Abnormal Psychology Core Concepts

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  • Edition: 2nd
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  • Copyright: 2010-01-03
  • Publisher: Pearson

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A briefer version of the most authoritative and respected introductory text for the abnormal psychology course. This allows instructors who prefer less detail to still use a research-oriented text. As in their more comprehensive version, the esteemed author team of Jim Butcher, Sue Mineka and Jill Hooley offers students a thoroughly researched and up-to-date explanation of psychopathology, creating a learning experience that invokes thought, increases awareness, and takes students to levels of understanding that other books do not offer.

Author Biography

James N. Butcher was born in West Virginia. He enlisted in the Army when he was 17 years old and served in the airborne infantry for 3 years, including a 1-year tour in Korea during the Korean War. After military service, he attended Guilford College, graduating in 1960 with a BA in psychology. He received an MA in experimental psychology in 1962 and a PhD in clinical psychology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He was awarded Doctor Honoris Causa from the Free University of Brussels, Belgium, in 1990. He is currently professor of psychology in the Department of Psychology at the University of Minnesota and was associate director and director of the clinical psychology program at the university for 19 years. He was a member of the University of Minnesota Press’s MMPI Consultative Committee, which undertook the revision of the MMPI in 1989. He was formerly the editor of Psychological Assessment, a journal of the American Psychological Association, and serves as consulting editor or reviewer for numerous other journals in psychology and psychiatry. Dr. Butcher has been actively involved in developing and organizing disaster response programs for dealing with human problems following airline disasters. He organized a model crisis intervention disaster response for the Minneapolis–St. Paul Airport and organized and supervised the psychological services offered following two major airline disasters: Northwest Flight 255 in Detroit, Michigan, and Aloha Airlines on Maui. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Society for Personality Assessment. He has published 40 books and more than 175 articles in the fields of abnormal psychology, cross-cultural psychology, and personality assessment.


Susan Mineka, born and raised in Ithaca, New York, received her undergraduate degree magna cum laude in psychology at Cornell University. She received a PhD in xperimental psychology from the University f Pennsylvania, and later completed a formal clinical retraining program from 1981—1984. She taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and at the University of Texas at Austin before moving to Northwestern University in 1987. Since 1987 she has been Professor of Psychology at Northwestern and since 1998 she has served as Director of Clinical Training there. She has taught a wide range of undergraduate and graduate courses, including introductory psychology, learning, motivation, abnormal psychology, and cognitive-behavior therapy. Her current research interests include cognitive and behavioral approaches to understanding the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. She is currently a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Academy of Cognitive Therapy. She has served as Editor of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1990—1994). She is currently serving as an Associate Editor for Emotion, and is on the editorial boards of several of the leading journals in the field. She was also President of the Society for the Science of Clinical Psychology (1994—1995) and was President of the Midwestern Psychological Association (1997). She also served on the American Psychological Association’s Board of Scientific Affairs (1992—1994, Chair 1994), on the Executive Board of the Society for Research in Psychopathology (1992—1994, 2000—2003), and on the Board of Directors of the American Psychological Society (2001—2004). During 1997—1998 she was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford.


Jill M. Hooley is a professor of psychology at Harvard University. She is also head of the experimental psychopathology and clinical psychology program at Harvard. Dr. Hooley was born in England and received a B.Sc. in Psychology from the University of Liverpool. This was followed by research work at Cambridge University. She then attended Magdalen College, Oxford, where she completed her D.Phil. After a move to the United States and additional training in clinical psychology at SUNY Stony Brook, Dr. Hooley took a position at Harvard, where she has been a faculty member since 1985. Dr. Hooley has a long-standing interest in psychosocial predictors of psychiatric relapse in patients with severe psychopathology such as schizophrenia and depression. She is currently conducting neuroimaging studies of emotion in depression. She is the author of many scholarly publications and has served on the editorial boards of several prestigious journals. She has also reviewed applications for research grants both in the United States and internationally. At Harvard, she has taught graduate and undergraduate classes in introductory psychology, abnormal psychology, schizophrenia, mood disorders, psychiatric diagnosis, and psychological treatment. When she is not teaching, conducting research, or treating clinical patients, Dr. Hooley is most likely to be found riding her horse.

