American Journey, The: Volume I

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Written in a clear, engaging style with a straightforward chronological organization,The American Journey introduces readers to the key features of American political, social, and economic history. This new edition focuses more closely on the theme of the American journey, showing that our attempt to live up to and with our ideals is an ongoing process that has become ever more inclusive of different groups and ideas. Covering the 1600s to the Civil War, prominent coverage is given to the West and the South, and the book highlights the importance of religion in American history. Hundreds of maps, graphs, and illustrations help readers absorb history and bring it to life. For those interested in a comprehensive study of U.S. history to the Civil War given in a flowing, lively narrative.

Table of Contents

American Viewsp. xi
From Then to Nowp. xi
Mapsp. xii
Figures and Tablesp. xiii
Overview Tablesp. xiv
U.S. History Documents CD-ROMp. xv
Prefacep. xviii
About the Authorsp. xxiv
Student Tool Kitp. xxv
Worlds Apart
Voices from the American Journey: Moctezumap. 1
Native American Societies before 1492p. 2
Paleo-Indians and the Archaic Periodp. 3
The Development of Agriculturep. 4
Nonfarming Societiesp. 5
Mesoamerican Civilizationsp. 5
North American Culturesp. 7
The Caribbean Islandersp. 9
West African Societiesp. 9
Geographical and Political Differencesp. 11
Family Structure and Religionp. 12
European Merchants in West Africa and the Slave Tradep. 12
Western Europe on the Eve of Explorationp. 13
The Consolidation of Political and Military Authorityp. 13
Religious Conflict and the Protestant Reformationp. 13
Contactp. 16
The Lure of Discoveryp. 16
Christopher Columbus and the Westward Route to Asiap. 17
The Spanish Conquest and Colonizationp. 19
The Columbian Exchangep. 25
Cultural Perceptions and Misperceptionsp. 26
Competition for a Continentp. 27
Early French Efforts in North Americap. 27
English Attempts in the New Worldp. 28
Conclusionp. 31
Review Questionsp. 32
Key Termsp. 32
Recommended Readingp. 32
Additional Sourcesp. 32
Where to Learn Morep. 33
Transplantation 1600-1685
Voices from the American Journey: Thomas Dudleyp. 35
The French in North Americap. 37
The Quest for Furs and Convertsp. 37
The Development of New Francep. 38
The Dutch Overseas Empirep. 39
The Dutch East India Companyp. 40
The West India Company and New Netherlandp. 40
English Settlement in the Chesapeakep. 42
The Ordeal of Early Virginiap. 42
The Importance of Tobaccop. 44
Maryland: A Refuge for Catholicsp. 46
Life in the Chesapeake Coloniesp. 47
The Founding of New Englandp. 48
The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colonyp. 48
Massachusetts Bay Colony and Its Offshootsp. 49
Families, Farms, and Communities in Early New Englandp. 52
Competition in the Caribbeanp. 55
Sugar and Slavesp. 55
A Biracial Societyp. 57
The Proprietary Coloniesp. 57
Early Carolina: Colonial Aristocracy and Slave Laborp. 57
Pennsylvania: The Dream of Toleration and Peacep. 60
New Netherland Becomes New Yorkp. 62
Conclusionp. 62
Review Questionsp. 63
Key Termsp. 63
Recommended Readingp. 63
Additional Sourcesp. 64
Where to Learn Morep. 64
The Creation of New Worlds
Voices from the American Journey: Olaudah Equianop. 67
Indians and Europeansp. 68
Indian Workers in the Spanish Borderlandsp. 69
The Web of Tradep. 70
Displacing Native Americans in the English Coloniesp. 72
Bringing Christianity to Native Peoplesp. 73
After the First Hundred Years: Conflict and Warp. 76
Africans and Europeansp. 80
Labor Needs and the Turn to Slaveryp. 80
The Shock of Enslavementp. 81
African Slaves in the New Worldp. 82
African American Families and Communitiesp. 88
Resistance and Rebellionp. 89
European Laborers in Early Americap. 91
A Spectrum of Controlp. 91
New European Immigrantsp. 93
Conclusionp. 95
Review Questionsp. 96
Key Termsp. 96
Recommended Readingp. 96
Additional Sourcesp. 96
Where to Learn Morep. 97
Convergence and Conflict 1660s-1763
Voices from the American Journey: George Washingtonp. 99
