9781405102582

Architectural Theory Volume I - An Anthology from Vitruvius to 1870

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  • ISBN13:

    9781405102582

  • ISBN10:

    1405102586

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-09-02
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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Summary

Architectural Theory: Vitruvius to 1870 is a landmark anthology that surveys the development of the field of architecture from its earliest days to the year 1870. The first truly comprehensive anthology that brings together the classic essays in the field, the volume chronicles the major developments and trends in architecture from Vitruvius to Gottfried Semper. Volume 1 of the first overview of architectural thought from antiquity to the present day; this volume covers 25 B.C. to 1870 Collects over 200 classic essays in the field, organized thematically for the student and scholar, covering Classicism, Neoclassicism, the Enlightenment, Romanticism, and the Gothic Includes German, French, and Italian essays appearing in English here for the first time Features a general introduction and headnotes to each essay written by a renowned expert on architectural theory.

Author Biography

Harry Francis Mallgrave is Professor of History and Theory at the Illinois Institute of Technology. His l996 book Gottfried Semper: Architect of the Nineteenth Century was awarded the Alice Davis Hitchcock Award by the Society of Architectural Historians. He is also the author of Modern Architectural Theory 1673–1968 published in 2005.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
General Introduction xxiii
Part I: Classicism and the Renaissance 1(56)
A. The Classical and Medieval Traditions
3(23)
Introduction
3(23)
1. Vitruvius
5(4)
from On Architecture, Book 1 (c.25 Bc)
2. Vitruvius
9(2)
from On Architecture, Book 2 (c.25 BC)
3. Vitruvius
11(1)
from On Architecture, Book 3 (c.25 BC)
4. Vitruvius
12(3)
from On Architecture, Book 4 (c.25 BC)
5. Old Testament
15(3)
from I Kings
6. Old Testament
18(2)
from The Book of Ezekiel (c.586 Bc)
7. New Testament
20(2)
from The Revelation of Jesus Christ to Saint John (c.95 AD)
8. Abbot Suger
22(2)
from The Book of Suger, Abbot of Saint-Denis (c.1144)
9. William Durandus
24(2)
from The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments (1286)
B. Renaissance and Baroque Ideals
26(31)
Introduction
26(1)
10. Antonio di Tuccio Manetti
28(31)
from The Life of Brunelleschi (1480's)
11. Leon Battista Alberti
30(2)
from On the Art of Building, Prologue and Book I (1443-52)
12. Leon Battista Alberti
32(2)
from On the Art of Building, Book 6 (1443-52)
13. Leon Battista Alberti
34(2)
from On the Art of Building, Book 9 (1443-52)
14. Il Filarete
36(3)
from Book 1 of his untitled treatise on architecture (1461-3)
15. Il Filarete
39(3)
from Book 8 of his untitled treatise on architecture
16. Sebastiano Serlio
42(2)
from Book 3, The Complete Works on Architecture and Perspective (1540)
17. Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola
44(2)
from Preface to Rules of the Five Orders of Architecture (1562)
18. Palladio
46(2)
from The Four Books of Architecture (1570)
19. Juan Bautista Villalpando
48(2)
from Ezekiel Commentaries (1604)
20. Georgio Vasari
50(3)
from Preface to Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Architects, Painters, and Sculptors (1550, 1568)
21. Georgio Vasari
53(2)
from "Life of Michelangelo" in Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Architects, Painters, and Sculptors (1550, 1568)
22. Peter Paul Rubens
55(2)
from Preface to Palaces of Genoa (1622)
Part II: Classicism in France and Britain 57(62)
A. French Classicism: Ancients and Moderns
59(29)
Introduction
59(1)
23. René Descartes
