9781892132093

Adventure Programming

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781892132093

  • ISBN10:

    1892132095

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-12-01
  • Publisher: Venture Pub

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Summary

This revised edition of Adventure Education (1991) brings together the current ideas of many practitioners of adventure programming to reveal the extent of the literature in the field and provides insight into every aspect of this ongoing movement. Change for society and communities is the altruistic end point sought by adventure programs through activities such as outdoor pursuits, initiative activities, and ropes or challenge courses which are all discussed in this text.

Table of Contents

Introduction xiii
Simon Priest
Section 1 Introduction to Adventure Programming 1(42)
Recreational Outdoor Adventure Programs
3(6)
David J. Webb
Introduction
3(1)
Program Goals, Benefits, Services, and Models
3(3)
Summary
6(2)
References
8(1)
Educational Adventure and Schooling
9(4)
Bert Horwood
Developmental Adventure Programs
13(16)
Jude Hirsch
Inclusivity Consulting Group. Inc.
15(1)
Strasser & Partners
16(2)
Project Adventure Inc.
18(1)
YMCA Camp Pinccrest
19(2)
Georgia College and State University Quest Program
21(1)
Audubon Expedition Institute: An Extraordinary Educational Journey
22(1)
Tim Hortons Children's Foundation
22(1)
Outward Bound
23(1)
Essential Features and Developmental Adventure Programs
24(2)
References
26(3)
Adventure as Therapy
29(10)
H. L. ``Lee'' Gillis
T. Martin Ringer
Intrduction
29(1)
An Overview of Adventure Therapy
29(1)
Types of Adventure Therapy Programs
30(1)
Common Characteristics of Adventure Therapy Activities and Programs
30(1)
The Difference Between Recreational Adventure Programs and Adventure Therapy Programs
31(2)
Difficulties in Working With Adventure for Therapeutic Purposes
33(1)
Opportunities for Psychotherapists
33(1)
Research Opportunities in Adventure Therapy
33(1)
Conclusion
34(1)
References
35(4)
A World of Adventure Education
39(4)
Joseph Bailey
Introduction
39(1)
A Definition of Adventure Education
39(1)
Adventure and Education
40(1)
The Adventure Experience
40(1)
Conclusion
41(1)
References
42(1)
Section 2 Historical Perspectives on Adventure Programming 43(66)
Philosophy in Practice: A History of Adventure Programming
45(10)
Edward Raiola
Marty O'Keefe
Introduction
45(1)
Adventure Education---Toward a Definition
46(1)
Historical Development
46(4)
Emergence of Adventure Education
50(1)
Recent History
51(1)
Future Challenges and Opportunities
52(1)
References
52(3)
The Creation of Outward Bound
55(10)
Joshua L. Miner
Kurt Hahn
65(6)
Anthony Richards
The Decline of Fitness
67(1)
The Decline of Initiative and Enterprise
67(1)
The Decline of Memory and Imagination
68(1)
The Decline of Skill and Care
68(1)
The Decline of Self-Discipline
68(1)
The Decline of Compassion
69(1)
References
70(1)
A History of the Association for Experiential Education
71(6)
Daniel Garvey
The Formation of an Association
72(1)
The Development of AEE and the Struggle for Survival
73(1)
The Certification Issue
74(1)
Current Times and Future Directions of AEE
75(1)
References
76(1)
The Wilderness Education Association: History and Change
77(8)
Cheryl E. Teeters
Frank Lupton
The National Outdoor Leadership School: 40,000 Wilderness Experiences and Counting
85(8)
Delmar W. Bachert
