 117
Advantages and Limitations of Objective Personality Testsp. 127
A Psychological Case Study: Estebanp. 127
The Integration of Assessment Datap. 130
Ethical Issues in Assessmentp. 130
Classifying Abnormal Behaviorp. 131
Reliability and Validityp. 132
Differing Models of Classificationp. 133
Formal Diagnostic Classification of Mental Disordersp. 133
Summaryp. 140
Key Termsp. 141
Stress and Adjustment Disordersp. 143
What is Stress?p. 144
Categories of Stressorsp. 145
Factors Predisposing a Person to Stressp. 146
Coping with Stressp. 149
The Effects of Severe Stressp. 151
Biological Effects of Stressp. 151
Psychological Effects of Long-Term Stressp. 154
Adjustment Disorder: Reactions to Common Life Stressorsp. 154
Adjustment Disorder Caused by Unemploymentp. 155
Adjustment Disorder Caused by Bereavementp. 155
Adjustment Disorder Caused by Divorce or Separationp. 156
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Reactions to Catastrophic Eventsp. 157
Prevalence of PTSD in the General Populationp. 157
Distinguishing between Acute Stress Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stressp. 157
The Trauma of Rapep. 160
The Trauma of Military Combatp. 162
Severe Threats to Personal Safety and Securityp. 166
Causal Factors in Post-Traumatic Stressp. 169
Long-Term Effects of Post-Traumatic Stressp. 171
Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disordersp. 171
Prevention of Stress Disordersp. 171
Treatment for Stress Disordersp. 172
Challenges in Studying Crisis Victimsp. 174
What We Are Learning about Crisis Interventionp. 174
Summaryp. 177
Key Termsp. 177
Panic, Anxiety, and Their Disordersp. 179
The Fear and Anxiety Response Patternsp. 181
Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalitiesp. 182
Specific Phobiasp. 183
Blood-Injection-Injury Phobiap. 185
Age of Onset and Gender Differences in Specific Phobiasp. 185
Psychosocial Causal Factorsp. 185
Genetic and Temperamental Causal Factorsp. 188
Treating Specific Phobiasp. 188
Social Phobiasp. 190
Interaction of Psychosocial and Biological Causal Factorsp. 191
Treating Social Phobiasp. 193
Panic Disorder With and Without Agoraphobiap. 194
Panic Disorderp. 194
Agoraphobiap. 195
Prevalence, Gender, and Age of Onset of Panic Disorder with and without Agoraphobiap. 197
Comorbidity with Other Disordersp. 197
The Timing of a First Panic Attackp. 198
Biological Causal Factorsp. 198
Behavioral and Cognitive Causal Factorsp. 200
Treating Panic Disorder and Agoraphobiap. 203
Generalized Anxiety Disorderp. 205
General Characteristicsp. 205
Prevalence and Age of Onsetp. 207
Comorbidity with Other Disordersp. 207
Psychosocial Causal Factorsp. 207
Biological Causal Factorsp. 209
Treating Generalized Anxiety Disorderp. 210
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorderp. 211
Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Comorbidityp. 212
Characteristics of OCDp. 213
Psychosocial Causal Factorsp. 215
Biological Causal Factorsp. 216
Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorderp. 218
Sociocultural Causal Factors for All Anxiety Disordersp. 220
Cultural Differences in Sources of Worryp. 221
Taijin Kyofushop. 221
Summaryp. 222
Key Termsp. 223
Mood Disorders and Suicidep. 225
What are Mood Disorders?p. 226
The Prevalence of Mood Disordersp. 227
Unipolar Mood Disordersp. 228
Depressions That Are Not Mood Disordersp. 228
Dysthymic Disorderp. 230
Major Depressive Disorderp. 231
Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disordersp. 235
Biological Causal Factorsp. 235