Table of Contents





1. Abnormal Psychology Over Time

2. Causal Factors and Viewpoints

3. Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Approaches

4. Stress and Stress-Related Disorders

5. Panic, Anxiety, and Their Disorders

6. Mood Disorders and Suicide

7. Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders

8. Eating Disorders and Obesity

9. Personality Disorders

10. Substance-Related Disorders

11. Sexual Variants, Abuse, and Dysfunctions

12. Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

13. Cognitive Disorders

14. Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence

15. Contemporary and Legal Issues in Abnormal Psychology





Features, xvi

Preface, xix


Chapter 1. Abnormal Psychology over Time, 1

What Do We Mean by Abnormality?, 3

The DSM-IV Definition of Mental Disorder, 5

Why Do We Need to Classify Mental Disorders?, 6

What Are the Disadvantages of Classification?, 6

How Does Culture Affect What Is Considered Abnormal?, 7

Culture-Specific Disorders, 8

How Common Are Mental Disorders?, 8

Prevalence and Incidence, 9

Prevalence Estimates for Mental Disorders, 9

Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior, 10

Demonology, Gods, and Magic, 11

Hippocrates’ Early Medical Concepts, 11

Later Greek and Roman Thought, 12

Views of Abnormality During the Middle Ages, 12

The Resurgence of Scientific Questioning in Europe, 13

The Establishment of Early Asylums, 13

Humanitarian Reform, 13

Mental Hospital Care in the Twenty-First Century, 15

The Emergence of Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior, 16

Biological Discoveries: Establishing the Link Between the Brain and Mental Disorder, 17

The Development of a Classification System, 17

The Development of the Psychological Basis of Mental Disorder, 18

The Evolution of the Psychological Research Tradition: Experimental Psychology, 20

Research Approaches in Abnormal Psychology, 22

Sources of Information, 22

Forming and Testing Hypotheses, 23

Research Designs, 25

Manipulating Variables: The Experimental Method in Abnormal Psychology, 26

Developments in Research 1.1: Do Magnets Help with Repetitive-Stress Injury?, 28

Unresolved Issues: Are We All Becoming Mentally Ill? The Expanding Horizons of Mental Disorder, 31

Summary, 31

Key Terms, 33


Chapter 2. Causal Factors and Viewpoints, 34

Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior, 35

Necessary, Sufficient, and Contributory Causes, 35

Diathesis-Stress Models, 36

Viewpoints for Understanding the Causes of Abnormal Behavior, 38

The Biological Viewpoint and Causal Factors, 38

Neurotransmitter and Hormonal Abnormalities, 39

Developments in Research 2.1: Neurotransmission and Abnormal Behavior, 40

Genetic Vulnerabilities, 42

Developments in Thinking 2.2: Nature, Nurture, and Psychopathology: A New Look at an Old Topic, 44

Temperament, 45

Brain Dysfunction and Neural Plasticity, 46

The Impact of the Biological Viewpoint, 47

The Psychological Viewpoints, 47

The Psychodynamic Perspectives, 48

The Behavioral Perspective, 52

Developments in Thinking 2.3: The Humanistic and Existential Perspectives, 53

The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective, 56

Psychological Causal Factors, 58

Early Deprivation or Trauma, 59

Inadequate Parenting Styles, 61

Marital Discord and Divorce, 63

Maladaptive Peer Relationships, 64

The Sociocultural Viewpoint and Causal Factors, 65

Uncovering Sociocultural Factors Through Cross-Cultural Studies, 66

Harmful Societal Influences, 67

The Impact of the Sociocultural Viewpoint, 69

Unresolved Issues: Theoretical Viewpoints and the Causes of Abnormal Behavior, 70