61(27)
from Rules for the Direction of the Mind (1628)
24. Roland Fréart de Chambray
62(3)
from Preface to A Parallel of the Ancient Architecture with the Modern (1650)
25. Paul Fréart de Chantelou
65(5)
from Diary of the Cavaliere Bernini's Visit to France (1665)
26. François Blondel
70(2)
from "Inaugural Lecture to the Academy of Architecture" (1671)
27. François Blondel,
72(1)
from Architecture Course (1675)
28. René Ouvrard
72(2)
from Harmonic Architecture (1677)
29. Claude Perrault
74(2)
annotations to French translation of The Ten Books of Architecture of Vitruvius (1673)
30. François Blondel
76(1)
from Architecture Course, Vol. II (1683)
31. Claude Perrault
77(1)
from The Ten Books of Architecture of Vitruvius, second edition (1684)
32. Claude Perrault
78(3)
from Ordonnance for the Five Kinds of Columns After the Method of the Ancients (1683)
33. Jean-François Félibien
81(1)
from Preface to Historical Survey of the Life and Works of the Most Celebrated Architects (1687)
34. Charles Perrault
82(1)
from Preface to Parallel of the Ancients and Moderns with Regard to the Arts and Sciences (1688)
35. Charles Perrault
83(1)
from "Design of a Portal for the Church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris" (1697)
36. Michel de Frémin
84(2)
from Critical Memoirs on Architecture (1702)
37. Jean-Louis de Cordemoy
86(2)
from New Treatise on All Architecture or the Art of Building (1706, 1714)
B. British Classicism and Palladianism
88(31)
Introduction
88(1)
38. Henry Wotton
89(32)
from The Elements of Architecture (1624)
39. Christopher Wren
91(2)
from Tract I on architecture (mid-1670's)
40. Christopher Wren
93(1)
from Tracts II and IV on architecture (mid-1670's)
41. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury
94(4)
from Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times (1711)
42. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury
98(3)
from 'A Letter Concerning Design" (1712)
43. Colin Campbell
101(2)
Introduction to Vitruvius Britannicus, Vol. I (1715)
44. Nicholas Du Bois
103(3)
Translator's Preface to The Architecture of A. Palladio (1715)
45. William Kent
106(1)
"Advertisement" to The Designs of Inigo Jones (1727)
46. James Gibbs
107(2)
Introduction to A Book of Architecture (1728)
47. Robert Morris
109(3)
from An Essay in Defence of Ancient Architecture (1728)
48. Alexander Pope
112(2)
from Of False Taste (1731)
49. Isaac Ware
114(1)
"Advertisement" to Andrea Palladio: The Four Books of Architecture (1737)
50. Robert Morris
115(4)
from "An Essay upon Harmony" (1739)
Part III: Neoclassicism and the Enlightenment 119(102)
A. Early Neoclassicism
121(33)
Introduction
121(1)
51. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
122(32)
from Preface to Outline for a Historical Architecture (1721)
52. Voltaire
123(2)
from Philosophic Letters on the English (1733)
53. Jacques-Gabriel Soufflot
125(1)
from "Memoir on Architectural Proportions" (1739)
54. Jacques-Gabriel Soufflot
126(1)
from "Memoir on Gothic Architecture" (1741)
55. Carlo Lodoli
127(3)
from Notes for a projected treatise on architecture (c.1740's)
56. Baron de Montesquieu
130(2)
from Preface to The Spirit of the Laws (1748)
57. Jean JacquesRousseau
132(3)
from "Discourse on the Sciences and Arts" (1750)
58. Jean Le Rond D'Alembert
135(3)
from "Preliminary Discourse of the Editors" (1751)
59. Jacques-François Blondel
138(2)
from "Architecture" in Diderot's Encyclopedia (1751)
60. Charles-Étienne Briseux
140(1)
from Preface to Treatise on Essential Beauty in the Arts (1752)
61. Marc-Antoine Laugier
141(3)
from Essay on Architecture (1753)
62. Marc-Antoine Laugier
144(3)
from Essay on Architecture (1753)
63. Isaac Ware
147(1)
from A Complete Body of Architecture, Chapter II (1756)
64. Isaac Ware
148(2)
