Acid Gas Injection and Related Technologies

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2011-03-22
  • Publisher: Wiley-Scrivener

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Acid gas is a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, with small amounts of light hydrocarbons, which is the by-product of the process for removing these unwanted components from raw natural gas. Because companies are no longer allowed to flare (burn off) excess acid gas, acid gas injection has emerged as a technology that is suitable for dealing with small amounts of unwanted acid gas. Gas injection involves the compression of the stream, transportation by pipeline to an injection well, then the fluid travels down the well and into a suitable formation. Larger producers have started to use this technology for their applications and in the future it is predicted that even larger projects will be developed. This book is the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of this technique, which is rapidly increasing in importance and usage in the natural gas and petroleum industry. The authors, a group of the most well-known and respected in the field, discuss, in a series of papers, this technology and related technologies as to how they can best be used by industry. This process will help companies in the energy industry "go green," by creating a safer, cleaner environment. These techniques also create a more efficient and profitable process in the plant, cutting waste and making operations more streamlined.

Author Biography

Ying (Alice) Wu is currently the President of Sphere Technology Connection Ltd. (STC) in Calgary, Canada. From 1983 to 1999 she was an Assistant Professor and Researcher at Southwest Petroleum Institute (now Southwest Petroleum University, SWPU) in Sichuan, China. She received her MSc in Petroleum Engineering from the SWPU and her BSc in Petroleum Engineering from Daqing Petroleum University in Heilongjiang, China.

John J. Carroll, PhD, PEng is the Director, Geostorage Process Engineering for Gas Liquids Engineering, Ltd. in Calgary, Canada. Dr. Carroll holds bachelor and doctoral degrees in chemical engineering from the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, and is a registered professional engineer in the provinces of Alberta and New Brunswick in Canada. His fist book, Natural Gas Hydrates: A Guide for Engineers, is now in its second edition, and he is the author or co-author of 50 technical publications and about 40 technical presentations.

Table of Contents



Acid Gas Injection: Past, Present, and Future (John J. Carroll).

Section 1: Data and Correlation.

1. Equilibrium Water Content Measurements For Acid Gas Mixtures (R. A. Marriott, E. Fitzpatrick, F. Bernard, H. H. Wan, K. L. Lesage, P. M. Davis, and P. D. Clark).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Available Literature Data.

1.3 Equilibration Vessels / Techniques.

1.4 Water Analysis.

1.5 Sampling Issues for Analytic Methods.

1.6 Some Recent Results and Future Directions.

2. The Performance of State of the Art Industrial Thermodynamic Models for the Correlation and Prediction of Acid Gas Solubility in Water (Marco A. Satyro and James van der Lee).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Thermodynamic Modeling.

2.3 Water Content.

2.4 Conclusions and Recommendations.

3. The Research on Experiments and Theories about Hydrates in High-Sulfur Gas Reservoirs (Liu Jianyi, Zhang Guangdong, Ye Chongqing, Zhang Jing and Liu Yanli).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Experimental Tests.

3.3 Thermodynamic Model.

3.4 Experimental Evaluation.

3.5 Conclusions.

4. An Association Model for the Correlation of the Solubility of Elemental Sulfur in Sour Gases (Bian Xiaoqing, Du ZHimin and Chen Jing).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Derivation of an Association Model.

4.3 Calculation and Analysis of Solubility.

4.4 Conclusions.

5. Properties of CO2 Relevant To Sequestration - Density (Sara Anwar and John J. Carroll).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Review and Correlation.

5.3 Density.

6. The Experimental Study of the Effect of the CO2 Content on Natural Gas Properties at Gathering Conditions (Du Jianfen, Hu Yue, Guo Ping, Deng Lei, and Yang Suyun).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Experimental Test Process.

6.3 Experimental Principles and Methods.

6.4 Experimental Conditions.

6.5 Analysis of Experimental Results.

6.6 Conclusions.

Section 2: Process Engineering.

7. Dehydration of Acid Gas Prior to Injection (Eugene W. Grynia, John J. Carroll, and Peter J. Griffin).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Acid Gas Phase Diagrams.

