9781319177652

The American Promise, Combined Edition A History of the United States

by ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781319177652

  • ISBN10:

    1319177654

  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-09-18
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

The American Promise has long been a course favorite for its readability, clear chronology, and the voices of Americans that animate the book. Now with new co-authors, the eighth edition continues to deliver a strong narrative with political backbone and offers a new pedagogical design that reinforces that history is a discipline rooted in debate and inquiry. The American Promise has primary sources in each chapter, a full-color map and art program, and comprehensive supplement options, including LaunchPad and a free companion sourcebook.



Available for free when packaged with the print book, the popular digital assignment and assessment options for this text bring skill building and assessment to a more highly effective level. The greatest active learning options come in LaunchPad, which combines an accessible e-book with LearningCurve, an adaptive and automatically graded learning tool that—when assigned—helps ensure students read the book; the complete companion reader with comparative questions that help students build arguments from those sources; and many other study and assessment tools. For instructors who want the easiest and most affordable way to ensure students come to class prepared Achieve Read & Practice pairs LearningCurve, adaptive quizzing and our mobile, accessible Value Edition e-book, in one easy-to-use product.

Table of Contents

Please Note: The Combined Volume includes all chapters. Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-16 and Volume 2 includes Chapters 16-31.



Preface


Versions and Supplements


Maps, Figures, and Tables


Special Features



1. Ancient America, Before 1492


An American Story: An archaeological dig uncovers ancient North Americans traditions


Why do historians rely on the work of archaeologists?


When and how did humans migrate into North America?


African and Asian Origins


Paleo-Indian Hunters


When and why did Archaic hunter-gatherers inhabit ancient America?


Great Plains Bison Hunters


Great Basin Cultures


Pacific Coast Cultures


Eastern Woodland Cultures


How did agriculture influence ancient American cultures?


Southwestern Cultures


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "Artifacts of Daily Life in Chaco Canyon"


SPOTLIGHT: "Corn: An Ancient American Legacy"


Woodland Burial Mounds and Chiefdoms


What ancient American cultures inhabited North America in the 1490s?


Eastern and Great Plains Peoples


Southwestern and Western Peoples


Cultural Similarities


How did the Mexican empire amass power and riches?


Conclusion: How did ancient Americans shape their world and ours?


Chapter 1 Study Guide



2. Europeans Encounter the New World, 1492–1600


An American Story: Queen Isabella of Spain supports Columbus’s risky plan to sail west across the Atlantic


Why did Europeans launch explorations in the fifteenth century?


Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion


A Century of Portuguese Exploration


What did Spaniards discover in the western Atlantic?


The Explorations of Columbus


The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange


How did Spaniards conquer and colonize New Spain?


The Conquest of Mexico


SPOTLIGHT: "Why Did Cortés Win?"


The Search for Other Mexicos


Spanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico


New Spain in the Sixteenth Century


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "Justifying Conquest"


The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization


How did New Spain influence Europe?


The Protestant Reformation and the Spanish Response


Europe and The Spanish Example


Conclusion: What did the New World Promise Europeans?


Chapter 2 Study Guide



3. The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601–1700


An American Story: A young woman from England travels to America as a servant


How did settlers encounters with Native Americans and the Chesapeake environment shape the colony of Virginia?


The Fragile Jamestown Settlement


Cooperation and Conflict between Natives and Newcomers


From Private Company to Royal Government


How did tobacco influence Chesapeake society?


Tobacco Agriculture


A Servant Labor System


The Rigors of Servitude


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "ENSLAVEMENT BY MARRIAGE"


Cultivating Land and Faith


Why did Chesapeake society change by the 1670s?


Social and Economic Polarization


Government Policies and Political Conflict


Bacon’s Rebellion


SPOTLIGHT: "Why Did English Colonists Consider Themselves Superior to Indians and Africans?"


Why did a slave labor system develop in England’s southern colonies?


Indians Revolt in New Mexico and Florida


Religion and Revolt in the Spanish Borderland


The West Indies: Sugar and Slavery


Carolina: A West Indian Frontier


Slave Labor Emerges in the Chesapeake


Conclusion: How did export crops contribute to the growth of the southern colonies?


Chapter 3 Study Guide



4. The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601–1700


An American Story: Roger Williams is banished from Puritan Massachusetts


Why did Puritans emigrate to North America?