from A Complete Body of Architecture, Chapter IX (1756)
65. William Chambers
150(2)
from A Treatise on Civil Architecture (1759)
66. William Chambers
152(2)
from A Treatise on the Decorative Part of Civil Architecture (1791)
B. Greece and the Classical Ideal
154(36)
Introduction
154(1)
67. James Stuart and Nicholas Revett
155(35)
from "Proposals for publishing an accurate description of the Antiquities of Athens" (1748)
68. Robert Wood and James Dawkins
158(1)
from The Ruins of Palmyra (1753)
69. Johann Joachim Winckelmann
159(4)
from Reflections on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture (1755)
70. Allan Ramsay
163(2)
from "A Dialogue on Taste" in The Investigator (1755)
71. Julien-David Le Roy
165(3)
from The Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece (1758)
72. Julien-David Le Roy
168(1)
from The Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece (1758)
73. James Stuart and Nicholas Revett
169(3)
from Preface to The Antiquities of Athens (1762)
74. Johann Joachim Winckelmann
172(2)
from History of the Art of Antiquity (1764)
75. Johann Joachim Winckelmann
174(2)
from History of the Art of Antiquity (1764)
76. Johann Joachim Winckelmann
176(2)
from History of the Art of Antiquity (1764)
77. Giovanni Battista Piranesi
178(7)
from "Observations on the Letter of Monsieur Mariette" (1765)
78. Giovanni Battista Piranesi
185(3)
from Opinions on Architecture (1765)
79. Giovanni Battista Piranesi
188(2)
from "An Apologetical Essay in Defence of the Egyptian and Tuscan Architecture" (1769)
C. Character and Expression
190(31)
Introduction
190(1)
80. Germain Boffrand
191(32)
from Book of Architecture (1745)
81. Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
193(2)
from Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge (1746)
82. Julien-David Le Roy
195(2)
from History of the Arrangement and Different Forms that the Christians Have Given to Their Churches (1764)
83. Jacques-François Blondel
197(2)
from Course of Architecture (1771)
84. Nicolas Le Camus de Mezieres
199(2)
from The Genius of Architecture (1780)
85. Nicolas Le Camus de Mézières
201(3)
from The Genius of Architecture (1780)
86. Jean-Louis Viel de Saint-Maux
204(2)
from Letters on the Architecture of the Ancients and the Moderns (1787)
87. A.C. Quatremère de Quincy
206(4)
from Methodical Encyclopedia (1788)
88. Étienne-Louis Boullée
210(3)
from Architecture, Essay on Art (c.1794)
89. Étienne-Louis Boullée
213(3)
from Architecture, Essay on Art (c.1794)
90. Claude Nicolas Ledoux
216(2)
from Architecture Considered in Relation to Art, Morals, and Legislation (1804)
91. John Soane
218(3)
from Royal Academy Lectures on Architecture (V and XI; 1812-15)
Part IV: Theories of the Picturesque and the Sublime 221(110)
A. Sources of the Picturesque
223(26)
Introduction
223(1)
92. John Locke
224(21)
from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
93. William Temple
229(1)
from "Upon the Gardens of Epicurus; or, of Gardening in the Year 1685" (1692)
94. John Vanbrugh
230(2)
from Letter to the Duchess of Marlborough (1709)
95. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury
232(2)
from "The Moralists" (1709)
96. Joseph Addison
234(5)
from The Spectator (1712)
97. Robert Castell
239(2)
from The Villas of the Ancients Illustrated (1728)
98. Batty Langley
241(2)
from New Principles of Gardening (1728)
99. Robert Morris
243(2)
from Lectures on Architecture (1736)
100. William Chambers
245(4)
from Designs of Chinese Buildings (1757)
B. Toward a Relativist Aesthetics
249(41)
Introduction
249(1)
101. John Locke
250(3)
from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, fourth edition (1700)
102. Joseph Addison
253(3)
from The Spectator (1712)
103. Jean Baptiste du Bos
256(2)
from Critical Reflections on Poetry, Painting, and Music (1719)