References
90(3)
Project Adventure: A Brief History
93(10)
Dick Prouty
Evaluation
94(1)
National Demonstration Site Award
95(1)
Adventure-Based Counseling
96(1)
Transition to Independence
97(1)
Steady Growth
97(1)
Southern Office
98(1)
Therapuetic Program Growth
98(1)
Executive Reach, Corporate Training
99(1)
The Activity Base
100(1)
Planning for the Future
101(2)
Development Training in the United Kingdom
103(6)
Chris Loynes
Hahn's Postwar Influence
104(1)
The Birth of Outdoor Education in Schools
104(1)
Field Studies
104(1)
Development and Change
105(1)
The Growth of Development Training
105(1)
Experiental Learning
106(1)
Residentials and Expeditions
106(1)
Diversity
107(1)
Relevance
108(1)
Section 3 Foundations of Adventure Programming 109(38)
The Semantics of Adventure Programming
111(4)
Simon Priest
Outdoor Education
111(1)
Environmental Education
111(1)
Adventure Education
111(1)
Outdoor Recreation
112(1)
Leisure
112(1)
Adventure
112(1)
Risk
113(1)
Competence
113(1)
Facilitated Adventure
114(1)
Philosophy of Adventure Education
115(8)
Jasper S. Hunt, Jr.
References
122(1)
Ethics of Adventure Programming
123(10)
Jasper S. Hunt, Jr.
Scott D. Wurdinger
Case Study One---1996 Mount Everest Tragedy
128(1)
Case Study Two---University-Sponsored Building Contest
129(1)
Case Study Three---Money Versus Quality
130(1)
References
131(2)
Outdoor Adventure Programming and Moral Development
133(8)
Daniel Garvey
What Is Moral or Just?
133(1)
The Need for Education to Be Concerned with Moral Development
134(3)
Designing a Moral Development Program
137(2)
Conclusion
139(1)
References
139(2)
Every Trail Has a Story: The Heritage Context as Adventure
141(6)
Robert Henderson
A Journal Excerpt
142(1)
The Specific Heritage Context
142(1)
The General Heritage Context
143(2)
Bibliography
145(1)
References
145(2)
Section 4 The Social Psychology of Adventure Programming 147(32)
The Essence of Adventure
149(4)
William Quinn
References
151(2)
Adventure and the Flow Experience
153(6)
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
Isabella Csikszentmihalyi
Characteristics of the Flow Experience
153(3)
The Importance of the Flow Experience
156(1)
Flow and Adventure Education
156(1)
References
157(2)
The Adventure Experience Paradigm
159(4)
Simon Priest
References
162(1)
New Directions for Inquiry Into Self-Concept and Adventure Experiences
163(6)
Kimberley Ann Klint
Self-Concept
164(1)
Self-Efficacy
164(1)
Perceived Competence
165(2)
Future Research
167(1)
References
168(1)
Practical Stories in a Theoretical Framework
169(10)
Peter Martin
Biases in Attributions
172(1)
Self-Attributions?
173(1)
Self-Efficacy
174(1)
Sources of Self-Efficacy
175(2)
Summary
177(1)
In the End
177(1)
References
178(1)
Section 5 The Learning in Adventure Programming 179(56)
Experiential Learning
181(6)
Richard J. Kraft
Introduction
181(1)
Behavioral Learning Theories
182(1)
Social Learning Theory
182(1)
Cognitive Learning Theories
182(1)
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
183(1)
Dewey and Progressive Education
183(1)
Piaget and Developmental Theory
184(1)
Coleman: Information Assimilation Versus Experiential Learning
184(1)
Resnick: Learning in School and out
185(1)
Conclusions
186(1)
References
186(1)
Integrating Theory and Application in Experiential Learning
187(6)
Scott D. Wurdinger
Simon Priest
History and Evolution of Experiential Learning
187(2)
Analyzing Experiential Learning Models
