African Americans A Concise History, Volume 2

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-07-10
  • Publisher: Pearson
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African Americansis a compelling story of agency, survival, struggle and triumph over adversity. This book illuminates the central place of African-Americans in U.S. history by telling the story of what it has meant to be black in America and how African-American history is inseparably woven into the greater context of American history. African Americansdraws on recent research to present black history within broad social, cultural and political frameworks. From Africa to the 21stcentury, this book follows the long turbulent journey of African-Americans, the rich culture they have nurtured throughout their history and the quest for freedom through which African-Americans have sought to counter oppression and racism. This book also recognizes the diversity within the African-American sphere, providing coverage of class and gender and balancing the lives of ordinary men and women with accounts of black leaders.

Author Biography

Darlene Clark Hine

Darlene Clark Hine is a Board of Trustees professor of African-American studies and professor of history at Northwestern University. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a former president of the Organization of American Historians and of the Southern Historical Association. Hine received her B.A. at Roosevelt University in Chicago and her MA. and Ph.D. from Kent State University in Kent, Ohio. Hine has taught at South Carolina State University and at Purdue University. She also taught at Michigan State University where she was John A. Hannah professor of history. She was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University and at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Studies at Harvard University. She is the author and/or co-editor of 15 books, most recently The Harvard Guide to African American History (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000), co-edited with Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham and Leon Litwack. She co-edited a two-volume set with Earnestine Jenkins, A Question of Manhood: A Reader in Black Men’s History and Masculinity (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, 2001) and one with Jacqueline McLeod, Crossing Boundaries: Comparative History of Black People in Diaspora (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000pk). With Kathleen Thompson she wrote A Shining Thread of Hope: The History of Black Women in America (New York: Broadway Books, 1998) and edited More Than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996) with Barry Gaspar. She won the Dartmouth Medal of the American Library Association for the reference volumes co-edited with Elsa Barkley Brown and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia (New York: Carlson Publishing, 1993). She is the author of Black Women in White: Racial Conflict and Cooperation in the Nursing Profession, 1890–1950 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989). Her forthcoming book is entitled The Black Professional Class: Physicians, Nurses, Lawyers, and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement, 1890–1955.


William C. Hine

William C. Hine received his undergraduate education at Bowling Green State University, his master’s degree at the University of Wyoming and his Ph.D. at Kent State University. He is a professor of history at South Carolina State University. He has had articles published in several journals, including Agricultural History, Labor History and the Journal of Southern History. He is currently writing a history of South Carolina State University.


Stanley Harrold

Stanley Harrold, a professor of history at South Carolina State University, received his bachelor’s degree from Allegheny College and his master’s degree and Ph.D. from Kent State University. He is co-editor of Southern Dissent, a book series published by the University Press of Florida. In 1991-1992 and 1996-1997 he had National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowships. In 2005 he received an NEH Faculty Research Award.  His books include: Gamaliel Bailey and Antislavery Union (Kent, Ohio:  Kent State University Press, 1986), The Abolitionists and the South (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995), Antislavery Violence: Sectional, Racial, and Cultural Conflict in Antebellum America (co-edited with John R. McKivigan; Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press,  1999), American Abolitionists (Harlow, U.K.: Longman, 2001), Subversives: Antislavery Community in Washington, D.C., 18280-1865 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003), The Rise of Aggressive Abolitionism: Addresses to the Slaves (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2004), Civil War and Reconstruction: A Documentary Reader (Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell, 2007) and Border War: Fighting over Slavery before the Civil War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010). He has published articles in Civil War History, Journal of Southern History, Radical History Review and Journal of the Early Republic

Table of Contents



About the Authors


Chapter 12: The Meaning of Freedom: The Promise of Reconstruction, 1865-1868

The End of Slavery  


The Freedmen’s Bureau  

Southern Homestead Act  


The Black Church  



The Crusade for Political and Civil Rights  

Presidential Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson  

Black Codes  

Black Conventions  

The Radical Republicans  

The Fourteenth Amendment  

Radical Reconstruction  

The Reaction of White Southerners 


Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Chapter 13: The Meaning of Freedom: The Failure of Reconstruction, 1868-1877

