9780878933150

Animal Physiology

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780878933150

  • ISBN10:

    0878933158

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-06-01
  • Publisher: Sinauer Associates Inc

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Table of Contents

PART I Fundamentals of Physiology
1(90)
Animals and Environments: Function on the Ecological Stage
3(26)
The Importance of Physiology
4(1)
Mechanism and Origin: Physiology's Two Central Questions
5(4)
The study of mechanism: How do modern-day animals carry out their functions?
5(1)
The study of origin: Why do modern-day animals possess the mechanisms they do?
6(1)
Natural selection is a key process of evolutionary origin
6(1)
Mechanism and adaptive significance are distinct concepts that do not imply each other
7(2)
This Book's Approach to Physiology
9(1)
Animals
9(7)
The structural property of an animal that persists through time is its organization
10(1)
Most cells of an animal are exposed to the internal environment, not the external environment
10(1)
The internal environment may be permitted to vary when the external environment changes, or it may be kept constant
11(1)
Homeostasis in the lives of animals: Internal constancy is often critical for proper function
11(1)
Negative Feedback
12(1)
Time in the lives of animals: Physiology changes in five time frames
13(2)
The Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity
15(1)
Size in the lives of animals: Body size is one of an animal's most important traits
16(1)
Environments
16(6)
Earth's major physical and chemical environments
16(5)
The environment an animal occupies is often a microenvironment or microclimate
21(1)
Animals often modify their own environments
22(1)
Evolutionary Processes
22(7)
Some processes of evolution are adaptive, others are not
23(1)
A trait is not an adaptation merely because it exists
24(1)
Adaptation is studied as an empirical science
24(2)
Evolutionary potential can be high or low, depending on available genetic variation
26(3)
Molecules and Cells in Animal Physiology
29(36)
Cell Membranes and Intracellular Membranes
30(7)
The lipids of membranes are structured, diverse, and fluid
31(1)
Proteins endow membranes with numerous functional capacities
32(2)
Carbohydrates play important roles in membranes
34(1)
Protein Structure and the Bond That Maintain It
35(2)
Epithelia
37(3)
Elements of Metabolism
40(1)
Enzyme Fundamentals
40(8)
Enzyme-catalyzed reactions exhibit hyperbolic or sigmoid kinetics
42(1)
Maximum reaction velocity is determined by the amount and catalytic effectiveness of an enzyme
43(1)
Enzyme--substrate affinity affects reaction velocity at the substrate concentrations that are usual in cells
44(1)
Enzymes have specific three-dimensional binding sites that often interact
44(2)
Enzymes catalyze reversible reactions in both directions
46(1)
Multiple molecular forms of enzymes occur at all levels of animal organization
46(2)
Regulation of Cell Function by Enzymes
48(5)
The types and amounts of enzymes present depend on gene expression and enzyme degradation
48(1)
Modulation of existing enzyme molecules permits fast regulation of cell function
49(1)
Gene-Expression Studies Using DNA Microarrays
50(3)
Evolution of Enzymes
53(2)
Enzymes Are Instruments of Change in All Time Frames
55(1)
Cell Signaling: Signal Reception and Cell Signal Transduction
56(9)
Extracellular signals initiate their effects by binding to receptor proteins
56(3)
Cell signal transduction often entails sequences of amplifying effects
59(3)
Several second-messenger systems participate in cell signal transduction
62(3)
Transport of Solutes and Water
65(26)
Passive Solute Transport by Simple Diffusion
67(7)
Concentration gradients give rise to the most elementary form of simple solute diffusion
68(1)
Electrical gradients often influence the diffusion of charged solutes at membranes
68(1)
Biological aspects of diffusion across membranes: Some solutes dissolve in the membrane, others require channels
69(1)
Diffusion of ions across cell membranes is determined by simultaneous concentration and electrical effects
70(1)
Diffusion often creates challenges for cells and animals
71(2)
Concentration gradients can create electrical gradients that alter concentration gradients
73(1)
Passive Solute Transport by Facilitated Diffusion
74(1)
Active Transport
74(8)
Active transport and facilitated diffusion are types of carrier-mediated transport
74(1)
Basic properties of active-transport mechanisms
75(1)
Primary and secondary active transport differ in their cellular-molecular mechanisms
75(4)
Active transport across an epithelium does not imply a specific transport mechanism
79(1)
Cellular Mechanisms of Ion Pumping in Freshwater Fish Gills
80(1)
Two epithelial ion-pumping mechanisms help freshwater fish maintain their blood composition
80(2)
Modulation of Channels and Transporters
82(1)
Osmotic Pressure and Other Colligative Properties of Aqueous Solutions
82(3)
Physiologists usually express osmotic pressure in osmolar units
84(1)
Osmotic pressures can be measured in several ways
84(1)
Osmosis
85(3)
Quantification and terminology
86(1)
Hydrostatic pressures develop from osmotic pressures only when two or more solutions interact
86(1)
Water may dissolve in membranes or pass through water channels during osmosis
87(1)
Osmosis and solute physiology often interact
87(1)
Looking Forward
88(3)
PART II Food, Energy, and Temperature
91(166)
Nutrition, Feeding, and Digestion
93(32)
Nutrition
94(6)
Proteins are ``foremost''
94(2)
Lipids are required for all membranes and are the principal storage compounds of animals
96(2)
Carbohydrates are low in abundance in many animals but highly abundant when they play structural roles
98(1)
Vitamins are essential organic compounds required in small amounts
98(1)
Elemental nutrition: Many minerals are essential nutrients
99(1)
Feeding
100(11)
Many animals feed on organisms that are individually attacked and ingested
101(2)
Suspension feeding is common in aquatic animals
103(2)