104. Francis Hutcheson
258(3)
from An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725)
105. George Berkeley
261(5)
from the "Third Dialogue" of Alciphron (1732)
106. David Hume
266(1)
from A Treatise of Human Nature (1739-40)
107. Allan Ramsey
267(2)
from "A Dialogue on Taste" in The Investigator (1755)
108. Alexander Gerard
269(2)
from An Essay on Taste (1756)
109. David Hume
271(2)
from "Of the Standard of Taste" (1757)
110. Edmund Burke
273(4)
from A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757)
111. Edmund Burke
277(7)
from A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757)
112. Lord Kames
284(2)
from Elements of Criticism (1762)
113. Robert and James Adam
286(4)
from Preface to The Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam (1773-8)
C. Consolidation of Picturesque Theory
290(41)
Introduction
290(1)
114. Thomas Whately
291(4)
from Observations on Modern Gardening (1770)
115. Horace Walpole
295(3)
from "The History of the Modern Taste in Gardening" (1771)
116. William Chambers
298(2)
from A Dissertation on Oriental Gardening (1772)
117. William Gilpin
300(3)
from Observations on the River Wye (1782)
118. Joshua Reynolds
303(2)
from Discourses on Art (1786)
119. John Soane
305(2)
from Plans, Elevations, and Sections of Buildings (1788)
120. Uvedale Price
307(5)
from Essays on the Picturesque (1794)
121. Richard Payne Knight
312(4)
from "Postscript" to The Landscape, second edition (1795)
122. Humphry Repton
316(3)
from Sketches and Hints on Landscape Gardening (1795)
123. Uvedale Price
319(3)
from "An Essay on Architecture and Buildings as connected with Scenery" (1798)
124. Richard Payne Knight
322(3)
from An Analytical Inquiry into the Principles of Taste (1805)
125. John Soane
325(8)
from Royal Academy Lectures on Architecture, V, VIII, and XI (1812-15)
Part V: The Rise of Historicism in the Nineteenth Century 331(140)
A. Challenges to Classicism in France, 1802-34
333(29)
Introduction
333(1)
126. Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand
334(4)
from Précis of the Lectures on Architecture (1802)
127. A.C. Quatremère de Quincy
338(2)
from On Egyptian Architecture (1803)
128. Christian Ludwig Stieglitz
340(1)
from Archaeology of the Architecture of the Greeks and Romans (1801)
129. A.C. Quatremère de Quincy
341(2)
from The Olympian Jupiter (1814)
130. Charles Robert Cockerell
343(1)
from "On the Aegina Marbles" (1819)
131. William Kinnard
344(1)
annotations to Stuart and Revett's The Antiquities of Athens, second edition (1825)
132. Otto Magnus von Stackelberg
345(2)
from The Temple of Apollo at Bassae in Arcadia (1826)
133. Jacques Ignace Hittorff
347(1)
from "Polychrome Architecture Among the Greeks" (1830)
134. Gottfried Semper
348(3)
from Preliminary Remarks on Polychrome Architecture and Sculpture in Antiquity (1834)
135. Léon Vaudoyer
351(2)
excerpts from three letters of 1829, 1830, and 1831
136. Émile Barrault
353(3)
from To Artists (1830)
137. Victor Hugo
356(1)
from The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1832)
138. Gottfried Semper
357(2)
from Preliminary Remarks on Polychrome Architecture and Sculpture in Antiquity (1834)
139. Léonce Reynaud
359(3)
from 'Architecture" in the New Encyclopedia (1834)
B. The Gothic Revival in Britain, Germany, and France
362(33)
Introduction
362(1)
140. Horace Walpole
363(1)
from Letter to H. Zouch (1759)
141. Horace Walpole
364(2)
from A Description of the Villa of Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill (1774)
142. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
366(2)
from "On German Architecture" (1772)
143. François René Chateaubriand
368(2)
from The Genius of Christianity (1802)
144. Friedrich von Schlegel
370(3)
from Notes on a Trip through the Netherlands (1806)