189(2)
Proactive Experiential Learning
191(1)
References
192(1)
Stage Development Theory in Adventure Programming
193(8)
L-Jay Fine
Importance of Existing State Development Theory in Adventure Education
193(1)
Stage Development Theories
194(3)
Moral Development
197(1)
Problems and Concerns With Stage Development Theory
198(1)
Summary
198(1)
References
199(2)
Teaching by Inquiry
201(4)
Donald R. Hammerman
Inquiry Training
201(1)
Instruction Through Inquiry
202(1)
Additional Considerations
203(1)
A Final Word
204(1)
Sequencing the Adventure Experience
205(10)
Christian Bisson
Uniqueness or Universality
205(1)
The Sequential Process
206(7)
Conclusion
213(1)
References
213(2)
Six Generations of Facilitation Skills
215(4)
Simon Priest
Michael A. Gass
Introduction
215(1)
Six Generations
215(3)
Conclusion
218(1)
Reference
218(1)
Processing the Adventure Experience
219(8)
Clifford E. Knapp
Introduction
219(1)
Ways of Learning
219(1)
Hard and Soft Skills
220(1)
Suggested Group Norms for Community Building
220(1)
Barriers to Community Building Objectives
221(1)
The Role of the Facilitator in Processing
221(1)
Preplanning the Processing Phase
221(1)
Additional Group Issues to Process
221(1)
Suggested Steps in Processing
222(1)
Alternatives Modes for Processing
223(1)
Some Cautions to Consider
224(1)
Summary
224(1)
References
224(3)
Transfer of Learning in Adventure Programming
227(8)
Michael A. Gass
Theories Concerning Transfer
228(2)
A Program Model for Transfer
230(1)
Factors and Techniques That Enhance Transfer of Learning
230(3)
Conclusion
233(1)
References
233(2)
Section 6 The Leadership of Adventure Programming 235(28)
Outdoor Leadership Competencies
237(4)
Simon Priest
Definitions
237(1)
Hard Skills
237(1)
Soft Skills
238(1)
Meta Skills
238(1)
Reference
239(2)
Outdoor Leadership Curricula
241(6)
Edward Raiola
Deborah Sugerman
Research in Outdoor Leadership
241(1)
Current Practice
242(2)
Striking a Balance
244(1)
References
245(2)
Accreditation and Certification: Questions for an Advancing Profession
247(6)
Michael A. Gass
Factors and Indicators Influencing the Professionalism of Adventure Programming in the United States
247(1)
Methods of Verifying Professionalism: Certification and Accreditation
248(1)
The Association for Experiential Education Accreditation Process
249(2)
Conclusion
251(1)
References
251(2)
Leadership for Community Building
253(10)
Denise Mitten
Introduction
253(1)
The Importance of Community Building
254(1)
Putting It Together Consciously (What We Want in a Community)
255(1)
Philosophical Underpinnings or Early Women Pave the Way
256(1)
Power Differences
257(1)
What This Means for the Leadership
257(1)
Ways Leaders Display Caring
258(1)
How to Build a Group---Creating Healthy Group Cohesion
259(2)
Summary
261(1)
References
261(2)
Section 7 The Management of Adventure Programming 263(56)
Starting Your New Outdoor Program
265(4)
Phil Costello
The Idea Stage
265(1)
The Action Plan
265(2)
Getting off the Ground
267(1)
Considerations
267(2)
Management and Administration of Outdoor Programs
269(4)
Ron Watters
Personnel Management
269(1)
Program Planning
270(1)
Volunteer Management
270(1)
Program Recordkeeping
271(1)
Politics of Outdoor Programming
271(1)
References
272(1)
Adventure Risk Management
273(12)
Terry J. Brown
Risk Definition
274(1)
Risk Responsibility
274(1)
Risk Data
274(2)
Risk Sources
276(1)
Risk Management Process
277(2)
Risk Management Plan
