Aging and Diversity: An Active Learning Experience

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2008-12-16
  • Publisher: Routledge
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In a time of growing awareness of the diversity among elders, Mehrotra and Wagner provide an excitingly fresh perspective that helps readers develop a clearer understanding of gerontology and that bridges the gap between students and service providers in the field. Aging and Diversity combines a clear narrative with active learning experiences. The authors invite readers to broaden their works view, enhance culturally relevant skills, understand older adults through a life-course perspective, and view aging from a multi-ethnic perspective. Specific chapters address psychological aging, issues in health and sexuality, caregiving, work and retirement, religion and spirituality, and death and grieving. For ease of use, each chapter includes orienting questions, a narrative that includes and introduction and summary, vignettes, structured orienting questions, a narrative that includes introduction and summary, vignettes, structured individual and group learning experiences,comprehension tests, quizzes, glossary, and an annotated bibliography of suggested readings. Aging and Diversity offers undergraduates and service providers tools that will enable them to understand diversity and its impact on the lives of older adults in the United States. Aging and Diversity will be invaluable to both students and practitioners in the fields of gerontology, psychology and sociology of aging, counseling, adult learning, social work, family studies, and multicultural studies. The book informs gerontologists and students about the interplay between diversity and aging, and will be useful as a text in gerontology, adult development, gerontological nursing, social work, family studies, and health education courses.

Author Biography

Chandra M. Mehrotra, PhD, is Professor of Psychology and Dean of Special Projects at The College of St. Scholastica, Duluth, Minnesota Lisa S. Wagner, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of San Francisco