Symbioses with microbes often play key roles in animal feeding and nutrition
105(6)
Digestion and Absorption
111(7)
Vertebrates, arthropods, and molluscs represent three important digestive-absorptive plans
111(3)
Digestion is carried out by specific enzymes operating in three spatial contexts
114(2)
Absorption occurs by different mechanisms for hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules
116(2)
Responses to Eating
118(2)
Changes in Digestion and Absorption in Additional Time Frames
120(5)
The nutritional physiology of individuals responds chronically to changed conditions
120(1)
Nutritional physiology is under the control of biological clocks
120(1)
Nutritional physiology undergoes programmed changes during development
120(1)
Pythons: Extreme Examples of Feast and Famine
121(1)
Nutritional physiology undergoes evolutionary change
121(4)
Energy Metabolism
125(24)
Why Animals Need Energy: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
126(1)
Fundamentals of Animal Energetics
127(3)
The forms of energy vary in their capacity for physiological work
127(1)
Transformations of high-grade energy are always inefficient
127(1)
Animals use energy to perform three major functions
128(2)
Metabolic Rate: Meaning and Measurement
130(5)
Direct calorimetry: The metabolic rate of an animal can be measured directly
130(1)
Views on Animal Heat Production
130(1)
Box 5.2 Units of Measure for Energy and Metabolic Rates
131(1)
Indirect calorimetry: Animal metabolic rates are usually measured indirectly
131(1)
Direct Measurement versus Indirect Measurement
131(3)
Respirometry
134(1)
Factors That Affect Metabolic Rates
135(1)
Ingestion of food causes metabolic rate to rise
136(1)
Basal Metabolic Rate and Standard Metabolic Rate
136(1)
The Relation between Metabolic Rate and Body Size
137(7)
Resting metabolic rate is an allometric function of body weight in related species
137(2)
The metabolic rate of active animals is often also an allometric function of body weight
139(1)
The metabolic rate--body weight relation has important physiological and ecological implications
140(2)
The explanation for allometric metabolism--weight relations remains unknown
142(2)
Energetics of Food and Growth
144(1)
Conclusion: Energy as the Common Currency of Life
145(1)
Postscript: The Energy Cost of Mental Effort
145(4)
Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism
149(26)
Mechanisms of ATP Production and Their Implications
150(8)
Aerobic catabolism consists of four major sets of reactions
150(4)
The Biochemistry of Coupling and Uncoupling of Oxidative Phosphorylation: The Chemiosmotic Theory
154(1)
O2 deficiency poses two biochemical challenges: Impaired ATP synthesis and possible redox imbalance
155(1)
Certain tissues possess anaerobic catabolic pathways that synthesize ATP
155(1)
Anaerobic glycolysis is the principal anaerobic catabolic pathway of vertebrates
155(1)
What happens to catabolic end products?
156(1)
The functional roles of ATP-producing mechanisms depend on whether they operate in steady state or nonsteady state
157(1)
Phosphagens provide an additional mechanism of ATP production without O2
157(1)
Internal O2 stores may be used to make ATP
158(1)
Comparative Properties of Mechanisms of ATP Production
158(2)
Question 1: What is each mechanism's total possible ATP yield per episode of use?
158(1)
Question 2: How rapidly can ATP production be accelerated?
159(1)
Question 3: What is each mechanism's peak rate of ATP production (peak power)?
159(1)
Question 4: How rapidly can each mechanism be reinitialized?
159(1)
Conclusion: All mechanisms have pros and cons
159(1)
Genetic Engineering as a Tool to Test Physiological Hypotheses
160(1)
Two Themes in Exercise Physiology: Fatigue and Muscle Fiber Types
160(1)
Fatigue has many causes, most of which are poorly understood
160(1)
The muscle fibers in the muscles used for locomotion are heterogeneous in functional properties
160(1)
The Interplay of Aerobic and Anaerobic Catabolism during Exercise
161(5)
Metabolic transitions occur at the start and end of vertebrate exercise
162(2)
The ATP source for all-out exercise varies in a regular manner with exercise duration
164(1)
Related species and individuals within one species are sometimes poised very differently for use of aerobic and anaerobic catabolism
165(1)
Responses to Impaired O2 Influx from the Environment
166(9)
Diving vertebrates exploit anaerobic glycolysis during protracted dives
167(1)
Animals faced with reduced O2 availability in their usual environments may show conformity or regulation of aerobic ATP synthesis
168(1)
Aquatic anaerobes: Some aquatic animals are capable of protracted life without O2
168(1)
Human Peak O2 Consumption and Physical Performance at High Altitudes
169(1)
Mechanisms of invertebrate anaerobiosis
169(1)
Mechanisms of anaerobiosis in goldfish and Crucian carp
170(5)
The Energetics of Aerobic Activity
175(16)
How Active Animals Are Studied
176(2)
The Energy Costs of Defined Exercise
178(5)
The most advantageous speed depends on the function of exercise
179(1)
The minimal cost of transport depends in regular ways on mode of locomotion and body size
180(3)
The Maximal Rate of Oxygen Consumption
183(4)
Finding Power for Human-Powered Aircraft
183(1)
VO2max differs among phyletic groups and often from species to species within a phyletic group
184(1)
VO2max varies among individuals within a species
185(1)
VO2max responds to training
186(1)
The Energetics of Routine and Extreme Daily Life
187(1)
Ecological Energetics
187(4)
Thermal Relations
191(50)
Temperature and Heat
193(1)
Heat Transfer between Animals and Their Environments
194(4)
Conduction and convection: Convection is intrinsically faster
194(1)
Evaporation: The change of water from liquid to gas carries much heat away
195(1)
Thermal radiation permits widely spaced objects to exchange heat
196(2)
Poikilothermy (Ectothermy)
198(16)
Poikilotherms often exert behavioral control over their body temperatures
198(1)
Poikilotherms must be able to function over a range of body temperatures
199(1)
Poikilotherms respond physiologically to their environments in all three major time frames