279(2)
Risk Control Strategies
281(1)
Emotional Safety
282(1)
Conclusion
283(1)
References
283(2)
Legal Liability and Risk Management
285(14)
Betty van der Smissen
Charles ``Reb'' Gregg
The Philosophy and Role of Risk
285(2)
Some Legal Concepts
287(4)
The Risk Management Plan
291(4)
Resolving the Dispute
295(2)
Legal Responsibilities Require Professionalism
297(1)
Reference
297(2)
Improving Program Quality Through Evaluation
299(10)
Alan Warner
Past Lessons
299(1)
Present Challenges
300(4)
Obstacles to Productive and Broad-Based Evaluation
304(2)
Putting the Ideas Into Practice
306(1)
References
307(2)
Reserach in Adventure Programming
309(10)
Simon Priest
Paradigms
309(2)
Methods
311(1)
Trustworthiness
312(1)
Statistics
313(1)
Patterns
313(1)
Research and Evaluation
314(1)
Future Directions
315(2)
References
317(2)
Section 8 The Setting for Adventure Programming 319(38)
Wilderness
321(4)
John C. Miles
References
323(2)
Rescue-Free Wilderness Areas
325(6)
Leo McAvoy
Philosophical Basic for Rescue-Free Areas
325(1)
Need for Rescue-Free Areas
326(1)
Experiential Benefits of Rescue-Free Areas
327(1)
Worst Case Scenario
327(1)
Response to Common Criticisms of Rescue-Free Areas
328(1)
Conclusion
328(1)
References
329(2)
Urban Adventure in 1989 and Reflections 10 Years After
331(10)
Steve Proudman
Why Urban Adventure Programming?
331(2)
Shifting Paradigms---Creating Urban Programs
333(2)
Emergent Issues for Discussion
335(1)
Ten Years After---Reflections
336(2)
References
338(3)
Artificial Climbing Environments
341(6)
Aram Attarian
Introduction
341(1)
Climbing Walls
341(3)
Other Climbing Activities
344(1)
References
345(2)
Ropes Courses: A Constructed Adventure Environment
347(6)
Karl Rohnke
Low- and High-Challenge Course Events
349(1)
Ropes Course Rationale
350(1)
Indoor Ropes Courses
350(1)
Evolution of Ropes Challenge Facilities
351(2)
Kinesthetic Awareness: At Home in Our Bodies
353(4)
Jackie Kiewa
Introduction
353(1)
The Technological Body
353(1)
Mind and Body Alienation
354(1)
Kinesthetic Awareness
355(1)
References
356(1)
Section 9 The Clients of Adventure Programming 357(74)
Adventure Education for Teaching Cross-Cultural Perspectives
359(6)
Sharon J. Washington
Nina S. Roberts
Introduction
359(1)
Historical Perspective
360(1)
Understanding the Need
360(1)
Reflective Assessment of Leadership Issues on Diversity
360(1)
Professional Development
361(1)
A Three-Dimensional Approach to Diversity Education
361(1)
Making a Commitment
362(1)
Conclusion
362(1)
Suggested Resources
362(1)
References
363(2)
The Use of Adventure-Based Programs With At-Risk Youth
365(8)
Jennifer Davis-Berman
Dene Berman
Adolescence
365(1)
At-Risk Youth
365(1)
Programs
366(1)
A Look at Effectiveness
367(2)
Critical and Emerging Issues
369(1)
Summing Up
369(1)
References
370(3)
Adventure Programs in Higher Education
373(12)
Michael A. Gass
Introduction
373(1)
Incoming Student Orientation Programs
373(4)
Continuing Student Orientation Programs
377(1)
Adventure Programs for Resident Assistants
378(3)
Other Adventure Programs in Higher Education
381(1)
Conclusion
382(1)
References
382(3)
Programming Adventure for Older Adults
385(4)
Deborah Sugerman
Biological Aspects of Aging
385(1)
Sociological Aspects of Aging
386(1)
Psychological Aspects of Aging
386(1)
Planning Adventure Programs
386(1)
Running the Program
387(1)
Conclusion
388(1)
References
388(1)
Women's Outdoor Adventures
389(6)
Karen Warren