Economic Development and Imperial Trade in the British Coloniesp. 101
The Regulation of Tradep. 101
The Colonial Export Trade and the Spirit of Enterprisep. 103
The Import Trade and Ties of Creditp. 106
Becoming More Like England: The Growth of Cities and Inequalityp. 107
The Transformation of Culturep. 109
Goods and Housesp. 110
Shaping Minds and Mannersp. 111
Colonial Religion and the Great Awakeningp. 113
The Colonial Political Worldp. 116
The Dominion of New England and the Limits of British Controlp. 116
The Legacy of the Glorious Revolutionp. 118
Diverging Politics in the Colonies and Great Britainp. 119
Expanding Empiresp. 121
British Colonists in the Backcountryp. 121
The Spanish in Texas and Californiap. 123
The French along the Mississippi and in Louisianap. 125
A Century of Warfarep. 125
Imperial Conflict and the Establishment of an American Balance of Power, 1689-1738p. 126
King George's War Shifts the Balance, 1739-1754p. 127
The French and Indian War, 1754-1760: A Decisive Victoryp. 129
The Triumph of the British Empire, 1763p. 132
Conclusionp. 133
Review Questionsp. 133
Key Termsp. 133
Recommended Readingp. 133
Additional Sourcesp. 134
Where to Learn Morep. 134
Imperial Breakdown 1763-1774
Voices from the American Journey: Eliza Farmarp. 137
Imperial Reorganizationp. 139
British Problemsp. 139
Dealing with the New Territoriesp. 141
Indian Affairsp. 142
Curbing the Assembliesp. 144
The Sugar and Stamp Actsp. 144
American Reactionsp. 145
Constitutional Issuesp. 145
Taxation and the Political Culturep. 146
Protesting the Taxesp. 147
The Aftermath of the Stamp Act Crisisp. 149
A Strained Relationshipp. 149
Regulator Movementsp. 150
The Townshend Crisisp. 150
Townshend's Planp. 150
American Boycottp. 151
The Boston Massacrep. 152
The "Quiet Period"p. 152
The Boston Tea Partyp. 153
The Intolerable Actsp. 154
The Road to Revolutionp. 154
American Response to the Intolerable Actsp. 154
The First Continental Congressp. 155
The Continental Associationp. 157
Political Divisionsp. 157
Conclusionp. 160
Review Questionsp. 161
Key Termsp. 161
Recommended Readingp. 161
Additional Sourcesp. 162
Where to Learn Morep. 163
The War for Independence 1774-1783
Voices from the American Journey: John Laurensp. 165
The Outbreak of War and The Declaration of Independence, 1774-1776p. 167
Mounting Tensionsp. 167
The Loyalists' Dilemmap. 167
British Coercion and Conciliationp. 168
The Battles of Lexington and Concordp. 168
The Second Continental Congress, 1775-1776p. 170
Commander in Chief George Washingtonp. 170
Early Fighting: Massachusetts, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Canadap. 171
Independencep. 172
Republicanismp. 174
The Combatantsp. 175
Professional Soldiersp. 175
Women in the Contending Armiesp. 180
African American Participation in the Warp. 180
Native Americans and the Warp. 181
The War in the North, 1776-1777p. 181
The British Army Hesitates: Battles in New York and New Jerseyp. 181
The Year of the Hangman: Victory at Saratoga and Winter at Valley Forgep. 183
The War Widens, 1778-1781p. 184
The United States Gains an Allyp. 184
Fighting on the Frontier and at Seap. 185
The Land War Moves Southp. 186
American Counterattacksp. 188
The American Victory, 1782-1783p. 190
The Peace of Parisp. 190
The Components of Successp. 192
War and Society, 1775-1783p. 193
The Women's Warp. 193
Effect of the War on African Americansp. 193
The War's Impact on Native Americansp. 193
Economic Disruptionp. 193
The Price of Victoryp. 196
Conclusionp. 196
Review Questionsp. 197
Key Termsp. 197
Recommended Readingp. 197
Additional Sourcesp. 198
Where to Learn Morep. 199
The First Republic 1776-1789
Voices from the American Journey: William Shepardp. 201
The New Order of Republicanismp. 203
Defining the Peoplep. 203
The State Constitutionsp. 207
The Articles of Confederationp. 210
Problems at Homep. 210
The Fiscal Crisisp. 211
Economic Depressionp. 212
The Economic Policies of the Statesp. 214
Congress and the Westp. 216
Diplomatic Weaknessesp. 218
Impasse with Britainp. 218
Spain and the Mississippi Riverp. 219
Toward a New Unionp. 221
The Road to Philadelphiap. 221
