Approaches to Early Childhood Education

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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From approaches steeped in the history of education, child development, and the psychological sciences, to contemporary approaches that address multiculturalism and inclusion, this comprehensive book, with its contributions by major experts in the field, more thoroughly examines more topics and models than does any other book on the market. Coverage is strengthened by the broad-based expertise of the contributors and the exceptional reach of the programs chosen for discussion.Chapter topics cover programs for infants and toddlers, the Head Start program, a model preschool program for typical and special needs children, behavior analysis and principles in early childhood education, the project spectrum approach to early education, the Reggio Emilia approach, Montessori education today, and more.For early childhood educators.

Table of Contents

Historical Perspectives on Early Childhood Educationp. 3
Eighteenth-Century Educationp. 3
Nineteenth-Century Early Educationp. 5
Twentieth-Century Progressive Educationp. 12
Twentieth-Century Child Studyp. 13
Twentieth-Century Innovations in Europe: Montessori's Children's Housep. 16
United States National Emergencies and Early Educationp. 18
Decline of Progressivism and the Influence of Sputnikp. 21
Constructivist Theory in Early Educationp. 21
Head Startp. 23
1970-1990: Rapid Change and School Reformp. 26
Conclusionp. 29
Referencesp. 31
Child Carep. 39
Forms of Child Carep. 39
Quality of Child Care in Center and Family Day Carep. 41
Children's Development and Child-Care Qualityp. 48
Conclusionp. 50
Referencesp. 50
The Head Start Programp. 55
Evolution of Head Startp. 55
Program Services and Effectivenessp. 61
Demonstration Projectsp. 69
Head Start in the 21st Centuryp. 71
Referencesp. 73
Broad Approaches
Classes for Parents and Young Children: The Family Center Modelp. 79
Ongoing Changes in Societal Patternsp. 82
New Research on Brain Developmentp. 82
New Interest in Parent-Infant Programs at Federal, State, and Local Levelsp. 82
Programs for Special Populationsp. 84
Parenting Classesp. 85
Selecting Teachers for Parent-Infant Classesp. 92
Inservice Training and Mentorshipp. 92
Summaryp. 94
Referencesp. 94
The Eriksonian Approachp. 97
Description of Family Development Research Programp. 98
Eriksonian Theory: Tenets and Principlesp. 101
Caregiver Interactions: An Eriksonian Approachp. 106
Eriksonian Ideas Blended with Piagetian Gamesp. 108
Evaluationp. 109
Lessons from FDRP and Suggestions for Future Programsp. 115
Conclusionp. 117
Referencesp. 118
Behavior Analysis and Principles in Early Childhood Educationp. 123
Conceptual and Philosophic Basesp. 125
Two Fundamental Principles of Behaviorp. 129
Six Important Strategiesp. 131
The Behavioral Classroomp. 134
Referencesp. 146
The Constructivist Perspective on Early Education: Applications to Children's Museumsp. 149
The Prominence of Constructivismp. 149
Distinguishing Constructivism from Other Approachesp. 149
Constructivism and the Young Childp. 151
Constructivisms Contrastedp. 153
Applications to Early Childhood Educationp. 159
Constructivism in Children's Museumsp. 164
Conclusionp. 172
Referencesp. 173
The Project Approach: An Overviewp. 175
What Is a Project?p. 175
Project Work and Other Parts of the Curriculump. 176
Theoretical Rationale for the Project Approachp. 178
Implementing Project Workp. 181
Phases of Project Workp. 184
Summaryp. 189
Referencesp. 189
Montessori Education Todayp. 191
Key Tenets and Background Informationp. 193
Montessori's View of Human Developmentp. 195
Program Characteristicsp. 198
Curriculum Areasp. 202
The Role of the Teacherp. 207
Research on Montessorip. 209
Discussionp. 212
Public Montessori Programsp. 215
Conclusionp. 217
Web Resources on Montessorip. 218
Addresses and Phone Numbers of Major U.S. Montessori Organizationsp. 218
Referencesp. 219
Mixed-Age Classrooms for Young Childrenp. 221
Conceptual Frameworkp. 222
Overall Goals and Objectivesp. 226
Implementationp. 227
Observation and Assessmentsp. 229
Summaryp. 233
Referencesp. 233
Specific Programs
The Portage Project: An International Home Approach to Early Intervention for Young Children and Their Familiesp. 241
Home-Based Early Interventionp. 241
The Portage Modelp. 244
Research and Evaluation of the Portage Modelp. 250
Adaptations and Applications of Portagep. 252
New Challenges for Portagep. 255
Conclusionp. 257
Referencesp. 257
The Developmental-Interaction Approach at Bank Street College of Educationp. 263
History and Evolutionp. 263
Basic Principlesp. 265
Curriculump. 267
Implications for Teacher Educationp. 272
Summaryp. 273
Referencesp. 274
The High/Scope Curriculum for Early Childhood Care and Educationp. 277
Historyp. 278
Active Learning by the Childp. 279
Role of the Teacherp. 279
Daily Routine to Support Active Learningp. 280
Key Experiences in Child Developmentp. 282
High/Scope Child Observation Recordp. 283
Role of Parents and Communityp. 284
High/Scope Curriculum Trainingp. 284
Research Support for the High/Scope Curriculump. 285
Relationship of Research to the High/Scope Curriculump. 290
Summaryp. 291
Referencesp. 292
The Ausubelian Preschool Classroomp. 295
Program Approachp. 295
Teaching Method in Ausubelian Programp. 300
A Typical Day in an Ausubelian Programp. 306
Program Evaluationp. 307
Summaryp. 311
Referencesp. 312
Educating the Young Thinker Model, from Research to Practice: A Case Study of Program Development, or the Place of Theory and Research in the Development of Educational Programsp. 315
Preamblep. 315
Conceptual Origins of the Programp. 320
Conceptualization of the Problemp. 321
Conceptual Answers Regarding Representational Competencep. 322
First Attempt at Intervention with Distancing Strategiesp. 322
Conceptual Focus of Educating the Young Thinker Programp. 323
A Day in Preschoolp. 326
Further Examples Supporting the Psychological Distancing Modelp. 334
Further Theoretical and Practical Implicationsp. 337
Referencesp. 338
Reggio Emilia: An Approach or An Attitude?p. 341
Reggio Emilia in Contextp. 341
Reggio Emilia as a Case of Selected Traditionsp. 343
Conclusionp. 355
Referencesp. 357
Integral Dimensions
Including Everyone: A Model Preschool Program for Typical and Special-Needs Childrenp. 361
Jowonio Historyp. 363
Philosophical Basep. 363
Dealing with Problem Behaviorp. 366
School and Class Compositionp. 370
Strategies for Accomplishing Inclusionp. 370
Transitioning to Next Environmentp. 372
Implications for Teacher Trainingp. 374
Additional Inclusion Effortsp. 374
Summaryp. 375
Referencesp. 376
A Framework for Culturally Relevant, Multicultural, and Antibias Education in the 21st Centuryp. 379
What and How Young Children Learn about Diversityp. 380
Educational Approaches to Diversity: Past and Presentp. 387
Quality Education for the 21st Century: Teacher Implicationsp. 393
Conclusionp. 399
Referencesp. 399
Epiloguep. 405
Indexp. 413
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.