The Myth of Accessibility
389(1)
The Myth of Egalitarianism
390(1)
The Myth of Square One
391(1)
The Myth of the Superwoman
391(1)
The Myth of the Heroic Quest
392(1)
Implications and Recent Trends
392(1)
Conclusion
393(1)
References
393(2)
Adventure in the Workplace
395(8)
Todd Miner
Experienced-Based Training and Development as Adventure
395(1)
Goals
396(1)
Methodology
396(2)
The EBTD Industry
398(1)
Challenges
398(2)
One Final Thought
400(1)
Conclusion
400(1)
References
400(3)
Programs That Include Persons With Diabilities
403(12)
Leo McAvoy
Greg Lais
Introduction
403(1)
Benefits of Adventure Education for Persons With Diabilities
404(1)
Adminstrative Issues
405(1)
Staff Training and Factors in Participation
406(1)
The Environment
407(1)
The Activities
407(1)
The Participants
408(1)
The Resources (Agency Capacity)
409(1)
Guidelines for Program Adaptations
409(1)
Adaptive Equipment
410(1)
General Guidelines for Integration
411(2)
Conclusion
413(1)
Sources for Information
413(1)
References
414(1)
Adventure Travel and Ecotourism
415(16)
Graeme Addison
Introduction
415(1)
Travel and Work
416(1)
Travel as Education
416(1)
History
417(1)
Defining Adventure Travel: A Typology
418(2)
Comfort and Challenge
420(1)
Managed Risk
420(2)
The Market
422(1)
Women in Adventure Travel
423(2)
Ecotourism Origins
425(1)
Critique
425(1)
Ethics and Media
426(1)
Less Developed Countries
427(1)
Conclusion
428(1)
References
428(3)
Section 10 Extensions of Adventure Programming 431(48)
A Synthesis of Environmental and Adventure Education Concepts: A Professional Responsibility
433(6)
Camille J. Bunting
J. T. Townley
Energy
434(1)
Cycles
434(1)
Diversity, Interrelationships, and Community
435(1)
Change and Adaptation
435(1)
Professional Significance
436(1)
References
436(3)
The Place of Deep Ecology and Ecopsychology in Adventure Education
439(6)
Robert Henderson
References
444(1)
Navigating the Terrain: Helping Care for the Earth
445(10)
Randolph Haluza-Delay
The Promise of Wilderness Programs
446(1)
Barriers in the Terrain
446(3)
Directions for Navigation
449(3)
Charting the Inner Landscape---A Compassionate Sense of Place
452(1)
Conclusion
453(1)
References
454(1)
Enhancing Spiritual Experience in Adventure Programs
455(8)
Rebecca Fox
Key Terms and Their Definitions
455(1)
Spiritual Health and Wellness
456(1)
Characteristics of Spirituality in Wilderness and Adventure Education
456(1)
Research Into Wilderness Spiritual Experience
457(2)
Programming to Enhance Spiritual Opportunities
459(2)
Conclusion
461(1)
References
461(2)
Critical Outdoor Education and Nature as a Friend
463(10)
Peter Martin
Introduction
463(1)
What Role for Outdoor Education?
463(1)
Critical Theory in Outdoor Education
464(2)
Nature as a Friend
466(4)
Concluding Thoughts
470(1)
References
470(3)
Future Trends and Issues in Adventure Programming
473(6)
Simon Priest
Michael A. Gass
What Is Going on With the World?---Global Trends
473(1)
What Does This Mean for Adventure Programming?---Local Trends
474(2)
What Does This Mean for Adventure Programming?---Local Issues
476(2)
References
478(1)
Appendix Resources for Adventure Programming 479(6)
Jim Cain
Organizations
479(3)
Conferences, Seminars, and Workshops
482(1)
Periodicals, Journals, Magazines, and Newsletters
482(1)
Sources for Books, References, and Other Information
483(2)
The Contributors 485(6)
Index 491

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