Psychosocial Causal Factorsp. 240
Bipolar Disordersp. 253
Cyclothymic Disorderp. 253
Bipolar Disorders (I and II)p. 254
Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorderp. 257
Biological Causal Factorsp. 257
Psychosocial Causal Factorsp. 258
Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar and Bipolar Disordersp. 260
Cross-Cultural Differences in Depressive Symptomsp. 260
Cross-Cultural Differences in Prevalencep. 261
Demographic Differences in the United Statesp. 261
Treatments and Outcomesp. 263
Pharmacotherapyp. 263
Alternative Biological Treatmentsp. 265
Psychotherapyp. 265
Suicidep. 268
The Clinical Picture and the Causal Patternp. 269
Suicidal Ambivalencep. 273
Suicide Prevention and Interventionp. 274
Summaryp. 277
Key Termsp. 278
Somatoform and Dissociative Disordersp. 279
Somatoform Disordersp. 280
Hypochondriasisp. 281
Somatization Disorderp. 283
Pain Disorderp. 285
Conversion Disorderp. 286
Body Dysmorphic Disorderp. 290
Dissociative Disordersp. 295
Depersonalization Disorderp. 295
Dissociative Amnesia and Fuguep. 296
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)p. 298
General Sociocultural Causal Factors in Dissociative Disordersp. 306
Treatment and Outcomes in Dissociative Disordersp. 307
Summaryp. 310
Key Termsp. 310
Eating Disorders and Obesityp. 311
Clinical Aspects of Eating Disordersp. 313
Anorexia Nervosap. 313
Bulimia Nervosap. 315
Age of Onset and Gender Differencesp. 318
Medical Complications of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosap. 319
Other Forms of Eating Disordersp. 319
Distinguishing among Diagnosesp. 320
Association of Eating Disorders with Other Forms of Psychopathologyp. 321
Prevalence of Eating Disordersp. 321
Eating Disorders across Culturesp. 321
Course and Outcomep. 322
Risk and Causal Factors in Eating Disordersp. 323
Biological Factorsp. 323
Sociocultural Factorsp. 324
Family Influencesp. 326
Individual Risk Factorsp. 326
Treating Eating Disordersp. 330
Treating Anorexia Nervosap. 330
Treating Bulimia Nervosap. 332
Treating Binge-Eating Disorderp. 332
Obesityp. 333
Risk and Causal Factors in Obesityp. 334
The Role of Genesp. 334
Hormones Involved in Appetite and Weight Regulationp. 335
Sociocultural Influencesp. 335
Family Influencesp. 335
Stress and "Comfort Food"p. 336
Pathways to Obesityp. 337
Treatment of Obesityp. 337
The Importance of Preventionp. 339
Summaryp. 340
Key Termsp. 341
Health Problems and Behaviorp. 343
Psychological Factors in Health and Diseasep. 346
Stress and the Stress Responsep. 346
Biological Costs of Stressp. 347
Stress and the Immune Systemp. 348
Psychoneuroimmunologyp. 350
Lifestyle Factors in Health and Illnessp. 351
Health, Attitudes, and Coping Resourcesp. 352
Cardiovascular Diseasep. 354
Hypertensionp. 355
Coronary Heart Diseasep. 356
What Psychological Factors Are Implicated in Cardiovascular Disease?p. 356
General Causal Factors in Physical Illness and Diseasep. 360
Genetic Factorsp. 360
Psychosocial Factorsp. 362
Sociocultural Factorsp. 364
Treatments and Outcomesp. 364
Biological Interventionsp. 365
Psychological Interventionsp. 365
Sociocultural Approachesp. 366
Summaryp. 369
Key Termsp. 369
Personality Disordersp. 371
Clinical Features of Personality Disordersp. 372
Difficulties Doing Research on Personality Disordersp. 374
Difficulties in Diagnosing Personality Disordersp. 374
Difficulties in Studying the Causes of Personality Disordersp. 375
Categories of Personality Disordersp. 376
Paranoid Personality Disorderp. 376