Puritan Origins: The English Reformation


The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony


The Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony


SPOTLIGHT: "How did Seventeenth-Century Colonists View Nature?"


How did New England society change during the seventeenth century?


Church, Covenant, and Conformity


Government by Puritans for Puritanism


The Splintering of Puritanism


Religious Controversies and Economic Changes


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "Hunting Witches in Salem, Massachusetts"


How did the Middle Colonies differ from New England and the southern colonies?


From New Netherland to New York


New Jersey and Pennsylvania


Toleration and Diversity in Pennsylvania


How did the English empire influence the colonies?


Royal Regulation of Colonial Trade


King Philip’s War and the Consolidation of Royal Authority


Conclusion: Was there an English model of colonization in North America?


Chapter 4 Study Guide



5. Colonial America in the Eighteenth Century, 1701–1770


An American Story: The Robin Johns’ horrific turns of fortune in the Atlantic slave trade


How did the British North American colonies change during the eighteenth century?


What changed in New England life and culture?


Natural Increase and Land Distribution


Farms, Fish, and Atlantic Trade


Why did the Middle Colonies grow rapidly?


German and Scots-Irish Immigrants


"God Gives All Things to Industry": Urban and Rural Labor


Why did slavery come to define the Southern Colonies?


The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Growth of Slavery


Spotlight: "Why Did Few Colonists Oppose the African Slave Trade?"


Slave Labor and African American Culture


Tobacco, Rice, and Prosperity


What unified colonists in British North America during the eighteenth century?


Commerce and Consumption


Religion, Enlightenment, and Revival


Trade and Conflict in the North American Borderlands


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "Spanish Priests Report on California Missions"


Colonial Politics in the British Empire


Conclusion: Why did British North American colonists develop a dual identity?


Chapter 5 Study Guide



6. The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis, 1754-1775


An American Story: Loyalist governor Thomas Hutchinson stands his ground


How did the Seven Years’ War lay the groundwork for colonial crisis?


French-British Rivalry in the Ohio Country


The Albany Congress


The War and Its Consequences


Pontiac’s Rebellion War and the Proclamation of 1763


How did imperial authorities and British colonists differ in their views about the legitimacy of taxing the colonies?


Grenville’s Sugar Act


The Stamp Act


Resistance: From Colonial Assemblies to Crowd Politics


SPOTLIGHT: "How Did a Shoemaker Experience and Influence the Revolution?"


Liberty and Property


Why did the colonial crisis worsen after the repeal of the Stamp Act?


The Townshend Duties


Nonconsumption and the Daughters of Liberty


Military Occupation and "Massacre" in Boston


How did British policy and colonial response interact after the repeal of the Townshend Duties to lead to open rebellion?


The Calm before the Storm


Tea in Boston Harbor


The Coercive Acts


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "Reactions to the Boston Port Act outside of Massachusetts"


Beyond Boston: Rural New England


The First Continental Congress


How did enslaved people in the colonies react to the stirrings of revolution?


Lexington and Concord


Rebelling against Slavery


Conclusion: What changes did the American colonists want in 1775?


Chapter 6 Study Guide




7. The War for America, 1775-1783


An American Story: Deborah Sampson masquerades as a man to join the Continental army


What eventually persuaded British North American colonists to support independence?


Assuming Political and Military Authority


Pursuing Both War and Peace


Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and the Case for Independence


The Declaration of Independence


How did the military objectives of each side shape the course of the war’s early years?


The American Military Forces


The British Strategy


Quebec, New York, and New Jersey


How did the war transform the home front?


Patriotism at the Local Level


The Loyalists


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "Families Divide over the Revolution"


Who Is a Traitor?


Financial Instability and Corruption


From Rebellion to Revolution


How did the American Revolution expand to become a war among continental and global powers?


Burgoyne’s Army and the Battle of Saratoga


The War in the West: Indian Country


The French Alliance


What were the principal causes of the British defeat?


Georgia and South Carolina


Treason and Guerrilla Warfare


Surrender at Yorktown


The Losers and the Winners


SPOTLIGHT: "Did France and Spain Accomplish their Objectives in the American Revolution?"


Conclusion: Why did the British lose the American Revolution?


Chapter 7 Study Guide




8. Building a Republic, 1775-1789


An American Story: James Madison comes of age in the midst of revolution


What kind of government did the Articles of Confederation create?