145. Joseph Görres
373(2)
from "The Cathedral in Cologne" (1814)
146. Georg Moller
375(1)
from Monuments of German Architecture (1815-21)
147. Thomas Rickman
376(2)
from An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture (1817)
148. William Whewell
378(3)
from Architectural Notes on German Churches (1830)
149. Robert Willis
381(2)
from Remarks on the Architecture of the Middle Ages (1835)
150. A. W N. Pugin
383(2)
from Contrasts (1836)
151. A.W.N. Pugin
385(1)
from The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841)
152. John Mason Neale and Benjamin Webb
386(2)
from The Ecclesiologist (1841)
153. Victor Hugo
388(2)
from The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1832)
154. Léonce Reynaud
390(1)
from "Architecture" in the New Encyclopedia (1834)
155. Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
391(4)
from "On the Construction of Religious Buildings in France" (1844)
C. The German Style Debate
395(30)
Introduction
395(1)
156. Immanuel Kant
396(2)
from Critique of Judgment (1790)
157. August Schlegel
398(1)
from Lectures on Literature and the Fine Arts (1801-2)
158. Friedrich Gilly
399(2)
from "Some Thoughts on the Necessity of Endeavoring to Unify the Various Departments of Architecture..." (1799)
159. Karl Friedrich Schinkel
401(2)
Literary fragments (c.1805)
160. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
403(3)
from The Philosophy of Fine Art (1820's)
161. Friedrich von Gärtner
406(1)
from Letter to Johann Martin von Wagner (1828)
162. Heinrich Hübsch
407(3)
from In What Style Should We Build? (1828)
163. Rudolf Wiegmann
410(2)
from "Remarks on the Book: In What Style Should We Build?" (1829)
164. Karl Friedrich Schinkel
412(2)
from Notes for a textbook on architecture (c.1830)
165. Karl Friedrich Schinkel
414(1)
from Notes for a textbook on architecture (c.1835)
166. Rudolf Wiegmann
415(2)
from "Thoughts on the Development of a National Architectural Style for the Present" (1841)
167. Johann Heinrich Wolff
417(2)
from "Remarks on the Architectural Questions Broached by Professor Stier..." (1845)
168. Eduard Metzger
419(2)
from "Contribution to the Contemporary Question: In What Style Should One Build!" (1845)
169. Carl Bötticher
421(4)
from "The Principles of the Hellenic and Germanic Ways of Building" (1846)
D. The Rise of American Theory
425(46)
Introduction
425(1)
170. Thomas Jefferson
426(6)
Letters (1787, 1791, 1805, 1810)
171. Benjamin Latrobe
432(3)
from Letter to Thomas Jefferson (1807)
172. George Tucker
435(2)
from "On Architecture" (1814)
173. William Strickland
437(2)
from Introductory lecture on architecture (1824)
174. Thomas U. Walter
439(1)
from "Of Modern Architecture" (1841)
175. Arthur Delavan Gilman
440(3)
from "Architecture in the United States" (1844)
176. Thomas Alexander Tefft
443(1)
from "The Cultivation of True Taste" (1851)
177. Ralph Waldo Emerson
444(2)
from "Self-Reliance" (1841)
178. Ralph Waldo Emerson
446(3)
from "Thoughts on Art" (1841)
179. Horatio Greenough
449(3)
from Letter to Washington Allston (1831)
180. Horatio Greenough
452(2)
from 'American Architecture" (1843)
181. Horatio Greenough
454(2)
from "Structure and Organization" (1852)
182. Henry David Thoreau
456(1)
from his journal (January 11, 1852)
183. Andrew Jackson Downing
457(3)
from A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1841)
184. Andrew Jackson Downing
460(2)
from Cottage Residences (1842)
185. Andrew Jackson Downing
462(2)
from Hints to Persons about Building in the Country (1847)
186. Andrew Jackson Downing
464(1)
from The Architecture of Country Houses (1850)
187. Calvert Vaux
465(3)
from Villas and Cottages (1857)
188. James Jackson Jarves
468(5)
from The Art-Idea (1864)
Part VI: Historicism in the Industrial Age 471(90)