Summary, 71

Key Terms, 72


Chapter 3. Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Approaches, 74

The Basic Elements in Assessment, 75

The Relationship Between Assessment and Diagnosis, 75

Taking a Social or Behavioral History, 75

Ensuring Culturally Sensitive Assessment Procedures, 76

Assessment of the Physical Organism, 77

The General Physical Examination, 77

The Neurological Examination, 77

The Neuropsychological Examination, 79

Psychosocial Assessment, 79

Assessment Interviews, 79

The Clinical Observation of Behavior, 80

Psychological Tests, 81

Advantages and Limitations of Objective Personality Tests, 86

The Integration of Assessment Data, 86

Classifying Abnormal Behavior, 87

Reliability and Validity, 88

Formal Diagnostic Classification of Mental Disorders, 88

An Overview of Treatment, 90

Psychosocial Approaches To Therapy, 91

Behavior Therapy, 91

Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, 92

Humanistic-Experiential Therapies, 94

Psychodynamic Therapies, 96

Couple and Family Therapy, 98

Eclecticism and Integration, 100

Measuring Success in Psychotherapy, 100

Objectifying and Quantifying Change, 101

Would Change Occur Anyway?, 101

Can Therapy Be Harmful?, 101

Biological Approaches to Treatment, 102

Antipsychotic Drugs, 102

Antidepressant Drugs, 103

Anti-Anxiety Drugs, 107

Lithium and Other Mood-Stabilizing Drugs, 107

Electroconvulsive Therapy, 109

Neurosurgery, 110

Developments in Research 3.1: Treating Depressed Patients with Deep Brain Stimulation, 111

Unresolved Issues: Is There Bias in the Reporting of Drug Trials?, 111

Summary, 112

Key Terms, 114


Chapter 4. Stress and Physical and Mental Health, 115

What Is Stress?, 116

Stress and the DSM, 116

Factors Predisposing a Person to Stress, 117

Characteristics of Stressors, 118

Stress and the Stress Response, 119

Biological Costs of Stress, 120

The Mind-Body Connection, 120

Understanding the Immune System, 120

Developments in Research 4.1: Cytokines: The Link Between the Brain and the Immune System, 122

Stress and Physical Health, 122

Attitudes and Health, 122

Optimism, 122

Negative Affect, 123

Cardiovascular Disease, 123

Hypertension, 123

Coronary Heart Disease, 125

Risk and Casual Factors in Cardiovascular Disease, 125

Treatment of Stress-Related Disorders, 127

Emotional Disclosure, 127

Biofeedback, 128

Relaxation and Meditation, 128

Psychological Reactions to Stress, 128

Adjustment Disorder, 129

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 129

Clinical Description, 129

Prevalence of PTSD in the General Population, 130

Rates of PTSD After Exposure to Specific Stressors, 131

Causal Factors in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 132

Long-Term Effects of Post-Traumatic Stress, 134

Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders, 135

Prevention, 135

Treatment for Stress Disorders, 135

Trauma and Physical Health, 138

Unresolved Issues: What Should the Diagnostic Criteria for PTSD Be?, 138

Summary, 139

Key Terms, 140


Chapter 5. Panic, Anxiety, and Their Disorders, 141

The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns, 143

Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalities, 144

Specific Phobias, 145

Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Gender Differences, 146

Psychological Causal Factors, 146

Biological Causal Factors, 148

Treatments, 149

Social Phobias, 150

Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Gender Differences, 151

Psychological Causal Factors, 151

Biological Causal Factors, 152

Treatments, 153

Panic Disorder with and without Agoraphobia, 154

Panic Disorder, 154

Agoraphobia, 155

Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Gender Differences, 156

The Timing of a First Panic Attack, 156

Biological Causal Factors, 157

Psychological Causal Factors, 158

Treatments, 161

Developments in Practice 5.1: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder, 162

Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 163

Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Gender Differences, 164

Psychological Causal Factors, 165

Biological Causal Factors, 166

Treatments, 167

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 168

Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Gender Differences, 170

Psychosocial Causal Factors, 170

Biological Causal Factors, 172

Treatments, 174

Sociocultural Causal Factors for all Anxiety Disorders, 175

Cultural Differences in Sources of Worry, 176

Taijin Kyofusho, 176

Unresolved Issues: Compulsive Hoarding: Is it a Subtype of OCD?, 177

Summary, 177

Key Terms, 179


Chapter 6. Mood Disorders and Suicide, 180

Mood Disorders, 181

What are Mood Disorders?, 181

Types of Mood Disorders, 182

The Prevalence of Mood Disorders, 183

Unipolar Mood Disorders, 183

Depressions That Are Not Mood Disorders, 184

Dysthymic Disorder, 185

Major Depressive Disorder, 186

Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders, 189

Biological Causal Factors, 189

Psychological Causal Factors, 193

Developments in Research 6.1: Sex Differences in Unipolar Depression, 199

Developments in Thinking 6.2: Comorbidity of Anxiety and Mood Disorders, 201

Bipolar Disorders, 203

Cyclothymic Disorder, 203

Bipolar Disorders (I and II), 204

Causal Factors In Bipolar Disorder, 207

Biological Causal Factors, 207

Psychosocial Causal Factors, 208

Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders, 209

Cross-Cultural Differences in Depressive Symptoms, 209

Cross-Cultural Differences in Prevalence, 210

Demographic Differences in the United States, 210

Treatments and Outcomes, 211

Pharmacotherapy, 211

Alternative Biological Treatments, 213

Psychotherapy, 213

Suicide, 215

The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern, 216

Who Attempts and Who Commits Suicide?, 216

Suicide in Children, 216

Suicide in Adolescents and Young Adults, 217

Other Psychosocial Factors Associated with Suicide, 217

The World Around Us 6.3: Warning Signs for Student Suicide, 218

Biological Causal Factors, 218

Sociocultural Factors, 218

Communication of Suicidal Intent, 219

Suicide Notes, 220

Suicide Prevention and Intervention, 220

Treatment of Mental Disorders, 220

Crisis Intervention, 220

Focus on High-Risk Groups and Other Measures, 221

Unresolved Issues: Is There a Right to Die?, 221

Summary, 222

Key Terms, 223


Chapter 7. Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders, 224

Somatoform Disorders, 225

What Are Somatoform Disorders?, 225

Hypochondriasis, 226

Somatization Disorder, 228

Pain Disorder, 230

Conversion Disorder, 231

Distinguishing Somatization, Pain and Conversion Disorders from Malingering and Factitious Disorder, 234

The World Around Us 7.1: Factitious Disorder by Proxy (Munchausen’s Syndrome by Proxy), 234

Body Dysmorphic Disorder, 235

Dissociative Disorders, 238

What are Dissociative Disorders?, 238

Depersonalization Disorder, 238

Dissociative Amnesia and Dissociative Fugue, 239

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), 241

The World Around Us 7.2: DID, Schizophrenia, and Split Personality: Clearing Up the Confusion, 244