Confederation and Taxation


The Problem of Western Lands


Running the New Government


How was republican government implemented?


The State Constitutions


Who Are "the People"?


Equality and Slavery


SPOTLIGHT: "A Slave Sues for Her Freedom"


Why did the Articles of Confederation fail?


The War Debt and the Newburgh Conspiracy


The Treaty of Fort Stanwix


The Northwest Territory


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "The Northwest Ordinance’s Slavery Clause"


The Requisition of 1785 and Shays’s Rebellion, 1786–1787


How did the Constitution change the nation’s form of government?


From Annapolis to Philadelphia


The Virginia and New Jersey Plans


Checks and Balances


Why did so many Americans object to the Constitution?


The Federalists


The Antifederalists


The Federalist Persuasion


Conclusion: What was the "republican remedy"?


Chapter 8 Study Guide




9. The New Nation Takes Form, 1789–1800


An American Story: Alexander Hamilton becomes a polarizing figure in the 1790s


What were the sources of political stability in the 1790s?


Washington Inaugurates the Government


The Bill of Rights


The Republican Wife and Mother


SPOTLIGHT: "France, Britain, and Woman’s Rights in the 1790s"


Why did Hamilton’s economic policies provoke such controversy?


Agriculture, Transportation, and Banking


The Public Debt and Taxes


The First Bank of the United States and the Report on Manufactures


What threats did the United States face in the West?


Western Discontent and the Whiskey Rebellion


Creeks in the Southwest


Ohio Indians in the Northwest


What threats did the United States face in the Atlantic World?


France and Britain: Toward Neutrality


The Jay Treaty


The Haitian Revolution


How did partisan rivalries shape the politics of the late 1790s?


Federalists and Republicans


The XYZ Affair


The Alien and Sedition Acts


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "The Crisis of 1798: Sedition"


Conclusion: Why did the United States form political parties in a decade when it achieved political stability?


Chapter 9 Study Guide




10. Republicans in Power, 1800-1828


An American Story: Tecumseh attempts to forge a pan-Indian confederacy


What was the Revolution of 1800?


Turbulent Times: Election and Rebellion


SPOTLIGHT: "How Could a Vice President Get Away with Murder?"


The Jeffersonian Vision of Republican Government


Dangers Overseas: The Barbary Wars


How did the Louisiana Purchase affect the United States?


The Louisiana Purchase


The Lewis and Clark Expedition


Osage and Comanche Indians


What led to the War of 1812?


Impressment and Embargo


Tecumseh and Tippecanoe


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "The Nation’s First Formal Declaration of War"


Washington City Burns: The British Offensive


How did the civil status of free American women and men differ in the early Republic?


Dolley Madison and Social Politics


Women and the Law


Women and Church Governance


Female Education


Why did partisan conflict increase during the administrations of Monroe and Adams?


From Property to Democracy


The Missouri Compromise


The Monroe Doctrine


The Election of 1824


The Adams Administration


Conclusion: How did republican simplicity become complex?


Chapter 10 Study Guide




11. The Expanding Republic, 1815-1840


An American Story: The Grimké sisters speak out against slavery


What Economic Developments Reshaped the U.S. Economy after 1815?


Improvements in Transportation


Factories, Workingwomen, and Wage Labor


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "Mill Girls Stand Up to Factory owners, 1834"


Bankers and Lawyers


Booms and Busts


How did new practices of party politics shape Andrew Jackson’s election and agenda?


Popular Politics and Partisan Identity


The Election of 1828 and the Character Issue


Jackson’s Democratic Agenda


What was Andrew Jackson’s impact on the presidency?


Indian Policy and the Trail of Tears


The Tariff of Abominations and Nullification


The Bank War and Economic Boom


How did social and cultural life change in the 1830s?


Separate Spheres


The Second Great Awakening and Moral Reform


SPOTLIGHT: "Who Scorned Temperance and Moral Reform?"


Organizing against Slavery


What political and economic events dominated Martin Van Buren’s Presidency?


The Politics of Slavery


Elections and Panics


Conclusion: The Age of Jackson or the era of reform?


Chapter 11 Study Guide




12. The North and West, 1840-1860


An American Story: Abraham Lincoln struggles to survive in antebellum America


Why did "industrial evolution" occur?


Agriculture and Land Policy


Manufacturing and Mechanization


Railroads: Breaking the Bonds of Nature


How did the free-labor ideal explain economic inequality?