The Convention at Workp. 222
Overview of the Constitutionp. 224
The Struggle over Ratificationp. 225
Conclusionp. 228
Review Questionsp. 229
Key Termsp. 229
Recommended Readingp. 230
Additional Sourcesp. 230
Where to Learn Morep. 230
A New Republic and the Rise of Parties 1789-1800
Voices from the American Journey: William Maclayp. 233
Washington's Americap. 235
The Uniformity of New Englandp. 235
The Pluralism of the Mid-Atlantic Regionp. 237
The Slave South and Its Backcountryp. 239
The Growing Westp. 240
Forging a New Governmentp. 240
"Mr. President" and the Bill of Rightsp. 241
Departments and Courtsp. 241
Revenue and Tradep. 242
Hamilton and the Public Creditp. 242
Reaction and Oppositionp. 244
The Emergence of Partiesp. 245
The French Revolutionp. 245
Securing the Frontierp. 247
The Whiskey Rebellionp. 247
Treaties with Britain and Spainp. 250
The First Partisan Electionp. 251
The Last Federalist Administrationp. 252
The French Crisis and the XYZ Affairp. 252
Crisis at Homep. 253
The End of the Federalistsp. 254
Conclusionp. 257
Review Questionsp. 258
Key Termsp. 258
Recommended Readingp. 258
Additional Sourcesp. 259
Where to Learn Morep. 259
The Triumph and Collapse of Jeffersonian Republicanism 1800-1824
Voices from the American Journey: Rosalie Calvertp. 261
Jefferson's Presidencyp. 263
Reform at Homep. 263
The Louisiana Purchasep. 266
Florida and Western Schemesp. 269
Embargo and a Crippled Presidencyp. 268
Madison and the Coming of Warp. 270
The Failure of Economic Sanctionsp. 271
The Frontier and Indian Resistancep. 271
Decision for Warp. 272
The War of 1812p. 273
Setbacks in Canadap. 273
Western Victories and British Offensivesp. 276
The Treaty of Ghent and the Battle of New Orleansp. 278
The Era of Good Feelingsp. 280
Economic Nationalismp. 280
Judicial Nationalismp. 281
Toward a Continental Empirep. 282
The Breakdown of Unityp. 283
The Panic of 1819p. 283
The Missouri Compromisep. 284
The Election of 1824p. 287
Conclusionp. 288
Key Termsp. 289
Review Questionsp. 289
Recommended Readingp. 289
Additional Sourcesp. 290
Where to Learn Morep. 290
The Jacksonian Era 1824-1845
Voices From the American Journey: Benjamin B. Frenchp. 293
The Egalitarian Impulsep. 295
The Extension of White Male Democracyp. 295
The Popular Religious Revoltp. 297
The Rise of the Jacksoniansp. 299
Jackson's Presidencyp. 301
Jackson's Appealp. 302
Indian Removalp. 303
The Nullification Crisisp. 305
The Bank Warp. 308
Van Buren and Hard Timesp. 309
The Panic of 1837p. 309
The Independent Treasuryp. 311
Uproar over Slaveryp. 312
The Rise of the Whig Partyp. 312
The Party Taking Shapep. 313
Whig Persuasionp. 314
The Election of 1840p. 315
The Whigs in Powerp. 316
Harrison and Tylerp. 316
The Texas Issuep. 317
The Election of 1844p. 318
Conclusionp. 318
Review Questionsp. 319
Key Termsp. 319
Recommended Readingp. 319
Additional Sourcesp. 320
Where to Learn Morep. 320
Slavery and the Old South 1800-1860
Voices From the American Journey: Hannah Craftsp. 323
The Lower Southp. 325
Cotton and Slavesp. 325
The Profits of Slaveryp. 326
The Upper Southp. 328
A Period of Economic Adjustmentp. 329
The Decline of Slaveryp. 331
Slave Life and Culturep. 332
Work Routines and Living Conditionsp. 332
Families and Religionp. 334
Resistancep. 336
Free Societyp. 337
The Slaveholding Minorityp. 338
The White Majorityp. 341
Free Black Peoplep. 342
The Proslavery Argumentp. 344
Conclusionp. 347
Review Questionsp. 348
Key Termsp. 348
Recommended Readingp. 348
Additional Sourcesp. 348
Where to Learn Morep. 349
The Market Revolution and Social Reform 1815-1850
Voices from the American Journey: Angelina Grimkep. 351
Industrial Change and Urbanizationp. 353
The Transportation Revolutionp. 353
Cities and Immigrantsp. 357
The Industrial Revolutionp. 361
Growing Inequality and New Classesp. 364
Reform and Moral Orderp. 367
The Benevolent Empirep. 368
The Temperance Movementp. 369
Women's Role in Reformp. 370
Backlash against Benevolencep. 371
Institutions and Social Improvementp. 371
School Reformp. 372
Prisons, Workhouses, and Asylumsp. 373
Utopian Alternativesp. 375