Sociocultural Factors in Dissociative Disorders, 248

Treatment and Outcomes in Dissociative Disorders, 248

Unresolved Issues: DID and the Reality of “Recovered Memories”, 250

Summary, 251

Key Terms, 252


Chapter 8. Eating Disorders and Obesity, 253

Eating Disorders, 254

Clinical Aspects of Eating Disorders, 254

Anorexia Nervosa, 254

Bulimia Nervosa, 256

Other Forms of Eating Disorders, 258

Age of Onset and Gender Differences, 259

Prevalence of Eating Disorders, 259

Medical Complications of Eating Disorders, 260

Course and Outcome, 260

The Long-Term Stability of Eating Disorders, 261

Eating Disorders Across Cultures, 261

Risk and Causal Factors in Eating Disorders, 263

Biological Factors, 263

Sociocultural Factors, 264

Family Influences, 265

Individual Risk Factors, 266

Treatment of Eating Disorders, 268

Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa, 269

Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa, 270

Treatment of Binge-Eating Disorder, 271

Obesity, 271

Risk and Causal Factors in Obesity, 273

The Role of Genes, 273

Hormones Involved in Appetite and Weight Regulation, 273

Sociocultural Influences, 274

Family Influences, 274

Stress and “Comfort Food”, 275

Pathways to Obesity, 275

Treatment of Obesity, 276

Lifestyle Modifications, 276

Medications, 277

Bariatric Surgery, 277

The Importance of Prevention, 278

Unresolved Issues: What Should We Do About Eating Disorder NOS?, 279

Summary, 279

Key Terms, 280


Chapter 9. Personality Disorders, 281

Clinical Features of Personality Disorders, 282

Difficulties Doing Research on Personality Disorders, 284

Difficulties in Diagnosing Personality Disorders, 284

Difficulties in Studying the Causes of Personality Disorders, 285

Cluster A Personality Disorders, 285

Paranoid Personality Disorder, 285

Schizoid Personality Disorder, 286

Schizotypal Personality Disorder, 287

Cluster B Personality Disorders, 290

Histrionic Personality Disorder, 290

Narcissistic Personality Disorder, 291

Antisocial Personality Disorder, 292

Borderline Personality Disorder, 293

Cluster C Personality Disorders, 295

Avoidant Personality Disorder, 295

Dependent Personality Disorder, 297

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, 298

General Sociocultural Causal Factors for Personality Disorders, 299

Treatments and Outcomes for Personality Disorders, 300

Adapting Therapeutic Techniques to Specific Personality Disorders, 300

Treating Borderline Personality Disorder, 300

Treating Other Personality Disorders, 301

Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy, 302

Psychopathy and ASPD, 302

The Clinical Picture in Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder, 304

Causal Factors in Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality, 305

The World Around Us 9.1: “Successful” Psychopaths, 308

A Developmental Perspective on Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality, 309

Treatments and Outcomes in Psychopathic and Antisocial Personality, 311

Prevention of Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder, 312

Unresolved Issues: Axis II of DSM-IV-TR: Moving Toward a Dimensional System of Classification, 313

Summary, 314

Key Terms, 314


Chapter 10. Substance-Related Disorders, 315

Alcohol Abuse and Dependence, 317

The Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Demographics of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence, 318

The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence, 319

Biological Causal Factors in the Abuse of and Dependence on Alcohol, 322

Psychosocial Causal Factors in Alcohol Abuse and Dependence, 324

The World Around Us 10.1: Binge Drinking in College, 327

Sociocultural Causal Factors, 328

Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders, 328

Drug Abuse and Dependence, 332

Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics), 334

Cocaine and Amphetamines (Stimulants), 337

Methamphetamine, 340

Barbiturates (Sedatives), 340

Hallucinogens: LSD and Related Drugs, 341

Ecstasy, 342

Marijuana, 342

Stimulants: Caffeine and Nicotine, 344

Unresolved Issues: Exchanging Addictions: Is This an Effective Approach?, 346

Summary, 347

Key Terms, 348


Chapter 11. Sexual Variants, Abuse, and Dysfunctions, 349

Sociocultural Influences on Sexual Practices and Standards, 351

Overview, 351

Homosexuality and American Psychiatry, 351

Developments in Thinking 11.1: Homosexuality as a Normal Sexual Variant, 352

Sexual and Gender Variants, 353

The Paraphilias, 354

Causal Factors and Treatments for Paraphilias, 359

Gender Identity Disorders, 360

Sexual Abuse, 363

Childhood Sexual Abuse, 363

Developments in Research 11.2: The Reliability of Children’s Reports of Past Events, 365