Early childhood education (ECE) is a multisectorial and multidisciplinary field within education that embraces the challenges of complexity, diversity, and multiple perspectives. Early childhood education occurs in many different kinds of settings, is represented in many forms, and serves diverse populations. Guided by research and theory from a number of scholarly disciplines--including developmental psychology, cultural psychology, childhood studies, and psychological anthropology--as well as by history, philosophy, and teacher lore, early childhood education seeks to integrate and to utilize our best knowledge and ideas for understanding children and for finding ways of enhancing their development, learning, and well-being during the early years from birth to age 8. This book provides current information across a number of important areas within early childhood education: child growth and development, environment, curriculum-content planning and implementation, instruction and communication, assessment, professionalism and leadership, and families, communities, and cultures. This text meets the demands of educating children in an ever-inclusive, multicultural postmodern world. In this regard, early childhood professional educators must be "inclusionists" who can work with all children who are differently "abled," and they must be culturally nonmyopic in order to serve the great diversity of children and their families in a complex, fast-changing, and pluralistic global community. Early childhood education is a tapestry created by the energies of many different people, working with many different children and families in diverse neighborhoods, communities, and cultures. Weavers of this tapestry are all who have the thread of conviction and dedication to put into practice what they know and believe is the best for children. This book exposes the reader to a multitude of ideas and applications emanating from diverse historical, cultural, theoretical, and philosophical sources. A seminal question remains: "What concepts, realizations, insights, and ideas tied to early childhood educational practices are relevant for use in local, particular situations in today's world?" Readers are urged to judge for themselves what is meaningful to them as they strive to construct a composite, integrative view of the early childhood profession. In particular, how does one weave an understanding of current initiatives and challenges relevant to educating young children in these dynamic and turbulent times that are marked by distinct social and educational trends? Sociodemographic changes in the United States and globally, coupled with the ever-increasing numbers of children in poverty, children who are homeless, children of immigrants and migrant children, single-parent families, children living in "trial families," lesbi-gay families, and the globalization of childhood, have all presented new challenges to early childhood education. Teachers working with young children must constantly try to find the right balance between their need to make developmental demands on children and their need to show appreciation of individual expression. Educational trends in the early childhood area include a renewed call for effective curricula brought on by the public's growing awareness of low-quality child care in the United States and elsewhere, together with better appreciation of the importance of early social and cognitive stimulation spurred, in part, by early brain development research. There is heightened concern over curricula for English language learners, the academic performance of low-income children and children of color, and disproportionate numbers of children of color placed in remedial and special education classes in the United States. At the same time, as we achieve consensus on the importance of early education, more and more state governments are legislating, often without sufficient fiznding, univ

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