200(1)
Acute responses: Metabolic rate is an approximately exponential function of body temperature
200(1)
Chronic responses: Acclimation often blunts metabolic responses to temperature
201(3)
Evolutionary changes: Species are often specialized to live at their respective body temperatures
204(1)
Temperature and heat matter to animals because they affect the rates of processes and the functional states of molecules
205(4)
Poikilotherms at high temperatures: Heat-shock proteins help repair damage
209(1)
Poikilotherms threatened with freezing: They may survive by preventing freezing or tolerating it
210(4)
Homeothermy in Mammals and Birds
214(18)
Metabolic rate rises in cold and hot environments because of the costs of homeothermy
214(1)
The shape of the metabolism--temperature curve depends on fundamental heat-exchange principles
214(1)
Thermoregulatory Control, Fever, and Behavioral Fever
215(4)
Homeothermy is metabolically expensive
219(1)
Insulation is modulated by adjustments of the pelage or plumage, blood flow, and posture
219(1)
Heat production is increased below thermoneutrality byshivering and nonshivering thermogenesis
220(1)
Regional heterothermy: In cold environments, allowing some tissues to cool can have advantages
221(1)
Countercurrent heat exchange permits selective restriction of heat flow to appendages
222(2)
Mammals and birds in hot environments: Their first lines of defense are often not evaporative
224(1)
Active evaporative cooling is the ultimate line of defense against overheating
225(2)
Mammals and birds acclimatize to winter and summer
227(1)
Evolutionary changes: Species are often specialized to live in their respective climates
228(1)
Mammals and birds sometimes escape the demands of homeothermy by hibernation, torpor, or related processes
228(4)
Warm-Bodied Fish
232(2)
Endothermy and Homeothermy in Insects
234(7)
The insects that thermoregulate during flight require certain flight-muscle temperatures to fly
235(1)
Solitary insects employ diverse mechanisms of thermoregulation
235(1)
Colonies of social bees and wasps often display sophisticated thermoregulation
236(5)
Food, Energy, and Temperature at Work: The Lives of Mammals in Frigid Places
241(16)
Food, Nutrition, Energy Metabolism, and Thermoregulation in the Lives of Adult Reindeer
242(2)
Newborn Reindeer
244(3)
Knockout Mice Clarify the Function of Brown Fat
245(2)
Lifetime Patterns of Thermoregulation and Thermogenesis in Small Mammals
247(1)
The Effect of Body Size on Mammals' Lives in Cold Environments
248(1)
Hibernation as a Winter Strategy: New Directions and Discoveries
249(8)
Arctic ground squirrels supercool during hibernation and arouse periodically throughout their hibernation season
250(1)
The composition of the lipids consumed before hibernation affects the dynamics of hibernation
251(1)
Although periodic arousals detract from the energy savings of hibernation, their function is unknown
252(1)
The intersection of sociobiology and physiology: Social hibernation may save energy
253(4)
PART III Integrating Systems
257(206)
Neural and Endocrine Control, Nervous Systems, and Biological Clocks
259(22)
The Physiology of Control: Neurons and Endocrine Cells Compared
260(3)
Neurons transmit electrical signals to target cells
260(1)
Endocrine cells broadcast hormones
261(1)
Nervous systems and endocrine systems tend to control different processes
262(1)
The Organization and Evolution of Nervous Systems
263(4)
Nervous systems organize neurons into functional circuits
263(1)
Multicellular animals have evolved complex nervous systems
264(3)
The Vertebrate Nervous System: A Guide to the General Organizational Features of Nervous Systems
267(7)
Nervous systems have central and peripheral divisions
267(1)
The central nervous system controls physiology and behavior
267(2)
Four principles of functional organization apply to all mammalian and most vertebrate brains
269(2)
The peripheral nervous system has somatic and autonomic divisions that control different parts of the body
271(3)
Biological Clocks
274(7)
Organisms have endogenous rhythms
275(1)
Biological clocks generate endogenous rhythms
276(1)
Control by biological clocks has adaptive advantages
277(1)
Endogenous clocks correlate with natural history, and compensate for temperature
278(1)
Clock mechanisms involve rhythms of gene expression
278(1)
The loci of biological clock functions vary among animals
278(1)
Circannual and circatidal clocks: Some endogenous clocks time annual or tidal rhythms
279(1)
Interval or ``hourglass'' timers can time shorter intervals
279(2)
Neurons
281(32)
The Cellular Organization of Nervous Systems
282(2)
Neurons are structurally adapted to transmit action potentials
282(1)
Glial cells support neurons physically and metabolically
283(1)
The Ionic Basis of Membrane Potentials
284(8)
Cell membranes have passive electrical properties: Resistance and capacitance
284(4)
Resting membrane potentials depend on selective permeability to ions: The Nernst equation
288(1)
Ion concentration differences result from active ion transport and from passive diffusion
289(2)
Membrane potentials depend on the permeabilities to and concentration gradients of several ion species: The Goldman equation
291(1)
Electrogenic pumps also have a small direct effect on Vm
291(1)
The Action Potential
292(13)
Action potentials are voltage-dependent, all-or-none electrical signals
292(1)
Action potentials result from changes in membrane permeabilities to ions
293(5)
The molecular structure of the voltage-dependent ionchannels reveals their functional properties
298(2)
There are variations in the ionic mechanisms of excitable cells
300(1)
The Evolution of Voltage-Gated Channels
301(4)
Propagation of Action Potentials
305(8)
Local circuits of current propagate an action potential
305(1)
Membrane refractory periods prevent bidirectional propagation
306(1)
The conduction velocity of an action potential depends on axon diameter, myelination, and temperature
306(2)
Giant Axons
308(5)
Synapses
313(34)