Abolitionism and Women's Rightsp. 378
Rejecting Colonizationp. 378
Abolitionismp. 379
The Women's Rights Movementp. 381
Political Antislaveryp. 382
Conclusionp. 383
Review Questionsp. 385
Key Termsp. 385
Recommended Readingp. 385
Additional Sourcesp. 386
Where to Learn Morep. 387
The Way West
Voices From the American Journey: George Catlinp. 389
The Agricultural Frontierp. 391
The Crowded Eastp. 391
The Old Northwestp. 393
The Old Southwestp. 395
The Frontier of the Plains Indiansp. 397
Tribal Landsp. 397
The Fur Tradersp. 399
The Oregon Trailp. 400
The Mexican Borderlandsp. 403
The Peoples of the Southwestp. 403
The Americanization of Texasp. 405
The Push into California and the Southwestp. 406
Politics, Expansion, and Warp. 408
Manifest Destinyp. 408
The Mexican Warp. 410
Conclusionp. 413
Review Questionsp. 414
Key Termsp. 414
Recommended Readingp. 414
Additional Sourcesp. 414
Where to Learn Morep. 415
The Politics of Sectionalism 1846-1861
Voices from the American Journey: Harriet Beecher Stowep. 417
Slavery in the Territoriesp. 419
The Wilmot Provisop. 419
The Election of 1848p. 420
The Gold Rushp. 421
The Compromise of 1850p. 422
Response to the Fugitive Slave Actp. 423
Uncle Tom's Cabinp. 425
The Election of 1852p. 426
Political Realignmentp. 427
Young America's Foreign Misadventuresp. 427
Stephen Douglas's Railroad Proposalp. 428
The Kansas-Nebraska Actp. 428
"Bleeding Kansas"p. 429
Know-Nothings and Republicans: Religion and Politicsp. 430
The Election of 1856p. 432
The Dred Scott Casep. 432
The Lecompton Constitutionp. 433
The Lincoln-Douglas Debatesp. 434
The Road to Disunionp. 435
North-South Differencesp. 436
John Brown's Raidp. 438
The Election of 1860p. 440
Secession Beginsp. 442
Presidential Inactionp. 443
Peace Proposalsp. 443
Lincoln's Views on Secessionp. 444
Fort Sumter: The Tug Comesp. 444
Conclusionp. 448
Review Questionsp. 450
Key Termsp. 450
Recommended Readingp. 450
Additional Sourcesp. 450
Where to Learn Morep. 451
Battle Cries And Freedom Songs: The Civil War 1861-1865
Voices From the American Journey: Sullivan Balloup. 453
Mobilization, North and Southp. 455
War Feverp. 455
The North's Advantage in Resourcesp. 458
Leaders, Governments, and Strategiesp. 459
The Early War, 1861-1862p. 461
First Bull Runp. 462
The War in the Westp. 462
Reassessing the War: The Human Tollp. 463
The War in the Eastp. 465
Turning Points, 1862-1863p. 466
The Naval and the Diplomatic Warp. 466
Antietamp. 467
Emancipationp. 468
From Fredericksburg to Gettysburgp. 471
Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and the Westp. 474
The War Transforms the Northp. 477
Wartime Legislation and Politicsp. 477
The Northern Economyp. 479
Northern Women and the Warp. 480
The Confederacy Disintegratesp. 481
Southern Politicsp. 481
The Southern Economyp. 482
Southern Women and the Warp. 483
The Union Prevails, 1864-1865p. 483
Grant's Plan to End the Warp. 484
The Election of 1864 and Sherman's Marchp. 486
The Road to Appomattox and the Death of Lincolnp. 490
Conclusionp. 492
Review Questionsp. 493
Key Termsp. 493
Recommended Readingp. 494
Additional Sourcesp. 494
Where to Learn Morep. 495
Reconstruction 1865-1877
Voices From the American Journey: T. Thomas Fortunep. 497
White Southerners and the Ghosts of the Confederacy, 1865p. 499
More than Freedom: African American Aspirations in 1865p. 500
Educationp. 501
"Forty Acres and a Mule"p. 502
Migration to Citiesp. 504
Faith and Freedomp. 505
Federal Reconstruction, 1865-1870p. 506
Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867p. 507
Congressional Reconstruction, 1867-1870p. 512
Southern Republican Governmentsp. 513
Counter-Reconstruction, 1870-1874p. 516
The Uses of Violencep. 516
The Failure of Northern Willp. 517
Liberal Republicans and the Election of 1872p. 518
Redemption, 1874-1877p. 519
The Democrats' Violent Resurgencep. 519
The Weak Federal Responsep. 519
The Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877p. 520
The Memory of Reconstructionp. 520
The Failed Promise of Reconstructionp. 522
Sharecroppingp. 523
Modest Gains and Future Victoriesp. 523
Conclusionp. 525
Review Questionsp. 526