The Free-Labor Ideal


Economic Inequality


SPOTLIGHT: How Did the American Economy Compare to the Rest of the World?"


Immigrants and the Free-Labor Ladder


What spurred westward expansion?


Manifest Destiny


Oregon and the Overland Trail


The Mormon Exodus


The Mexican Borderlands


Why did the United States go to war with Mexico?


The Politics of Expansion


The Mexican-American War, 1846–1848


Victory in Mexico


Golden California


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "The Gold Rush"


What changes did social reformers seek in the 1840s and 1850s?


The Pursuit of Perfection: Transcendentalists and Utopians


Woman’s Rights Activists


Abolitionists and the American Ideal


Conclusion: How did the free labor ideal contribute to economic growth and territorial expansion of the North and West?


Chapter 12 Study Guide




13. The Slave South, 1820-1860


An American Story: Slave Nat Turner leads a revolt to end slavery


Why did the South become so different from the North?


Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire


The South in Black and White


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Defending Slavery


The Plantation Economy


SPOTLIGHT: Cotton’s Global Empire


What was plantation life like for slave masters and mistresses?


Paternalism and Male Honor


The Southern Lady and Feminine Virtues


What was plantation life like for slaves?


Work


Family and Religion


Resistance and Rebellion


How did nonslaveholding southern whites work and live?


Plantation-Belt Yeomen


Upcountry Yeomen


Poor Whites


The Culture of the Plain Folk


What place did free blacks occupy in the South?


Precarious Freedom


Achievement despite Restrictions


How did slavery shape southern politics?


The Democratization of the Political Arena


Planter Power


Conclusion: How did slavery come to define the South?


Chapter 13 Study Guide




14. The House Divided, 1846-1861


An American Story: Abolitionist John Brown takes his war against slavery to Harpers Ferry


Why did the acquisition of land from Mexico contribute to sectional tensions?


The Wilmot Proviso and the Expansion of Slavery


The Election of 1848


Debate and Compromise


What upset the balance between slave and free states?


The Fugitive Slave Act


Uncle Tom’s Cabin


The Kansas-Nebraska Act


How did the party system change in the 1850s?


The Old Parties: Whigs and Democrats


The New Parties: Know-Nothings and Republicans


SPOTLIGHT: "A Purse of Her Own": Petitioning for the Rights to Own Property


The Election of 1856


Why did northern fear of the "Slave Power" intensify in the 1850s?


"Bleeding Kansas"


The Dred Scott Decision


Prairie Republican: Abraham Lincoln


The Lincoln-Douglas Debates


Why did some southern states secede immediately after Lincoln’s election?


The Aftermath of John Brown’s Raid


Republican Victory in 1860


Secession Winter


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Southerners Debate Secession


Conclusion: Why did political compromise fail?


Chapter 14 Study Guide




15. The Crucible of War, 1861-1865


An American Story: Robert Smalls liberates slaves and fights for freedom


Why did both the Union and the Confederacy consider control of the border states crucial?


Attack on Fort Sumter


The Upper South Chooses Sides


Why did each side expect to win?


How They Expected to Win


Lincoln and Davis Mobilize


How did each side fare in the early years of the war?


Stalemate in the Eastern Theater


Union Victories in the Western Theater


The Atlantic Theater


International Diplomacy


How did the war for union become a fight for black freedom?


From Slaves to Contraband


From Contraband to Free People


The War of Black Liberation


SPOTLIGHT: The Right to Fight: Black Soldiers in the Civil War


What problems did the Confederacy face at home?


Revolution from Above


Hardship Below


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Home and Country


The Disintegration of Slavery


How did the war affect the economy and politics of the North?


The Government and the Economy


Women and Work at Home and at War


Politics and Dissent


How did the Union finally win the war?


Vicksburg and Gettysburg


Grant Takes Command


The Confederacy Collapses


The War’s Bloody Toll


Conclusion: In what ways was the Civil War a "Second American Revolution"?


Chapter 15 Study Guide




16. Reconstruction, 1863-1877


An American Story: James T. Rapier emerges as Alabama’s most prominent black leader


Why did Congress object to Lincoln’s wartime plan for reconstruction?


"To Bind Up the Nation’s Wounds"


Land and Labor


The African American Quest for Autonomy


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: The Meaning of Freedom


How did the North respond to the passage of black codes in the southern states?