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
About the Authorsp. xv
Introduction to the Second Editionp. xvii
Aging and Diversityp. 1
What Do We Mean by Diversity?p. 2
Why Should We Focus on Diversity and Aging?p. 3
What Elements of Diversity Will We Include in This Book?p. 5
What Do We Mean by Race or Ethnicity?p. 6
Ethnicityp. 7
Other Categorizationsp. 7
Interactional Nature of Elements of Diversity and Agingp. 7
Changing Nature of Groupsp. 9
Within-Group and Between-Group Differencesp. 9
Acculturationp. 10
Demographics of American Eldersp. 12
What Is the Race or Ethnicity of These Older Adults?p. 13
What Is the Gender Distribution Among Older Adults?p. 18
What Is the Socioeconomic Status of Older Adults?p. 18
What Proportion of Older People Live in Rural Settings?p. 19
How Many Elders Are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender?p. 21
A Note on Terminology for Diverse Groupsp. 22
Summaryp. 23
Glossaryp. 25
Suggested Readingsp. 25
Audiovisual Resourcesp. 27
Referencesp. 29
Research Methodsp. 33
Why Focus on Research Methods?p. 35
How Do We Understand People and Their Behavior?p. 35
What Disciplines Study Aging?p. 35
What Disciplines Study Issues of Diversity?p. 37
Are There Disciplines That Study Both Aging and Diversity?p. 38
A Brief History of Research on Aging and Diversityp. 38
Overview of the Research Processp. 40
How Diversity Can Affect the Research Processp. 41
Identifying the Research Question or Problemp. 42
Theory and Conceptual Modelsp. 45
Conducting the Researchp. 46
How to Improve Research with Elders from Diverse Groupsp. 57
Issues of Trustp. 57
Bright Lights for Aging and Diversity Researchp. 62
Community-Based Participatory Researchp. 62
Resource Centers for Minority Aging Researchp. 64
Chapter Summaryp. 65
Glossaryp. 67
Suggested Readingsp. 69
Audiovisual Resourcesp. 71
Referencesp. 74
Psychology and Agingp. 77
Aging, Sensation, Perception, and Cognitionp. 78
Sensory and Perceptual Changesp. 79
Sensory Changes and Diversityp. 82
Cognitive Changesp. 84
Culture and Cognitionp. 90
Culture, Aging, and Cognitionp. 92
Attitudes Toward Aging and Older Peoplep. 93
Defining Termsp. 93
Attitudes About the Aging Process Across Culturesp. 93
Older People: Attitudes Toward Elders Across Culturesp. 102
Discrimination and Ageismp. 111
Summaryp. 111
Glossaryp. 113
Suggested Readingsp. 114
Audiovisual Resourcesp. 115
Referencesp. 118
Health Beliefs, Behaviors, and Servicesp. 123
Health Beliefs and Behaviorsp. 124
What Is Health?p. 124
How Do Behaviors Influence Health?p. 131
How Do Elements of Diversity Affect These Health-Related Behaviors?p. 134
Health Care Services and Diverse Eldersp. 141
Health Insurancep. 142
Service Providersp. 148
Summaryp. 152
Glossaryp. 154
Suggested Readingsp. 155
Audiovisual Resourcesp. 157
Referencesp. 158
Inequalities in Healthp. 161
Illness and Agingp. 163
Common Conditions That Affect Older Adults in Generalp. 163
Mental Illness and Agingp. 166
Health Inequalitiesp. 168
Mental Health Inequalitiesp. 185
Mortality and Diversityp. 189
Race/Ethnicity and Mortalityp. 191
Mortality and Socioeconomic Statusp. 192
Gender and Mortalityp. 192
Chapter Summaryp. 192
Glossaryp. 194
Suggested Readingsp. 195
Audiovisual Resourcesp. 198
Referencesp. 200
Informal and Formal Care for Older Personsp. 205
Living Arrangementsp. 206
Informal Carep. 209
Gender of Caregiversp. 211
Informal Caregiving Among Blacksp. 214
Informal Caregiving Among Hispanicsp. 216
Informal Caregiving Among Asian/Pacific Islandersp. 218
Informal Caregiving Among Native Americansp. 219
Informal Caregiving Among Elders Who Are Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexualp. 221
Formal Carep. 222
Adult Day Carep. 224
Assisted Living Facilitiesp. 225
Nursing Homesp. 226
Barriers Hindering the Use of Formal Carep. 228
Programs and Servicesp. 231
Culturally Sensitive Carep. 231
Interventions for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Healthp. 233
Technology to Help Older Persons and Their Family Caregiversp. 235
Summaryp. 240
Glossaryp. 242
Suggested Readingsp. 242
Audiovisual Resourcesp. 244
Referencesp. 247
Work, Retirement, and Leisurep. 253
Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Older Workforcep. 256
Increase in Labor Force Participationp. 256
Gender Differencesp. 259
Ethnicity and Labor Force Participationp. 261
Barriers to Employmentp. 273
Age Discriminationp. 273
Discrimination Against Individuals with Disabilitiesp. 276
Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientationp. 278
Negative Stereotypesp. 279
Individual and Job Obsolescencep. 280
Creating New Opportunities for Workp. 281
Retirementp. 283
Diversity and Retirementp. 283
Variations of Retirementp. 285
Need for Retirement Planningp. 287
Retirement Planning Programsp. 288
Adjustment to Retirementp. 292
Leisure Pursuitsp. 295
Senior Centersp. 296
Volunteeringp. 297
Religious Participationp. 298
Lifelong Learningp. 298
Summaryp. 300
Glossaryp. 303
Suggested Readingsp. 304
Audiovisual Resourcesp. 306
Referencesp. 311
Religious Affiliation and Spiritualityp. 317
Defining Spirituality and Religionp. 318
Conceptualization and Measurement of Religiousness and Spiritualityp. 319
Quantitative Methodsp. 319
Qualitative Methodsp. 321
Religious Participation Among African Americansp. 323
Organizational Religious Participationp. 324
Nonorganizational Religious Involvementp. 325
Impact of Religion on Mental Health and Well-Beingp. 327
Impact of Religion on Physical Healthp. 327
Religious Participation Among Hispanicsp. 330
Organizational Religious Practicesp. 330
Nonorganizational Religious Practicesp. 331
Faithp. 331
Impact of Religiousness on Health and Well-Beingp. 331
Religious Participation Among Native Americansp. 332
Religious Traditions Among Asian Americansp. 335
Islamic or Muslim Traditionp. 336
Hindu Traditionp. 339
Buddhist Traditionp. 343
Summaryp. 347
Glossaryp. 349
Suggested Readingsp. 350
Referencesp. 353
Death, Dying, and Bereavementp. 357
U.S. "Mainstream" Approach to Life and Deathp. 359
What Do We Mean by Mainstream Group?p. 359
Beliefs About Life and Deathp. 359
End-of-Life Practicesp. 362
Bereavement and Copingp. 370
Approaches to Life and Death from Diverse Cultural Groups in the United Statesp. 373
African Americansp. 374
Hispanic Americansp. 378
American Indians and Alaska Nativesp. 381
Asian Americansp. 383
Summaryp. 397
Glossaryp. 399
Suggested Readingsp. 400
Audiovisual Resourcesp. 402
Referencesp. 404
Epiloguep. 407
Bringing It All Togetherp. 407
Note to Instructorsp. 409
Indexp. 411
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