7.3 Water Content of Acid Gas.

7.4 Water Content of Acid Gas for Different Isotherms.

7.5 Effect of Impurities on Water Content of Acid Gas.

7.6 Acid Gas Dehydration.

7.7 Hydrates of Acid Gas.

7.8 Conclusions.

8. Limitations And Challenges Associated With The Disposal Of Mercaptan-Rich Acid Gas Streams By Injection - A Case Study (Felise Man and John J. Carroll).

8.1 Properties of Mercaptans.

8.2 Limitations of Process Simulation Tools and Process Design.

8.3 Case Study.

8.4 Conclusions.

9. Acid Gas: When to Inject and When to Incinerate (Audrey Mascarenhas).

9.1 Incineration Technology.

9.2 Conclusion.

10. Dynamics of Acid Gas Injection Well Operation (R. Mireault, R. Stocker, D. Dunn, and M. Pooladi-Darvish).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Effects of Gas Composition.

10.3 Determining Wellhead Operating Pressure.

10.4 Computing Wellbore Pressure Changes.

10.5 Example 1.

10.6 Example 2.

10.7 Sensitivity Analysis.

10.8 Conclusions.

Section 3: CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery.

Learnings from CO2 Miscible Floods Provides Design Guidelines for CO2 Sequestration (Jim Louie).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Encana Weyburn and Apache Midale Projects.

11.3 Why CO2for EOR?

11.4 Properties of CO2.

11.5 CO2Dehydration

11.6 Materials Selection

11.6.1 Supply Carbon Dioxide Pipeline

11.6.2 Production Pipelines

11.7 Mercaptans

11.8 Safety Hazards of CO2.

11.9 Capital Costs.

11.10 Summary.

12. Reservoir Simulation of CO2 Injection after Water Flooding in Xinli Oil Field (Fu Yu, Du Zhimin and Guo Xiao).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 The Xinli Field.

12.3 CO2Flooding Parameters.

12.4 Numerical Simulations.

12.5 The Numerical Simulation of Xinli District.

12.6 Conclusions.

13. Study on Development Effect of CO2 Huff and Puff Process in Horizontal Well in Normal Heavy Oil Reservoir (Guo Ping, Huang Qin, Li Min, Zhang Wei, Du Jianfen and Zhao Binbin).

13.1 Overview.

13.2 Stimulation Mechanism of CO2Huff and Puff Process.

13.3 Single Well Numerical Simulation of CO2Huff and Puff Process.

13.4 Conclusions.

14. The Study on Mathematic Models of Multi-Phase Porous Flow for CO2 Drive in Ultra-Low Permeability and Its Application (Zhu Weiyao, Ju Yan, Chen Jiecheng and Liu Jinzi).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Mathematical Model of Oil Displacement with CO2Injection in the Ultra-low Permeability Reservoir.

14.3 Experimental Study of Ultra-low Permeability Reservoir CO2Flooding.

14.4 Numerical Simulation.

14.5 Conclusion.

15. Experimental Appraisal and Single-well Simulation for C02 Injection Feasibility in Liaohe Light Oil Blocks (Xiong Yu, Zhang Liehui, Sun Lei and Wu Yi).

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Phase Behavior of Formation Crude.

15.3 C02 Injection Experiment and Fluid Properties.

15.4 CO2 Injection Feasibility Analysis and Parameter Optimization of XB-S3.

15.5 Conclusion.

16. Experiment Study about Phase Transition Characteristics of CO2 in Low-permeable Porous Media (Guo Ping, Wang Juan, Fan Jianming and Luo Yuqiong).

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Testing System.

16.3 Testing Devices.

16.4 Test Results and Discussions.

16.5 Experiment Phenomenon.

16.6 Conclusions.

17. Mechanism Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding - Caoshe Oilfield, a Case Study (Tang Yong, Du Zhimin, Sun Lei, Vu Kai, Liu Wei and Chen Zuhua).

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Phase Behavior Experiment Simulation of CO2Injection in CS Oilfield.