Johnson’s Program of Reconciliation


White Southern Resistance and Black Codes


Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights


How radical was congressional reconstruction?


The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating Violence


Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule


Impeaching a President


The Fifteenth Amendment and Women’s Demands


What brought the elements of the South’s Republican coalition together?


Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen


SPOTLIGHT: What Did the Ku Klux Klan Really Want?


Republican Rule


White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers


Why did Reconstruction collapse?


Grant’s Troubled Presidency


Northern Resolve Withers


White Supremacy Triumphs


An Election and a Compromise


Conclusion: Was Reconstruction "a revolution but half accomplished"?


Chapter 16 Study Guide




17. The Contested West, 1865-1900


An American Story: Frederick Jackson Turner delivers his "frontier thesis"


What did U.S. expansion mean for Native Americans?


Indian Removal and the Reservation System


The Decimation of the Great Bison Herds


The Santee Uprising and the Collapse of Comanchería


Red Cloud’s War and the Fight for the Black Hills


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: "Custer’s Last Stand"


In what ways did different Indian groups defy and resist colonial rule?


Indian Schools and the War on Indian Culture


The Dawes Act and Indian Land Allotment


Indian Resistance and Survival


How did mining shape American expansion?


Life on the Comstock Lode


SPOTLIGHT: Mining Technology and the Environment


The Diverse Peoples of the West


How did the fight for land and resources in the West unfold?


Moving West: Homesteaders and Speculators


Tenants, Sharecroppers, and Migrants


Commercial Farming and Industrial Cowboys


Territorial Government


Conclusion: How did the West set the tone for the Gilded Age?


Chapter 17 Study Guide




18. The Gilded Age, 1865-1900


An American Story: The Big Four build the transcontinental railroad


How did the railroads stimulate big business?


Railroads: America’s First Big Business


Andrew Carnegie, Steel, and Vertical Integration


John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, and the Trust


New Inventions: The Telephone and the Telegraph


SPOTLIGHT: Electrifying America: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the War of the Currents


Why did the ideas of social Darwinism appeal to many Americans in the late nineteenth century?


J. P. Morgan and Finance Capitalism


Social Darwinism, Laissez-Faire, and the Supreme Court


What factors influenced political life in the late nineteenth century?


Political Participation and Party Loyalty


Sectionalism and the New South


Gender, Race, and Politics


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Ida B. Wells and Her Campaign to Stop Lynching


Women’s Activism


What issues shaped party politics in the late nineteenth century?


Corruption and Party Strife


Garfield’s Assassination and Civil Service Reform


Reform and Scandal: The Campaign of 1884


Henry George and the Politics of Inequality


What role did economic issues play in party realignment?


The Tariff and the Politics of Protection


Railroads, Trusts, and the Federal Government


The Fight for Free Silver


Panic and Depression


Conclusion: Why did business dominate the Gilded Age?


Chapter 18 Study Guide




19. The City and Its Workers, 1870-1900


An American Story: Workers build the Brooklyn Bridge


Why did American cities experience explosive growth in the late nineteenth century?


The Urban Explosion: A Global Migration


SPOTLIGHT: Seeking Refuge: A Russian Jew Comes to America


Racism and the Cry for Immigration Restriction


The Social Geography of the City


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Seeing How the Other Half Lives: Jacob Riis, the Flash, and the Birth of Photojournalism


What kinds of work did people do in industrial America?


America’s Diverse Workers


The Family Economy: Women and Children


White-Collar Workers: Managers, "Typewriters," and Salesclerks


Why did the fortunes of the Knights of Labor rise in the late 1870s and decline in the 1890s?


The Great Railroad Strike of 1877


The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor


Haymarket and the Specter of Labor Radicalism


How did urban industrialism shape home life and the world of leisure?


Domesticity and "Domestics"


Cheap Amusements


How did municipal governments respond to the challenges of urban expansion?


Building Cities of Stone and Steel


City Government and the "Bosses"


New York and the Consolidation of the Capitalist Class


White City or City of Sin?


Conclusion: Who built the cities?


Chapter 19 Study Guide




20. Dissent, Depression, and War, 1890-1900


An American Story: Frances Willard helps create the Populist Party


Why did American farmers organize alliances in the late nineteenth century?