Schizoid Personality Disorderp. 377
Schizotypal Personality Disorderp. 379
Histrionic Personality Disorderp. 380
Narcissistic Personality Disorderp. 382
Antisocial Personality Disorderp. 384
Borderline Personality Disorderp. 385
Avoidant Personality Disorderp. 388
Dependent Personality Disorderp. 390
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorderp. 391
Provisional Categories of Personality Disorder in DSM-IV-TRp. 392
General Sociocultural Causal Factors for Personality Disordersp. 393
Treatments and Outcomesp. 393
Adapting Therapeutic Techniques to Specific Personality Disordersp. 394
Treating Borderline Personality Disorderp. 394
Treating Other Personality Disordersp. 395
Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathyp. 395
Psychopathy and ASPDp. 395
The Clinical Picture in Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorderp. 398
Causal Factors in Psychopathy and Antisocial Personalityp. 399
A Developmental Perspective on Psychopathy and Antisocial Personalityp. 403
Treatments and Outcomes in Psychopathic and Antisocial Personalityp. 405
Summaryp. 409
Key Termsp. 410
Addiction Disordersp. 411
Alcohol Abuse and Dependencep. 413
The Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Demographics of Alcohol Abuse and Dependencep. 413
The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependencep. 414
Biological Factors in the Abuse of and Dependence on Alcohol and Other Substancesp. 419
Psychosocial Causal Factors in Alcohol Abuse and Dependencep. 421
Sociocultural Factorsp. 425
Treatment of Alcohol Abuse Disordersp. 426
Drug Abuse and Dependencep. 431
Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics)p. 433
Cocaine and Amphetamines (Stimulants)p. 437
Barbiturates (Sedatives)p. 439
LSD and Related Drugs (Hallucinogens)p. 441
Ecstasyp. 442
Marijuanap. 443
Summaryp. 447
Key Termsp. 448
Sexual Variants, Abuse, and Dysfunctionsp. 449
Sociocultural Influences on Sexual Practices and Standardsp. 451
Degeneracy and Abstinence Theoryp. 451
Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesiap. 452
Homosexuality and American Psychiatryp. 453
Sexual and Gender Variantsp. 456
The Paraphiliasp. 456
Causal Factors and Treatments for Paraphiliasp. 462
Gender Identity Disordersp. 463
Sexual Abusep. 467
Childhood Sexual Abusep. 467
Pedophiliap. 470
Incestp. 471
Rapep. 472
Treatment and Recidivism of Sex Offendersp. 475
Sexual Dysfunctionsp. 478
Dysfunctions of Sexual Desirep. 479
Dysfunctions of Sexual Arousalp. 481
Orgasmic Disordersp. 483
Dysfunctions Involving Sexual Painp. 484
Summaryp. 486
Key Termsp. 487
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disordersp. 489
Schizophreniap. 490
The Epidemiology of Schizophreniap. 490
Origins of the Schizophrenia Constructp. 492
The Clinical Picture in Schizophreniap. 492
Delusionsp. 493
Hallucinationsp. 493
Disorganized Speechp. 494
Disorganized and Catatonic Behaviorp. 494
Negative Symptomsp. 494
Subtypes of Schizophreniap. 496
Paranoid Typep. 496
Disorganized Typep. 497
Catatonic Typep. 497
Undifferentiated Typep. 498
Residual Typep. 498
Other Psychotic Disordersp. 499
What Causes Schizophrenia?p. 500
Genetic Aspectsp. 501
Prenatal Exposuresp. 507
Genes and Environment in Schizophrenia: A Synthesisp. 508
A Neurodevelopmental Perspectivep. 509
Biological Aspectsp. 511
Neurocognitionp. 516
Psychosocial and Cultural Aspectsp. 517
Treatment and Clinical Outcomep. 522
Pharmacological Approachesp. 523
Psychosocial Approachesp. 524
Summaryp. 528
Key Termsp. 529
Cognitive Disordersp. 531