A. The Battle of the Styles in Britain
473(32)
Introduction
473(1)
189. Thomas Hope
474(2)
from Observations on the Plans and Elevations Designed by James Wyatt (1804)
190. Thomas Hope
476(2)
from An Historical Essay on Architecture (1835)
191. Thomas Leverton Donaldson
478(1)
from "Preliminary Discourse before the University College of London" (1842)
192. John Ruskin
479(3)
from The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849)
193. James Fergusson, A.W.N. Pugin, Edward Lacy Garbett, and Robert Kerr
482(6)
from The Builder (1850)
194. Edward Lacy Garbett
488(2)
from Rudimentary Treatise on the Principles of Design in Architecture (1850)
195. John Ruskin
490(3)
from "The Nature of Gothic" (1851-3)
196. Matthew Digby Wyatt
493(2)
from The Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century (1851)
197. Richard Redgrave
495(2)
from "Supplementary Report on Design" (1852)
198. Owen Jones
497(2)
from The Grammar of Ornament (1856)
199. John Ruskin
499(1)
from "The Deteriorative Power of Conventional Art over Nations" (1859)
200. Robert Kerr
500(2)
"The Battle of the Styles," from The Builder (1860)
201. James Fergusson
502(1)
from History of the Modern Styles of Architecture (1862)
202. William Morris
503(2)
Prospectus for Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Company (1861)
B. Rationalism, Eclecticism, and Realism in France
505(24)
Introduction
505(1)
203. Albert Lenoir and Léon Vaudoyer
506(2)
from "Studies of Architecture in France" (1844)
204. Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
508(2)
from "On the Construction of Religious Building in France" (1845)
205. César Daly
510(2)
from "On Liberty in Art" (1847)
206. Léonce Reynaud
512(1)
from Treatise on Architecture (1850)
207. Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
513(2)
from "Architecture" in Reasoned Dictionary (1854)
208. Gustave Courbet
515(1)
from "Statement on Realism" (1855)
209. Charles Baudelaire
516(2)
from "The Painter of Modern Life" (1859)
210. Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
518(3)
from Lectures on Architecture, Lecture VI (1859)
211. César Daly
521(1)
from Revue générale, Vol. 21 (1863)
212. César Daly
522(2)
from Revue générale, Vol. 23 (1866)
213. Bourgeois de Lagny
524(1)
from "Salon of 1866"
214. Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
525(1)
from "Style" in Reasoned Dictionary (1866)
215. Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
526(1)
from Lectures on Architecture, Lecture XII (1866)
216. Émile Zola
527(2)
from The Covered Market of Paris (1872)
C. Tectonics and Style in Germany
529(32)
Introduction
529(1)
217. Karl von Schnaase
530(1)
from Dutch Letters (1834)
218. Karl Bötticher
531(2)
from Greek Tectonics (1843)
219. Eduard van der Nüll
533(1)
from "Suggestions on the Skillful Relation of Ornament to Untreated Form" (1845)
220. Heinrich Leibnitz
534(2)
from The Structural Element in Architecture (1849)
221. Gottfried Semper
536(4)
from The Four Elements of Architecture (1851)
222. Gottfried Semper
540(5)
from Science, Industry, and Art (1852)
223. Jacob Burckhardt
545(1)
from The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860)
224. Jacob Burckhardt
546(1)
from The History of the Italian Renaissance (1867)
225. Gottfried Semper
547(4)
from Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts (1860)
226. Gottfried Semper
551(4)
from Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts (1860)
227. Rudolf Hermann Lotze
555(1)
from History of German Aesthetics (1868)
228. Gottfried Semper
556(2)
from On Architectural Style (1869)
229. Richard Lucae
558(3)
from "On the Meaning and Power of Space in Architecture" (1869)
Additional Recommended Readings 561(7)
Acknowledgments 568(15)
Index 583

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