The Farmers’ Alliance


The Populist Movement


What led to the labor wars of the 1890s?


The Homestead Lockout


The Cripple Creek Miners’ Strike of 1894


Eugene V. Debs and the Pullman Strike


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: The Press and the Pullman Strike: Framing Class Conflict


How were women involved in late-nineteenth-century politics?


Frances Willard and the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union


Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and the Movement for Woman Suffrage


How did economic problems affect American politics in the 1890s?


Coxey’s Army


The People’s Party and the Election of 1896


Why did the United States largely abandon its isolationist foreign policy in the 1890s?


Markets and Missionaries


The Monroe Doctrine and the Open Door Policy


"A Splendid Little War"


SPOTLIGHT: Did Terrorists Sink the Maine?


The Debate over American Imperialism


Conclusion: What was the connection between domestic strife and foreign policy?


Chapter 20 Study Guide




21. Progressive Reform, 1890-1916


An American Story: Jane Addams founds Hull House


How did grassroots progressives attack the problems of industrial America?


Civilizing the City


Progressives and the Working Class


What were the key tenets of progressive theory?


Reform Darwinism and Social Engineering


Progressive Government: City and State


How did Theodore Roosevelt advance the progressive agenda?


The Square Deal


Roosevelt the Reformer


Roosevelt and Conservation


The Big Stick


The Troubled Presidency of William Howard Taft


How did progressivism evolve during Woodrow Wilson’s first term?


Progressive Insurgency and the Election of 1912


Wilson’s Reforms: Tariff, Banking, and the Trusts


Wilson, Reluctant Progressive


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Child Labor


What were the limits of progressive reform?


Radical Alternatives


Progressivism for White Men Only


SPOTLIGHT: Alice Hamilton Explores the Dangerous Trades


Conclusion: How did the Progressive Era give rise to the liberal state?


Chapter 21 Study Guide




22. World War I: The Progressive Crusade at Home and Abroad, 1914-1920


An American Story:George Browne sees combat on the front lines in France


What was Woodrow Wilson’s foreign policy agenda?


Taming the Americas


The European Crisis


The Ordeal of American Neutrality


The United States Enters the War


What role did the United States play in World War I?


The Call to Arms


The War in France


What impact did the war have on the home front?


The Progressive Stake in the War


Women, War, and the Battle for Suffrage


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: The Final Push for Woman Suffrage


Rally around the Flag—or Else


What part did Woodrow Wilson play at the Paris peace conference?


Wilson’s Fourteen Points


The Paris Peace Conference


The Fight for the Treaty


Why was America’s transition from war to peace so turbulent?


Economic Hardship and Labor Upheaval


The Red Scare


SPOTLIGHT: Bolshevism


The Great Migrations of African Americans and Mexicans


Postwar Politics and the Election of 1920


Conclusion: Victory, but at what cost?


Chapter 22 Study Guide




23. From New Era to Great Depression, 1920-1932


An American Story: Henry Ford puts America on wheels


How did big business shape the "New Era" of the 1920s?


A Business Government


Promoting Prosperity and Peace Abroad


Automobiles, Mass Production, and Assembly-Line Progress


Consumer Culture


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Advertising in a Consumer Age


In what ways did the Roaring Twenties challenge traditional values?


Prohibition


The New Woman


SPOTLIGHT: Was There a Sexual Revolution in the 1920s?


The New Negro


Entertaining the Masses


The Lost Generation


Why did the relationship between urban and rural America deteriorate in the 1920s?


Rejecting the Undesirables


The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan


The Scopes Trial


Al Smith and the Election of 1928


How did President Hoover respond to the economic crash of 1929?


Herbert Hoover: The Great Engineer


The Distorted Economy


The Crash of 1929


Hoover and the Limits of Individualism


What impact did the economic depression have on everyday life?


The Human Toll


Denial and Escape


Working-Class Militancy


Conclusion: Why did the hope of the 1920s turn to despair?


Chapter 23 Study Guide




24. The New Deal Experiment, 1932-1939


An American Story: Florence Owens struggles to survive in the Great Depression


Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president in 1932?


The Making of a Politician


The Election of 1932


What were the goals and achievements of the first New Deal?


The New Dealers


Banking and Finance Reform


Relief and Conservation Programs


Agricultural Initiatives


Industrial Recovery


SPOTLIGHT: How Did Textile Workers Try to Improve Their Wages and Working Conditions?