Brain Impairment in Adultsp. 533
Diagnostic Issuesp. 533
Clinical Signs of Brain Damagep. 533
Diffuse versus Focal Damagep. 534
The Neuropsychology/Psychopathology Interactionp. 537
Deliriump. 538
Clinical Presentationp. 538
Treatment and Outcomep. 538
Dementiap. 539
Alzheimer's Diseasep. 541
Dementia from HIV-1 Infectionp. 548
Vascular Dementiap. 549
Amnestic Syndromep. 549
Disorders Involving Head Injuryp. 550
The Clinical Picturep. 551
Treatments and Outcomesp. 553
Summaryp. 556
Key Termsp. 556
Disorders of Childhood and Adolescencep. 557
Maladaptive Behavior in Different Life Periodsp. 558
Varying Clinical Picturesp. 558
Special Vulnerabilities of Young Childrenp. 559
The Classification of Childhood and Adolescent Disordersp. 559
Common Disorders of Childhoodp. 560
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorderp. 560
Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorderp. 563
Anxiety Disorders of Childhood and Adolescencep. 566
Childhood Depressionp. 569
Symptom Disorders: Enuresis, Encopresis, Sleepwalking, and Ticsp. 572
Pervasive Developmental Disordersp. 575
Autismp. 575
Learning Disabilities and Mental Retardationp. 580
Learning Disabilitiesp. 580
Causal Factors in Learning Disabilitiesp. 581
Treatments and Outcomesp. 581
Mental Retardationp. 582
Brain Defects in Mental Retardationp. 583
Organic Retardation Syndromesp. 584
Treatments, Outcomes, and Preventionp. 588
Planning Better Programs to Help Children and Adolescentsp. 589
Special Factors Associated with Treatment for Children and Adolescentsp. 589
Child Advocacy Programsp. 593
Summaryp. 596
Key Termsp. 597
Therapyp. 599
An Overview of Treatmentp. 600
Why Do People Seek Therapy?p. 600
Who Provides Psychotherapeutic Services?p. 601
The Therapeutic Relationshipp. 602
Measuring Success in Psychotherapyp. 603
Objectifying and Quantifying Changep. 604
Would Change Occur Anyway?p. 604
Can Therapy Be Harmful?p. 606
What Therapeutic Approaches Should be Used?p. 606
Evidence-Based Treatmentsp. 606
Medication or Psychotherapy?p. 607
Combined Treatmentsp. 607
Pharmacological Approaches to Treatmentp. 609
Antipsychotic Drugsp. 609
Antidepressant Drugsp. 611
Antianxiety Drugsp. 615
Lithium and Other Mood-Stabilizing Drugsp. 616
Electroconvulsive Therapyp. 618
Neurosurgeryp. 620
Psychological Approaches to Treatmentp. 622
Behavior Therapyp. 622
Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapyp. 625
Humanistic-Experiential Therapiesp. 627
Psychodynamic Therapiesp. 630
Marital and Family Therapyp. 633
Eclecticism and Integrationp. 634
Psychotherapy and Societyp. 634
Social Values and Psychotherapyp. 635
Psychotherapy and Cultural Diversityp. 635
Summaryp. 637
Key Termsp. 639
Contemporary and Legal Issues in Abnormal Psychologyp. 641
Perspectives on Preventionp. 642
Universal Interventionsp. 642
Selective Interventionsp. 644
Indicated Interventionsp. 648
The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Communityp. 648
Deinstitutionalizationp. 650
Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Disorderedp. 652
The Commitment Processp. 652
Assessment of "Dangerousness"p. 655
The Insanity Defensep. 657
Organized Efforts for Mental Healthp. 661
U.S. Efforts for Mental Healthp. 662
International Efforts for Mental Healthp. 663
Challenges for the Futurep. 664
The Need for Planningp. 664
The Individual's Contributionp. 665
Summaryp. 667
Key Termsp. 668
Glossaryp. 1
Referencesp. 1
Creditsp. 1
Name Indexp. 1
Subject Indexp. 1
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