Synaptic Transmission Is Usually Chemical but Can Be Electrical
314(3)
Electrical synapses transmit signals instantaneously
314(2)
Chemical synapses can condition and amplify signals
316(1)
Synaptic Potentials Control Neuronal Excitability
317(2)
Synapses onto a spinal motor neuron exemplify functions of fast synaptic potentials
317(1)
Synapses excite or inhibit a neuron by depolarization or hyperpolarization at the site of impulse initiation
318(1)
Fast Chemical Synaptic Actions Depend on Increases in Permeability to lons
319(4)
Chemical synapses work by releasing and responding to neurotransmitters
319(1)
Postsynaptic potentials result from permeability changes that are neurotransmitter-dependent and voltage-independent
320(2)
Neuronal EPSPs resemble neuromuscular EPSPs but are smaller
322(1)
Fast IPSPs can result from an increase in permeability to chloride
323(1)
Presynaptic Neurons Release Neurotransmitter Molecules in Quantal Packets
323(5)
Acetylcholine is synthesized and stored in the presynaptic terminal
323(1)
Neurotransmitter release is voltage-and Ca2+ -dependent
324(1)
Neurotransmitter release is quantal and vesicular
324(2)
Synaptic vesicles are cycled at nerve terminals in distinct steps
326(1)
Several proteins play roles in vesicular release and recycling
326(2)
Neurotransmitters Are of Two General Kinds
328(4)
Neurons have a characteristic neurotransmitter, but they may have more than one neurotransmitter
328(1)
An agent is identified as a neurotransmitter if it meets five criteria
329(1)
Vertebrate neurotransmitters have several general modes of action
329(1)
Neuropeptides and Pain: The Nervous System Produces Natural Opiates
330(1)
Neurotransmitter systems have been conserved in evolution
331(1)
Postsynaptic Receptors for Fast lonotropic Actions: Ligand-Gated Channels
332(2)
ACh receptors are ligand-gated channels that function as ionotropic receptors
332(2)
Most ligand-gated channel receptors have evolved from a common ancestor
334(1)
Postsynaptic Receptors for Slow, Metabotropic Actions: G Protein--Coupled Receptors
334(4)
Metabotropic receptors act via second messengers
334(1)
The structure of G protein--coupled receptors
335(1)
G proteins act via intracellular effectors
336(1)
Permeability-decrease synapses involve G protein-coupled receptors
337(1)
Synaptic Plasticity: Synapses Change Properties with Time and Activity
338(9)
Neurotransmitter metabolism is regulated homeostatically
338(1)
Learning and memory may be based on synaptic plasticity
338(9)
Sensory Processes
347(42)
Organization of Sensory Systems
348(2)
Receptors are classified by sensory modality, location, or form of stimulus energy
348(1)
Sensory reception comprises a series of discrete operations
349(1)
Receptor Functions and Their Control
350(5)
Receptor potentials result from the influx of Na+ ions
351(1)
Receptors adapt to sustained stimulation
351(2)
Receptors encode information about modality, intensity, location, and timing of a stimulus
353(1)
Efferent control can adjust receptor sensitivity
354(1)
Photoreception
355(6)
Photoreceptors and eyes have distinct evolutionary relationships
355(1)
The vertebrate eye focuses light onto retinal rods and cones
356(1)
Retinal rods and cones transduce light into a hyperpolarizing receptor potential
357(4)
Visual Sensory Processing
361(7)
Retinal neurons respond to patterns of light and dark
361(4)
The vertebrate brain integrates visual information through parallel pathways
365(3)
Arthropod Visual Systems
368(1)
Arthropod eyes are compound eyes
368(1)
Arthropod photoreceptors are depolarized by light
369(1)
Mechanoreception
369(10)
Proprioceptors monitor the spatial relationship of the body
369(1)
Equilibrium receptors detect gravity and acceleration to maintain balance
370(3)
Auditory receptors transduce sound into electrical signals
373(5)
Echolocation
378(1)
Chemoreception
379(7)
Insect contact chemoreceptors are localized in sensilla
379(1)
Insect olfactory receptors sense pheromones and other chemicals
380(1)
Vertebrate taste involves four or five taste qualities
381(1)
Vertebrate olfaction includes over a thousand receptor types
382(4)
Electroreception
386(3)
Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Physiology
389(34)
Introduction to Endocrine Principles
390(6)
Hormones bind to receptor molecules expressed by target cells
390(1)
Concentrations of hormones in the blood vary
390(3)
Most hormones fall into three chemical classes
393(2)
Hormone molecules exert their effects by producing biochemical changes in target cells
395(1)
Synthesis, Storage, and Release of Hormones
396(2)
Peptide hormones are synthesized at ribosomes, stored in vesicles, and secreted on demand
396(1)
Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol, are not stored, and are secreted by diffusion
397(1)
Types of Endocrine Glands and Cells
398(1)
Control of Endocrine Systems: The Vertebrate Pituitary Gland
399(4)
The posterior pituitary illustrates neural control of neurosecretory cells
399(1)
The anterior pituitary illustrates neurosecretory control of endocrine cells
399(2)
Hormones and neural input modulate endocrine control pathways
401(2)
The Mammalian Stress Response
403(4)
The autonomic nervous system and HPA axis coordinate the stress response to an acute threat
404(1)
The HPA axis modulates the immune system
405(1)
Chronic stress causes deleterious effects
406(1)
Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations show seasonal variations
406(1)
Endocrine Control of Nutrient Metabolism in Mammals
407(3)
Insulin regulates short-term changes in nutrient availability
408(1)
Glucagon works together with insulin to ensure stable levels of glucose in the blood
408(1)
Other hormones contribute to the regulation of nutrient metabolism
409(1)
Endocrine Control of Salt and Water Balance in Vertebrates
410(2)
Antidiuretic hormones conserve water
410(1)
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system conserves sodium
411(1)
Atrial natriuretic peptide promotes excretion of sodium and water
412(1)
Hormones and Other Chemical Signals
412(4)
Can Mating Cause True Commitment?