Who opposed the New Deal?


Resistance to Business Reform


Casualties in the Countryside


Politics on the Fringes


Why did the New Deal begin to create a welfare state?


Relief for the Unemployed


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Americans Encounter the New Deal


Empowering Labor


Social Security and Tax Reform


Neglected Americans and the New Deal


What did the New Deal lose support during Roosevelt’s second term as president?


The Election of 1936


Court Packing


Reaction and Recession


The Last of the New Deal Reforms


Conclusion: What were the achievements and limitations of the New Deal?


Chapter 24 Study Guide




25. The United States and the Second World War, 1939-1945


An American Story: Colonel Paul Tibbets drops the atomic bomb on Hiroshima


How did isolationism shape American foreign policy in the 1930s?


Roosevelt and Reluctant Isolation


The Good Neighbor Policy


The Price of Isolation


How did war in Europe and Asia influence U.S. foreign policy?


Nazi Aggression and War in Europe


From Neutrality to the Arsenal of Democracy


Japan Attacks America


How did the United States mobilize for war?


Home-Front Security


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Japanese Internment


Building a Citizen Army


Conversion to a War Economy


How did the Allies reverse Axis advances in Europe and the Pacific?


Turning the Tide in the Pacific


The Campaign in Europe


How did war change the American home front?


Women and Families, Guns and Butter


The Double V Campaign


Wartime Politics and the 1944 Election


Reaction to the Holocaust


How did the Allies win the war?


From Bombing Raids to Berlin


SPOTLIGHT: Why Did the Allies Win World War II?


The Defeat of Japan


Atomic Warfare


Conclusion: Why did the United States emerge as a superpower at the end of the war?


Chapter 25 Study Guide




26. The New World of the Cold War, 1945–1960


An American Story: Congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas becomes loyal Truman ally


How did the Cold War begin?


U.S.-Soviet Tensions Emerge


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: The Emerging Cold War


The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan


SPOTLIGHT: Why Did the United States Launch the European Recovery Program?


Building a National Security State


In what ways did anti-Communism drive policy at home and abroad?


Superpower Rivalry around the Globe


The Domestic Chill: McCarthyism


Why did the U.S. go to war in Korea?


Military Implementation of Containment


From Containment to Rollback to Containment


Korea’s Political Fallout


An Armistice and the War’s Costs


How did Truman’s and Eisenhower’s approaches to the superpower struggle differ?


The "New Look" in Foreign Policy


Applying Containment to Vietnam


Interventions in Latin America and the Middle East


The Nuclear Arms Race


Conclusion: What were the costs and consequences of the Cold War?


Chapter 26 Study Guide




27. Postwar Culture and Politics, 1945-1960


An American Story: Vice President Richard Nixon debates Russian premier Nikita Khrushchev


What were the prospects for domestic reform in the Truman years?


Reconverting to a Peacetime Economy


The Fair Deal Falters


Race and Rights in the 1940s


To what extent did Eisenhower dismantle the New Deal?


A Republican "Middle Way"


A Shifting Indian Policy


What fueled the prosperity of the 1950s?


Technology Transforms Agriculture and Industry


SPOTLIGHT: What Role Did the Government Play in the Prosperity of the Post–World War II Years?


Suburban Migrations


The Rise of the Sun Belt


The Democratization of Higher Education


How did economic growth affect American society, politics, and culture?


A Consumer Culture


The Revival of Domesticity and Religion


Television Transforms Culture and Politics


Countercurrents


What mobilized African Americans to fight for civil rights in the 1950s?


African Americans Challenge the Supreme Court and the President


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: The Brown Decision


Montgomery and Mass Protest


Conclusion: What unmet challenges did peace and prosperity mask?


Chapter 27 Study Guide




28. Rights, Rebellion, and Reaction, 1960-1974


An American Story: Pauli Murray breaks barriers to fight for civil rights


What were the achievements of JFK’s New Frontier and LBJ’s Great Society?


Kennedy and a New Frontier in the 1960s


Johnson and the War on Poverty


Liberalism at High Tide


Legacies of the Great Society


The Judicial Revolution


How did the black freedom movement evolve?


The Flowering of Civil Rights


The Response in Washington


SPOTLIGHT: What Difference Did the Voting Rights Act Make?


Black Power and Urban Rebellions


What other social movements emerged in the 1960s?