Constitutional Conventions  


Black Political Leaders  

The Issues  

Economic Issues  

Black Politicians: An Evaluation  

Republican Factionalism  


The Fifteenth Amendment  

The Enforcement Acts  

The North Loses Interest  

The Freedmen’s Bank  

The Civil Rights Act of 1875  

The End of Reconstruction


Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Part IV: Searching for Safe Spaces  

Chapter 14: White Supremacy Triumphant: African Americans in the South in the Late Nineteenth Century




Racial Etiquette  



Black Farm Families 

African Americans and Southern Courts


Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Chapter 15: African Americans Challenge White Supremacy

Social Darwinism  

Education and Schools  

Church and Religion  

Red versus Black: The Buffalo Soldiers  

African Americans in the Navy 

The Black Cowboys  

The Spanish-American War  

The Philippine Insurrection  

African Americans and the World’s Columbian Exposition

Black Businesspeople and Entrepreneurs  

African Americans and Labor 

Black Professionals  




Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Chapter 16: Conciliation, Agitation, and Migration: African Americans in the Early Twentieth Century

Race and the Progressive Movement  

Booker T. Washington’s Approach  

W. E. B. Du Bois

The Niagara Movement  


The Urban League 

Black Women and the Club Movement  

The Black Elite  

African-American Inventors

Presidential Politics  

Black Men and the Military in World War I  

Race Riots  

The Great Migration  

Northern Communities 



Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Chapter 17: African Americans and the 1920s

Strikes and the Red Scare 

Varieties of Racism  

Protest, Pride, and Pan-Africanism: Black Organizations in the Twenties 


The Harlem Renaissance 

Harlem and the Jazz Age  



Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Part V: The Great Depression and World War II  

Chapter 18: The Great Depression and the New Deal

The Cataclysm, 1929—1933  

The Failure of Relief  

African Americans and the New Deal  

The Rise of Black Social Scientists

Black Protest During the Great Depression  

Organized Labor and Black America  

The Communist Party and African Americans  

The Tuskegee Study


Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Chapter 19: Black Culture and Society in the 1930s and 1940s

Black Culture in a Midwestern City  

The Black Culture Industry and American Racism 

The Music Culture from Swing to Bebop  

Popular Culture for the Masses: Comic Strips, Radio, and the Movies 

The Black Chicago Renaissance  

Black Graphic Art  

Black Literature  

African Americans in Sports  

Black Religious Culture


Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Chapter 20: The World War II Era and Seeds of a Revolution

On the Eve of War, 1936—1941  

Race and the U.S. Armed Forces 

Black People on the Home Front  

The Transition to Peace 

The Cold War and International Politics


Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Part VI: The Black Revolution  

Chapter 21: The Freedom Movement, 1954-1965

The 1950s: Prosperity and Prejudice

The Road to Brown

Brown II

New Forms of Protest: The Montgomery Bus Boycott  

No Easy Road to Freedom: 1957—1960  

Black Youth Stand Up by Sitting Down  

A Sight to be Seen: The Movement at High Tide  

The Albany Movement  

The Birmingham Confrontation  

A Hard Victory


Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Chapter 22: The Struggle Continues, 1965-1980  

The Fading Dream of Racial Integration: White Backlash and Black Nationalism  

The Black Panther Party  

The Inner-City Rebellions  

Difficulties in Creating the Great Society  

Johnson and the War in Vietnam  

Johnson: Vietnam Destroys the Great Society  

King: Searching for a New Strategy  

The Black Arts Movement and Black Consciousness  

The Second Phase of the Black Student Movement  

The Election of 1968  

The Nixon Presidency  

The Rise of Black Elected Officials  

Economic Downturn  

Black Americans and the Carter Presidency


Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Chapter 23: African Americans at the New Millennium

Progress and Poverty: Income, Education, and Health

The Persistence of Black Poverty

African Americans at The Center Of Art And Culture

Black Religion at the Dawn of the Millennium

Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam

Millennium Marches

Complicating Black Identity in the Twenty-First Century


Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Chapter 24: The Triumphs of Black Politics, 1980 to Present

Ronald Reagan and the Conservative Reaction  

Black Political Activism in the Age of Conservative Reaction

Jesse Jackson and the Rainbow Coalition  

Policing the Black Community  

The Clinton Presidency  

Black Politics in the New Millennium: The Contested 2000 Presidential Election

Republican Triumph

The 2004 Presidential Election

Barack Obama: President of the United States


Chapter Timeline

Review Questions

MyHistoryLab Connections


Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts



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