413(1)
Hormones and neurohormones fall along a ``distance continuum'' of chemical signals
413(2)
Paracrines and autocrines are local chemical signals distributed by diffusion
415(1)
Pheromones and kairomones are used as chemical signals between animals
415(1)
Insect Metamorphosis
416(7)
Insects in Forensics and Medicine
416(1)
Insect metamorphosis may be gradual or dramatic
416(1)
Hormones and neurohormones control insect metamorphosis
417(6)
Reproduction
423(24)
Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
423(3)
Mammalian Reproduction
426(3)
Gametes are produced in ovaries and testes
426(2)
``Male Menopause'' in a Marsupial Mouse
428(1)
Oocytes mature periodically in menstrual cycles or estrous cycles
428(1)
Hormonal Control of Female Reproduction
429(6)
Dynamic cellular changes occur in the ovary over the course of a cycle
429(2)
Hormones influence development of the follicle
431(1)
Estrogen influences target tissues outside the ovary
432(1)
Ovulation is controlled by LH
433(1)
The corpus luteum is essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy
433(1)
Why do all mammals cyclically change the endometrium? Why do humans and a few other primates menstruate?
434(1)
Hormonal Control of Male Reproduction
435(3)
Sex Determination in Mammals
436(2)
Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Birth in Eutherian Mammals
438(5)
Fertilization is the union of sperm and oocyte
438(1)
Development begins in the oviduct, and implantation establishes pregnancy
439(2)
The embryonic trophoblast and the maternal endometrium form the placenta
441(1)
Parturition requires cellular changes and orchestrated neural and hormonal signals
442(1)
Lactation
443(1)
Maximizing Reproductive Success
444(3)
Integrating Systems at Work: Animal Navigation
447(16)
The Adaptive Significance of Animal Navigation
448(2)
Navigational abilities promote reproductive success
448(1)
Navigational abilities facilitate food acquisition
449(1)
Migrating animals need navigation
449(1)
Navigational Strategies
450(8)
Trail following is the most rudimentary form of animal navigation
450(1)
Piloting animals follow a discontinuous series of learned cues
450(1)
Path integration is a form of dead reckoning
451(1)
Animals can derive compass information from environmental cues
452(5)
Some animals appear to possess a map sense
457(1)
Sea turtles exemplify the degree of our understanding of navigation
458(1)
Innate and Learned Components of Navigation
458(5)
Some forms of navigation have strong innate aspects
459(1)
The hippocampus is a critical brain area for vertebrate spatial learning and memory
459(4)
PART IV Muscle and Movement
463(62)
Muscle
465(24)
Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle Cells
466(4)
Thick and thin filaments are polarized polymers of individual protein molecules
467(1)
Muscles require ATP to contract
468(1)
Calcium and the regulatory proteins tropomyosin and troponin control contractions
469(1)
Excitation--Contraction Coupling
470(3)
Whole Skeletal Muscles
473(5)
Muscle contraction is the force generated by a muscle during cross-bridge activity
473(1)
A twitch is the mechanical response of a muscle to a single action potential
473(1)
The velocity of shortening decreases as the load increases
473(1)
The frequency of action potentials determines the tension developed by a muscle
474(1)
Sustained calcium in the cytoplasm permits summation and tetanus
474(1)
The amount of tension developed by a muscle depends on the length of the muscle at the time it is stimulated
474(2)
In general, the amount of work a muscle can do depends on its volume
476(1)
Electric Fish Exploit Modified Skeletal Muscles to Generate Electric Shocks
477(1)
Muscle Energetics
478(4)
ATP is the immediate source of energy for powering muscle contraction
478(1)
Vertebrate muscle fibers are classified into different types
479(2)
Insect Flight
481(1)
Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle
482(2)
The vertebrate plan is based on muscles organized into motor units
482(1)
The innervation of vertebrate tonic muscle is intermediate between the general vertebrate and arthropod plans
482(1)
The arthropod plan is based on multiterminal innervation of each muscle fiber by more than one neuron
483(1)
Vertebrate Smooth Muscle
484(2)
Vertebrate Cardiac Muscle
486(3)
Control of Movement: The Motor Bases of Animal Behavior
489(22)
Behavioral Background: Reflexes and Fixed Action Patterns
489(1)
Neural Circuits Mediating Reflexes and Fixed Acts
490(6)
Crayfish escape behavior is a fixed act mediated by a giant interneuron
490(1)
Gill withdrawal in Aplysia is a reflex act
491(1)
Vertebrate spinal reflexes compensate for circumstances, as well as initiating movements
492(2)
Motor neurons are activated primarily by central input rather than by spinal reflexes
494(2)
Action Patterns: Neural Generation of Rhythmic Behavior
496(6)
Locust flight results from an interplay of central and peripheral control
497(1)
Command neurons turn on the pattern generator
498(1)
There are different mechanisms of central pattern generation
498(3)
Central pattern generators can underlie relatively complex behavior
501(1)
Control and Coordination of Vertebrate Movement
502(9)
Locomotion in cats involves a spinal central pattern generator
502(1)
The generation of movement involves several areas in the mammalian brain
503(8)
Muscle and Movement at Work: Muscle in Human Health and Disease
511(14)
Exercise
512(5)
Power output determines a muscle's contractile performance
512(1)
Endurance training elicits changes in fiber type, capillary density, and mitochondrial density
513(3)
Resistance training causes hypertrophy and changes in fiber type
516(1)
Stretch and force production activate protein synthesis in rabbit muscles
517(1)
Atrophy
517(4)
Humans experience atrophy in microgravity
517(1)
A variety of techniques are used to study disuse atrophy in small mammals
518(1)
Disuse influences the fiber-type composition of muscles
519(1)
Muscles atrophy with age
519(2)
No Time to Lose
521(1)
Some animals experience little or no disuse atrophy
521(1)
Muscle Disease
521(4)
DMD results from mutation of the DMD gene on the short arm of the X chromosome
522(1)
Dystrophin Connects F-Action To The Sarcolemma
522(3)
PART V Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport
525(138)
Introduction to Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Physiology
527(14)
The Properties of Gases in Gas Phases and Aqueous Solutions
528(2)
Gases in the gas phase
528(1)
Gases in solution
529(1)
Diffusion of Gases
530(2)
Gases diffuse far more readily through gas phases than through aqueous solutions
531(1)
Gas molecules that combine chemically with other molecules cease to contribute to the gas partial pressure
531(1)
Over What Distance Can Diffusion Meet the O2 Requirements of Tissues?