Native American Protest


Latino Struggles for Justice


Youth Rebellions, the New Left, and the Counterculture


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Student Protest


Gay Men and Lesbians Organize


Environmental Activists Mobilize


What were the goals of the new wave of feminism?


A Multifaceted Movement Emerges


Feminist Gains Spark a Countermovement


Why and where did the conservative movement gain ground?


A Grassroots Right


Nixon and the Election of 1968


Conclusion: What were the lasting effects of sixties-era reform?


Chapter 28 Study Guide




29. Confronting Limits, 1961-1979


An American Story: Lieutenant Frederick Downs Jr. returns home wounded to a divided country


What led to the United States’ deepening involvement in Vietnam?


Anti-Communism in the Kennedy Years


A Growing War in Southeast Asia


An All-Out Commitment in Vietnam


Those Who Served


How did a war abroad provoke a war at home?


The Antiwar Movement


The Tet Offensive and Steps Toward Peace


SPOTLIGHT: 1968: A Year of Global Unrest


The Tumultuous Election of 1968


How did U.S. foreign policy change under Nixon?


Détente with the Soviet Union and China


U.S. Interventions around the World


Nixon’s War in Vietnam


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Ending the War in Vietnam


Peace Accords


The Legacy of Defeat


What accounted for the growth of conservatism in the 1970s?


The End of the Boom


Nixon Courts the Right


The Election of 1972


The Watergate Scandal


The Ford Presidency and the 1976 Election


What challenges did the Carter Administration face?


A Retreat from Liberalism


Energy and Environmental Reform


Promoting Human Rights Abroad


New Foreign Crises


Conclusion: How did the constraints of the 1970s reshape U.S. policy and politics?


Chapter 29 Study Guide




30. Divisions At Home and Abroad in a Conservative Era, 1980-2000


An American Story: Phyllis Schlafly promotes conservatism


What conservative goals were realized during Reagan’s presidency?


Appealing to the New Right and Beyond


Unleashing Free Enterprise


Winners and Losers in a Flourishing Economy


What strategies did liberals use to fight the rightward turn?


Battles in the Courts and Congress


Feminism on the Defensive


SPOTLIGHT: Why Did the ERA Fail?


The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: Protecting Gay and Lesbian Rights


Why did the Cold War intensify and how did it end?


Militarization and Interventions Abroad


The Iran-Contra Scandal


Soviet-American Relations Transformed


A "New World Order"


War in Central America and the Persian Gulf


What led to increased political polarization in the 1990s?


Gridlock in Government


The 1992 Election


Clinton’s Reforms


Accommodating the Right


Impeaching the President


How did Clinton respond to the challenges of globalization?


The Booming Economy of the 1990s


Debates over Free Trade


Defining America’s Place in a New World Order


Conclusion: What were the legacies of the "Reagan Revolution"?


Chapter 30 Study Guide




31. America in a New Century, Since 2000


An American Story: Jose Antonio Vargas faces anti-immigrant sentiments in the U.S.


How did George W. Bush alter the focus of U.S. foreign and domestic policy?


The Disputed Election of 2000


The 9/11 Attacks


Security and Civil Liberties


Unilateralism and the "War on Terror"


Domestic Achievements—and Disasters


What were the strengths and weaknesses of the American economy?


Globalized Labor and Production


Immigration and its Discontents


The New Economy and the Old


What obstacles stood in the way of Obama’s reform agenda?


A Post-Racial America?


Governing with Resistance


Multilateralism in Foreign Policy


How did new social movements change politics?


Progressives Mobilize


Civil Rights and Black Lives


SPOTLIGHT: The Incarceration Crisis


Social Media and Activism


What was the significance of the 2016 election?


Platforms, Polls, and Protests


ANALYZING HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: New Media: Bad for Democracy?


Right-wing Populism on the Rise


A Retreat from U.S. Global Leadership


Conclusion: In a deeply polarized America, was there any common ground?


Chapter 31 Study Guide



APPENDICES



I. Documents


The Declaration of Independence


The Constitution of the United States


Amendments to the Constitution with Annotations (including the six unratified amendments)



II. Government and Demographics


Presidential Elections


Supreme Court Justices


Admission of States to the Union


Population Growth, 1630–2010


Major Trends in Immigration, 1820-2010



Selected Bibliography


Glossary


Index


About the Authors

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