Key Termsp. 526
Recommended Readingp. 526
Additional Sourcesp. 526
Where to Learn Morep. 527
Appendixp. 1
Glossaryp. 1
Creditsp. 1
Indexp. 1
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


The path that led us toThe American Journeybegan in the classroom with our students. Our goal is to make American history accessible to students. The key to that goal--the core of the book--is a strong clear narrative. American history is a compelling story and we seek to tell it in an engaging, forthright way. But we also provide students with an abundance of tools to help them absorb that story and put it in context. We introduce them to the concerns of the participants in America's history with primary source documents. The voices of contemporaries open each chapter, describing their own personal journeys toward fulfilling their dreams, hopes, and ambitions as part of the broader American journey. These voices provide a personal window on our nation's history, and the themes they express resonate throughout the narrative. But if we wrote this book to appeal to our students, we also wrote it to engage their minds. We wanted to avoid academic trendiness, particularly the restricting categories that have divided the discipline of history over the last twenty years or so. We believe that the distinctions involved in the debates about multiculturalism and identity, between social and political history, between the history of the common people and the history of the elite, are unnecessarily confusing. What we seek is integration--to combine political and social history, to fit the experience of particular groups into the broader perspective of the American past, to give voice to minor and major players alike because of their role in the story we have to tell. APPROACH In telling our story, we had some definite ideas about what we might include and emphasize that other texts do not--information we felt that the current and next generations of students will need to know about our past to function best in a new society. CHRONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION.A strong chronological backbone supports the book. We have found that the jumping back and forth in time characteristic of some American history textbooks confuses students. They abhor dates but need to know the sequence of events in history. A chronological presentation is the best way to be sure they do. GEOGRAPHICAL LITERACY.We also want students to be geographically literate. We expect them not only to know what happened in American history, bur where it happened as well. Physical locations and spatial relationships were often important in shaping historical events. The abundant maps in The American Journey--all numbered and called out in the text--are an integral part of our story. REGIONAL BALANCE.The American Journeypresents balanced coverage of all regions of the country. In keeping with this balance, the South and the West receive more coverage in this text than in comparable books. POINT OF VIEW.The American Journeypresents a balanced overview of the American past. But "balanced" does not mean bland. We do not shy away from definite positions on controversial issues, such as the nature of early contacts between Native Americans and Europeans, why the political crisis of the 1850s ended in a bloody Civil War, and how Populism and its followers fit into the American political spectrum. If students and instructors disagree, that's great; discussion and dissent are important catalysts for understanding and learning. RELIGION.Nor do we shy away from some topics that play relatively minor roles in other texts, like religion. Historians are often uncomfortable writing about religion and tend to slight its influence. This text stresses the importance of religion in American society both as a source of strength and a reflection of some its more troubling aspects. Historians mostly write for each other. That's too bad. We need to reach out and expand our audience. An American history text is a good place to start. Our studen

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