532(1)
Convective Transport of Gases
532(3)
Induction of Internal Flow by Ambient Currents
533(1)
Gas transport in animals often occurs by alternating convection and diffusion
534(1)
The Oxygen Cascade
535(1)
Expressing the Amounts and Partial Pressures of Gases in Other Units
536(1)
The Contrasting Physical Properties of Air and Water
537(1)
Respiratory Environments
537(4)
External Respiration: The Physiology of Breathing
541(36)
Fundamental Concepts of External Respiration
542(2)
Principles of Gas Exchange by Active Ventilation
544(2)
The O2 partial pressure in blood leaving a breathing organ depends on the relation between the flow of the blood and the flow of the air or water
544(1)
The relative changes in the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 depend on whether air or water is breathed
545(1)
Introduction to Vertebrate Breathing
546(3)
Breathing by Fish
549(4)
Gill ventilation is usually driven by buccal--opercular pumping
550(2)
Many fish use ram ventilation on occasion and some use it all the time
552(1)
Decreased O2 and exercise are the major stimuli for increased ventilation in fish
552(1)
Several hundred species of bony fish are able to breathe air
552(1)
Breathing by Amphibians
553(2)
Gills, lungs, and skin are used in various combinations to achieve gas exchange
555(1)
Breathing by Reptiles
555(1)
Breathing by Mammals
556(8)
The total lung volume is employed in different ways in different sorts of breathing
557(1)
The gas in the final airways differs from atmospheric air in composition and is motionless
558(1)
The power for ventilation is developed by the diaphragm and the intercostal and abdominal muscles
559(1)
The control of ventilation
559(2)
Mammals at High Altitude
561(2)
In species of different sizes, lung volume tends to be a constant proportion of body size but breathing frequency varies allometrically
563(1)
Pulmonary surfactant keeps the alveoli from collapsing
563(1)
Breathing by Birds
564(3)
Ventilation is by bellows action
566(1)
Air flows unidirectionally through the parabronchi
566(1)
The gas-exchange system is cross-current
566(1)
Bird Development: Filling the Lungs with Air for Hatching
567(1)
Breathing by Aquatic Invertebrates and Allied Groups
567(3)
Molluscs exemplify an exceptional diversity of breathing organs built on a common plan
567(2)
Decapod crustaceans include many important water breathers and some air breathers
569(1)
Breathing by Insects and Other Tracheate Arthropods
570(7)
Diffusion is important in gas transport through the tracheal system
571(1)
Some insects employ conspicuous ventilation
572(1)
Microscopic ventilation is far more common than believed even a decade ago
572(1)
Control of breathing
573(1)
Some insects have gills or lungs formed by tracheae
573(1)
Many aquatic insects breathe when under water through spiracles using external gas spaces
573(1)
The Book Lungs of Arachnids
574(3)
Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Body Fluids (With an Introduction to Acid-Base Physiology)
577(32)
Absorption Spectra of Respiratory Pigments
578(1)
The Chemical Properties and Distributions of the Respiratory Pigments
579(4)
Hemoglobins contain heme and are the most widespread respiratory pigments
579(3)
Blood Cells and Their Production
582(1)
Copper-based hemocyanins occur in many arthropods and molluscs
582(1)
Chlorocruorins resemble hemoglobins and occur in certain annelids
583(1)
Iron-based hemerythrins do not contain heme and occur in four phyla
583(1)
The O2-Binding Characteristics of Respiratory Pigments
583(10)
Human O2 transport provides an instructive case study
584(3)
A set of general principles helps elucidate O2 transport by respiratory pigments
587(1)
The shape of the oxygen equilibrium curve depends on O2-binding site cooperativity
587(2)
Respiratory pigments exhibit a wide range in their affinities for O2
589(1)
The Bohr effect: Oxygen affinity depends on the partial pressure of CO2 and the pH
589(2)
The Root effect: In unusual cases, CO2 and pH affect the oxygen-carrying capacity of the respiratory pigment
591(1)
Thermal effects: Oxygen affinity depends on tissue temperature
591(1)
Organic modulators often exert chronic effects on oxygen affinity
591(1)
Inorganic ions may also act as modulators of respiratory pigments
592(1)
The Functions of Respiratory Pigments in Animals
593(6)
Patterns of circulatory O2 transport: The mammalian model is common but not universal
594(1)
Respiratory pigments often display differences in O2 affinity that aid successful O2 transport
595(1)
Evolved differences in affinity among related species
596(1)
The respiratory-pigment physiology of individuals undergoes acclimation and acclimatization
596(1)
Blood and Circulation in Mammals at High Altitude
597(1)
Icefish live without hemoglobin
598(1)
Carbon Dioxide Transport
599(4)
The extent of bicarbonate formation depends on blood buffers
599(1)
Carbon dioxide transport is interpreted by use of carbon dioxide equilibrium curves
600(1)
The Haldane effect: The carbon dioxide equilibrium curve depends on blood oxygenation
601(1)
Critical details of vertebrate CO2 transport depend on carbonic anhydrase and anion transporters
602(1)
Acid-Base Physiology
603(6)
Acid-base regulation involves excretion or retention of chemical forms affecting H+ concentration
604(1)
Disturbances of acid-base regulation fall into respiratory and metabolic categories
604(5)
Circulation
609(34)
Hearts
610(7)
The heart as a pump: The action of a heart can be analyzed in terms of the physics of pumping
611(1)
The circulation must deliver O2 to the myocardium