17.3 Evaluation of CO2 Injection Minimum Miscibility Pressure.

17.4 Mechanism Evaluation of C02 Miscible Flooding by One-dimensional Simulation.

17.5 Miscible Flooding Processes in Profile Model of Injector-producer Well Group.

17.6 Conclusions.

18. Selecting and Performance Evaluating of Surfactant in Carbon Dioxide Foam Flooding in Caoshe Oil Field (Yi Xiangyi, Zhang Shaonan, Lu Yuan, Li Chun, Jiao Lili and Liu Wei).

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Geological Characteristics in Taizhou Formation of Caoshe Oil Field.

18.3 Techniques to Improve the Effect of CO2 Flooding.

18.4 Selecting and Evaluating of Surfactant.

18.5 Conclusions.

Section 4: Materials and Corrosion.

19. Casing and Tubing Design for Sour Oil & Gas Field (Sun Yongxing, Lin Yuanhua, Wang Zhongsheng, Shi Taihe, You Xiaobo, Zhang Guo, Liu Hongbin, and Zhu Dajiang).

19.1 Introduction.

19.2 SSC Testing.

19.3 Casing and Tubing Design in Fracture Mechanics.

19.4 Conclusions.

20. Material Evaluation and Selection of OCTG and Gathering Lines for High Sour Gas Fields in China (Zeng Dezhi, Huang Liming, Gu Tan, Lin Yuanhua, Liu Zhide, Yuan Xi, Zhu Hongjun, Huo Shaoquan, and Xiao Xuelan).

20.1 Introduction.

20.2 Material Evaluation and Selection of OCTG for High Sour Gas Fields.

20.3 Indoor Corrosion Evaluation.

20.4 Field Corrosion Evaluation in Tian Dong 5-1.

20.5 Material Evaluation and Selection of Gathering Lines for High Sour Gas Fields.

20.6 Indoor Corrosion Evaluation.

20.7 Field Corrosion Evaluation in Tian Dong 5-1.

20.8 Conclusion.

Section 5: Reservoir Engineering, Geology, and Geochemistry.

21. Concentration Gradients Associated With Acid Gas Injection (S. J. Talman and E.H. Perkins).

21.1 Introduction.

21.2 Results.

21.3 Conclusions.

22. A New Comprehensive Mathematical Model of Formation Damage in Fractured Gas Reservoirs with High H2S Content (Fu Dekui, Guo Xiao, Du Zhimin, Fu Yu, Zhang Yong, Deng Shenghui, and Liu Linqing).

22.1 Introduction.

22.2 Mathematical Model.

22.3 Case Application.

22.4 Conclusions.

23. Evaluation of Formation Damage Due to Sulfur Deposition (Guo Xiao, Du Zhitnin, Yang Xuefeng, Zhang Yong, and Fu Dekui).

23.1 Introduction.

23.2 Experimental Investigation of Sulfur Deposition.

23.3 Deposited Sulfur of Core Samples.

23.4 Experimental Results.

23.5 Conclusions.

24. Numerical Simulation Studies on Sour Gas Flowing Mechanisms in Gas Reservoirs with High H2S Content (Zhang Yong, Du Zhimin, Guo Xiao, and Yang Xuefeng).

24.1 Introduction.

24.2 Phase Behavior Characteristics of Highly Sour Gas Systems.

24.3 Sour Gas Flow Numerical Model for Highly Sour Gas Reservoir.

24.4 Conclusions.

25. Why Does Shut-In Well Head Pressure of Sour Gas Well Decrease During Formation Testing? (Guo Xiao, Du Zhimin and Fu Dekui).

25.1 Introduction.

25.2 Mathematical Model of Heavy Gas Fraction.

25.3 Analysis of Heavy Gas Fraction.

25.4 Analysis of Factors Affecting the Pressure Numeration in Sour Gas Wells.

25.5 Conclusion.

26. Impaction of the Stacking Pattern of Sandstone and Mudstone on the Porosity and Permeability of Sandstone Reservoirs in Different Buried Depths (Zhong Dekang and Zhu Xiaomin).

26.1 Introduction.

26.2 Stacking Pattern of Sandstone and Mudstone.

26.3 The Characteristics of Physical Property of Reservoirs in Sandstone-mudstone Interbed.

26.4 The Discussion of Variation Mechanism of Physical Properties of Sandstone - Mudstone Interbed.

26.5 Conclusion.


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