Pedophilia, 366

Incest, 367

Rape, 367

Treatment and Recidivism of Sex Offenders, 369

Sexual Dysfunctions, 372

Sexual Desire Disorders, 372

Sexual Arousal Disorders, 374

Orgasmic Disorders, 376

Sexual Pain Disorders, 378

Unresolved Issues: How Harmful Is Childhood Sexual Abuse?, 379

Summary, 380

Key Terms, 380


Chapter 12. Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders, 382

Schizophrenia, 383

Origins of the Schizophrenia Construct, 383

Epidemiology, 383

Clinical Picture, 385

Delusions, 385

Hallucinations, 385

Disorganized Speech, 386

Disorganized and Catatonic Behavior, 386

Positive and Negative Symptoms, 387

Subtypes of Schizophrenia, 387

Other Psychotic Disorders, 390

Risk and Causal Factors, 392

Genetic Factors, 392

The World Around Us 12.1: The Genain Quadruplets, 393

Prenatal Exposures, 397

Genes and Environment in Schizophrenia: A Synthesis, 398

A Neurodevelopmental Perspective, 398

Other Biological Factors, 400

Neurocognition, 404

Psychosocial and Cultural Factors, 406

Treatments and Outcomes, 409

Pharmacological Approaches, 409

Psychosocial Approaches, 410

Developments in Practice 12.2: Using Estrogen to Help Patients with Schizophrenia, 411

The World Around Us 12.3: A Beautiful Mind, 413

Unresolved Issues: Can Schizophrenia Be Prevented?, 414

Summary, 415

Key Terms, 416


Chapter 13. Cognitive Disorders, 417

Brain Impairment in Adults, 419

Clinical Signs of Brain Damage, 419

Diffuse versus Focal Damage, 419

The Neuropsychology/Psychopathology Interaction, 421

Delirium, 422

Clinical Picture, 422

Treatments and Outcomes, 423

Dementia, 423

Parkinson’s Disease, 424

Huntington’s Disease, 425

Alzheimer’s Disease, 425

Dementia from HIV-1 Infection, 430

Vascular Dementia, 431

Amnestic Disorder, 431

Disorders Involving Head Injury, 432

Clinical Picture, 433

The World Around Us 13.1: Playing It Safe after Taking a Hit, 435

Treatments and Outcomes, 435

Unresolved Issues: Can Dietary Supplements Enhance Brain Functioning?, 437

Summary, 438

Key Terms, 438


Chapter 14. Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence, 439

Maladaptive Behavior in Different Life Periods, 440

Varying Clinical Pictures, 440

Special Psychological Vulnerabilities of Young Children, 441

The Classification of Childhood and Adolescent Disorders, 441

Common Disorders Of Childhood, 442

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 442

Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder, 445

Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents, 448

Anxiety Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence, 448

Childhood Depression and Bipolar Disorder, 451

Developments in Practice 14.1: Using Play Therapy to Resolve Children’s Psychological Problems, 453

Pervasive Developmental Disorders, 454

Autism, 454

Asperger’s Disorder, 458

Learning Disabilities and Mental Retardation, 458

Learning Disabilities, 459

Causal Factors in Learning Disabilities, 459

Treatments and Outcomes, 459

Mental Retardation, 460

Causal Factors in Mental Retardation, 461

Organic Retardation Syndromes, 462

Treatments, Outcomes, and Prevention, 465

Planning Better Programs to Help Children and Adolescents, 467

Special Factors Associated with Treatment of Children and Adolescents, 467

Child Advocacy Programs, 469

Unresolved Issues: Can Society Deal with Delinquent Behavior?, 469

Summary, 471

Key Terms, 472


Chapter 15. Contemporary and Legal Issues in Abnormal Psychology, 473

Perspectives on Prevention, 474

Universal Interventions, 474

Selective Interventions, 476

Indicated Interventions, 478

The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community, 478

Developments in Thinking 15.1: Residential Treatment Programs: Do They Help Troubled Children and Adolescents?, 479

Deinstitutionalization, 481

Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Disordered, 482

Civil Commitment, 482

The World Around Us 15.2: Important Court Decisions for Patient Rights, 483

Assessment of “Dangerousness”, 484

The Insanity Defense, 486

Organized Efforts for Mental Health, 489

U.S. Efforts for Mental Health, 489

International Efforts for Mental Health, 490

Challenges for the Future, 491

The Need for Planning, 491

The Individual’s Contribution, 491

Unresolved Issues: The HMOs and Mental Health Care, 492

Summary, 494

Key Terms, 494


Glossary, G-1

Reference, R-1

Credits, C-1

Name Index, N-1

Subject Index, S-1



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