612(1)
The electrical impulses for heart contraction may originate in muscle cells or neurons
613(2)
A heart produces an electrical signature, the electrocardiogram
615(1)
Heart action is modulated by hormonal, nervous, and intrinsic controls
616(1)
Principles of Pressure, Resistance, and Flow in Vascular Systems
617(3)
The rate of blood flow depends on differences in blood pressure and on vascular resistance
619(1)
The dissipation of energy: Pressure and flow turn to heat during circulation of the blood
620(1)
Circulation in Mammals and Birds
620(6)
The circulatory system is closed
620(1)
Each part of the systemic vascular system has distinctive anatomical and functional features
621(2)
Mammals and birds have a high-pressure systemic circuit
623(1)
Fluid undergoes complex patterns of exchange across the walls of systemic capillaries
624(1)
The pulmonary circuit is a comparatively low-pressure system
625(1)
During exercise, blood flow is increased by orchestrated changes in cardiac output and vascular resistance
625(1)
Species have evolved differences in their circulatory physiology
626(1)
Circulation in Fish
626(5)
The circulatory plans of air-breathing organs (ABOs) in fish pose unresolved questions
628(1)
Lungfish have specializations to promote separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
629(2)
An Incompletely Divided Central Circulation Can Be an Advantage for Intermittent Breathers
631(1)
Circulation in Amphibians and Reptiles
631(1)
Concluding Comments on Vertebrates
632(1)
Invertebrates with Closed Circulatory Systems
633(1)
Bearing the Burden of Athleticism, Sort Of: A Synthesis of Cephalopod O2 Transport
634(1)
Invertebrates with Open Circulatory Systems
634(9)
The crustacean circulatory system provides an example of an open system
634(3)
Circulation and O2: Lessons from the Insect World
637(1)
Open systems are functionally different from closed systems but may be equal in critical ways
637(6)
Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport at Work: Diving by Marine Mammals
643(20)
Diving Feats and Behavior
643(3)
Types of Dives and the Importance of Method
646(1)
Physiology: The Big Picture
646(1)
The Oxygen Stores of Divers
647(4)
The blood O2 store tends to be large in diving mammals
647(1)
Diving mammals have high myoglobin concentrations and large myoglobin-bound O2 stores
648(1)
Diving mammals vary in their use of the lungs as an O2 store
648(1)
Total O2 stores never permit dives of maximal duration to be fully aerobic
649(2)
Circulatory Adjustments during Dives
651(3)
Regional vasoconstriction: Much of a diving mammal's body is cut off from blood flow during forced or protracted dives
651(1)
Diving bradycardia matches cardiac output to the circulatory task
652(1)
Cardiovascular responses are graded in freely diving animals
652(1)
The Evolution of Vertebrate Cardiac and Vascular Responses to Asphyxia
653(1)
Red blood cells are removed from the blood between dive sequences in some seals
654(1)
Metabolism during Dives
654(2)
The body becomes metabolically subdivided during forced or protracted dives
654(1)
Metabolic limits on dive duration are determined by O2 supplies, rates of O2 use and lactic acid accumulation, and tissue tolerances
654(2)
The Aerobic Dive Limit: Physiology's Benchmark for Understanding Diving Behavior
656(2)
Decompression Sickness
658(2)
Human decompression sickness is usually caused by N2 absorption from a compressed-air source
658(1)
Breath-hold dives must be repeated many times to cause decompression sickness in humans
659(1)
Marine mammals avoid decompression sickness during deep dives by alveolar collapse
659(1)
Dives too shallow for alveolar collapse present special problems
659(1)
A possible advantage for pulmonary O2 sequestration in deep dives
660(3)
PART VI Water, Salts, and Excretion
663(2)
Water and Salt Physiology: Introduction and Mechanisms
665(20)
The Importance of Animal Body Fluids
666(1)
The Relations among Body Fluids
667(1)
The Types of Regulation and Conformity
668(1)
Natural Aquatic Environments
669(2)
Natural Terrestrial Environments
671(2)
Organs of Blood Regulation
673(2)
The effects of kidney function on osmotic regulation depend on the osmotic U/P ratio
674(1)
The effects of kidney function on volume regulation depend on the amount of urine produced
675(1)
The effects of kidney function on ionic regulation depend on ionic U/P ratios
675(1)
Food and Drinking Water
675(1)
Salty drinking water may not provide H2O
676(1)
Plants and algae with salty tissue fluids pose challenges for herbivores
676(1)
Air-dried foods contain water in variable amounts
676(1)
Protein-rich foods can be dehydrating for terrestrial animals
676(1)
Metabolic Water
676(2)
Metabolic water matters most in animals that conserve water effectively
677(1)
Net Metabolic Water Gain in Kangaroo Rats
678(1)
The Water and Salt Physiology of Tissue Cells
678(3)
Most animals employ organic solutes for cell-volume regulation
679(1)
Organic solutes have played major roles in the adjustment of intracellular osmotic pressure over evolutionary time
680(1)
From Osmolytes to Compatible Solutes: Terms and Concepts
681(4)
Water and Salt Physiology of Animals in Their Environments
685(36)
Animals in Freshwater
686(5)
Passive water and ion exchanges: Freshwater animals tend to gain water by osmosis and lose major ions by diffusion
686(2)
Most types of freshwater animals share similar regulatory mechanisms
688(2)
A few types of freshwater animals exhibit exceptional patterns of regulation
690(1)
Why do most freshwater animals make dilute urine?
691(1)
Animals in the Ocean
691(8)
Most marine invertebrates are isosmotic to seawater
691(1)
Hagfish are the only vertebrates with blood inorganic ion concentrations that make them isosmotic to seawater
692(1)
The marine teleost fish are markedly hyposmotic to seawater
692(1)
Where Were Vertebrates at Their Start?
692(3)
Epithelial NaCI Secretion
695(1)
Some arthropods of saline waters are hyposmotic regulators
696(1)
Marine reptiles, birds, and mammals are also hyposmotic regulators
696(1)
Marine elasmobranch fish are hyperosmotic but hypoinonic to seawater
697(1)
The Evolution of Urea Synthesis in Vertebrates
698(1)
Animals that Face Changes in Salinity
699(3)
The migratory fish are dramatic examples of hyperhyposmotic regulators
700(1)
Animals undergo change in all time frames in their relations to ambient salinity
701(1)
Responses to Drying of the Habitat in Aquatic Animals
702(1)
Life as Nothing More than a Morphological State
703(1)
Animals on Land: Fundamental Physiological Principles
703(7)
A low integumentary permeability to water is a key to reducing evaporative water loss on land
704(1)
Respiratory evaporative water loss depends on the function of the breathing organs and the rate of metabolism
704(3)
The total rate of evaporative water loss depends on an animal's body size and phylogenetic group
707(1)
Excretory water loss depends on the concentrating ability of the excretory organs and the amount of solute that needs to be excreted
707(2)
Terrestrial animals sometimes enter dormancy or tolerate wide departures from homeostasis to cope with water stress
709(1)
The total rates of water turnover of free-living terrestrial animals follow allometric patterns
709(1)
Animals on Land: Case Studies
710(5)
Amphibians occupy a diversity of habitats despite their meager physiological abilities to limit water losses
710(2)
Xeric invertebrates: Because of exquisite water conservation, some insects and arachnids have only small water needs
712(1)
Xeric vertebrates: Studies of lizards and small mammals help clarify the complexities of desert existence
712(1)
The Study of Physiological Evolution by Artificial Selection
713(2)
Control of Water and Salt Balance in Terrestrial Animals
715(6)
Kidneys and Excretion (With Notes on Nitrogen Excretion)
721(36)
Basic Mechanisms of Kidney Function
722(3)
Primary urine is introduced into kidney tubules by ultrafiltration or secretion
722(2)
Primary urine is usually modified extensively before it is excreted as definitive urine
724(1)
Urine Formation in Amphibians
725(5)
The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs much of the filtrate without changing osmotic pressure
726(1)
Quantity versus Concentration
727(1)
The distal convoluted tubule can differentially reabsorb water and solutes, thus controlling water excretion
727(1)
Renal Clearance and Other Methods of Study of Kidney Function
728(1)
ADH exerts an elaborate pattern of control over nephron function
729(1)
The bladder functions in urine formation in amphibians
729(1)
The amphibian excretory system has mechanisms to promote excretion of urea
730(1)
Urine Formation in Mammals
730(14)
The nephrons, singly and collectively, give the mammalian kidney a distinctive structure
730(2)
Comparative anatomy points to a role for the loops of Henle in concentrating the urine
732(1)
Countercurrent multiplication is the key to producing concentrated urine
733(3)
Countercurrent Multipliers versus Countercurrent Exchangers
736(4)
The kidney tubules carry out many processes to produce definitive urine
740(4)
Urine Formation in Other Vertebrates
744(1)
Freshwater and marine teleost fish differ in nephron structure and function
744(1)
Reptiles have nephrons like those of amphibians, but birds have some mammalian-type nephrons
744(1)
Urine Formation in Decapod Crustaceans
745(1)
Urine Formation in Molluscs
746(1)
Urine Formation in Insects
747(3)
The Malpighian tubules form and sometimes modify the primary urine
747(1)
The hindgut modulates urine composition, concentration, and volume
748(2)
Nitrogen Disposition and Excretion
750(7)
Ammonotelism is the primitive state
751(1)
Urea is more costly to synthesize but less toxic than ammonia
751(1)
Uric acid and related compounds remove nitrogen from solution
752(1)
Why Are Mammals Not Uricotelic?
753(4)
Water, Salts, and Excretion at Work: Mammals of Deserts and Dry Savannas
757(1)
Desert and Dry-Savanna Environments
757(1)
The Relations of Animals to Water
758(7)
In terms of water costs, large body size is a physiological advantage
758(1)
Coexisting species are diverse in their relations to drinking water
759(2)
Water conflicts threaten animals and people
761(2)
All species of large herbivores require considerable amounts of preformed water
763(1)
Water and food resources in the deserts and dry savannas are often complex
764(1)
The Dramatic Adaptations of Particular Species
765(1)
Oryxes represent the pinnacle of desert survival
766(2)
Grant's and Thomson's gazelles differ in their relations to water
768(1)
The dromedary camel does not store water, but conserves it and tolerates profound dehydration
768
Appendix A References 1(2)
Appendix B The Systeme International and Other Units of Measure 3(1)
Appendix C Prefixes Indicating Orders of Magnitude 4(1)
Appendix D Gases at Standard Temperature and Pressure 5(1)
Appendix E Fitting Lines to Data 6(2)
Appendix F Logarithms 8(2)
Appendix G Exponential and Allometric Equations 10(2)
Appendix H Mitosis and Meiosis 12(3)
Appendix I The Standard Amino Acids 15(1)
Appendix J Basic Physics Terms 16
Glossary 1(1)
Photo Credits 1(1)
Figure and Table Citations 1(1)
Index 1

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