9780321419255

Arguing Across the Disciplines A Rhetoric and Reader

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780321419255

  • ISBN10:

    0321419251

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-08-17
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Summary

Arguing Across the Disciplinesis the only text of its kind, combining instruction in argumentation with writing across the disciplines through discussion of a diverse selection of classic and contemporary arguments in a wide range of disciplines. Combines instruction on argument and writing across the disciplines. Arguments found in Liberal Arts, Social Sciences, and Natural Sciences. General Interest

Table of Contents

Rhetorical Contents xvii
Contents by the Kind of Claim xix
Contents by Theme and Subject xxi
Preface xxiii
PART 1 1
1 Reading and Responding to Arguments
1
The Nature of Argument
1
Rhetoric and Persuasion
3
Critical Reading for Ideas and Organization
5
Identifying a Thesis
5
Responding to What You Read
7
Marking as You Read
8
Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion
9
A Sample Essay for Student Annotation
10
EDWARD T. HALL
"Hidden Culture" (Anthropology)
10
Keeping a Reading Journal
15
Turning Annotations into Journal Entries
15
Summarizing
16
Using Your Reading Journal to Generate Ideas for Writing
19
Three Short Arguments for Critical Reading (in the Liberal Arts, Social Sciences, and Sciences)
20
ROGER EBERT
"Great Movies" (Film Criticism)
20
ERIC SCHLOSSER
"Kid Kustomers" (Marketing)
24
LOREN EISELEY
"How Flowers Changed the World" (Botany)
28
2 Strategies for Arguing
34
Introduction to the Toulmin Model
34
Kinds of Claims
38
The Goals of Claims
40
Factual Claims Define and Draw Distinctions
40
Causal Claims Identify Possible Causes for a Given Effect or Possible Effects for a Given Cause
44
Value Claims Make Value Judgments
51
Policy Claims Make Recommendations
55
Definition
59
Purposes and Uses of Definition
59
Methods of Defining Terms
63
JAMES BALDWIN
"If Black English Isn't a Language, Then Tell Me What Is?"
69
3 Supporting Arguments
72
Using Evidence
72
Testimony of Experts
72
Examples Drawn from Personal Experiences
75
Hypothetical Cases (Scenarios and "What If" Situations)
78
Analogies
79
Statistics
82
Understanding Warrants
89
Underlying Assumptions
91
Evaluating Types of Warrants
96
Types of Warrants
96
Considering the Audience
105
The Rogerian Method
106
The Toulmin Model
109
4 Arguing in the Disciplines
115
Inquiry in the Liberal Arts, Social Sciences, and Sciences
116
Arguing in the Arts
121
Arguing in Ethics
124
Arguing in History
126
Arguing in the Social Sciences
127
Arguing in the Law
129
Arguing in Business
131
Arguing in the Sciences
133
Three Short Arguments for Analysis
136
KENNETH M. STAMPP
"To Make Them Stand in Fear" (History)
136
JOHN M. DARLEY AND BIBB LATANÉ
"Why People Don't Help in a Crisis" (Social Psychology)
140
ARTHUR D. HASLER AND JAMES A. LARSEN
"The Homing Salmon" (Ichthyology)
145
5 Reasoning in Inductive and Deductive Arguments
152
Methods of Reasoning
152
Inductive Reasoning
152
By Means of Causal Generalization, Sampling, and Analogy
154
Deductive Reasoning
160
Logical Fallacies
165
Fallacies That Result When No Real Evidence Is Presented to Support the Claim
165
Fallacies That Result When the Evidence Is Not Relevant to the Claim
165
Fallacies That Result When Insufficient Evidence Is Offered to Support a Claim
166
Fallacies That Result from Unwarranted Assumptions
167
A Sample Inductive Argument for Analysis
168
GARRETT HARDIN
"Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Helping the Poor" (Ethics)
168
A Sample Deductive Argument for Analysis
178
MILTON FRIEDMAN
"The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits" (Economics)
178
6 The Role of Language in Argument
186
Tone
186
Irony
188
Satire
190
An Essay for Analysis
192
MARK TWAIN
"The Lowest Animal" (Literature)
192
Language and Persuasion
198
Language Shapes Thought
198
Emotionally Charged Language
198
Connotations of Words
199
Euphemisms
200
Slanting
202
Labels That Stereotype
202
Sexist, Racist, and Agist Language
204
Words That Create Images
206
Clichés
208
Slang
208
Abstract and Concrete Language
209
Jargon
211
The Ethical Dimension of Persuasion
212
Propaganda: The Language of Doublespeak
212
Intensifying and Downplaying: Strategies for Persuasion
213
Two Short Arguments for Analysis
217
CHARLES SEVILLA
"The Case of the Non-Unanimous Jury" (Law)
217
ROBERT E. JONES
"Justice Can Be Served Despite Dissenting Votes" (Law)
220
7 Writing and Refuting Arguments
223
Prewriting
223
Selecting an Issue
223
Topics for Possible Papers in the Liberal Arts, Social Sciences, and Sciences
224
Invention Strategies
227
Freewriting
227
The Five W's
228
Discovering Different Perspectives
229
Mapping
230
Writing a Dialogue
231
Arriving at a Thesis: Claims of Fact, Causation, Value, and Policy
231
Making Up an Outline: Supporting Your Claim
235
Writing the Introduction
236
Writing the Middle of the Essay According to the Type of Argument
237
Writing the Conclusion
238
Audience
240
Writing the First Draft
243
Revising and Rewriting Your Essay
244
Analyzing Someone Else's Argument
246
Gain an Overview
246
Read the Text for Basic Meaning and Organization
247
Reread the Text and Analyze the Rhetorical Situation
247
How to Analyze an Argument
248
Does the Argument Acknowledge Other Points of View?
248
Text Annotations
249
Sample Annotated Essay
250
JUDITH ORTIZ COFER
"The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria" (Cultural Anthropology)
250
Identifying Your Thesis
257
Providing Evidence by Paraphrasing or Quoting
258
Writing from a Single Source: Sample Student Essay
260
Refuting Arguments
264
Analyzing an Argument and Inventing Your Own
265
An Argument with a Student's Refutation
267
ESTHER VILAR
"The Business World as a Hunting Ground" (Cultural Anthropology)
268
A Student's Refutation of Vilar's Essay, "Are Men Really the Slaves of Women?"
272
8 Reading and Analyzing Visual Texts
277
Elements of Design
278
Analyzing a Web Site
281
Using Tables, Graphs, and Charts to Present Information Through Visual Means
282
Reading Images as Cultural Signs
286
Analyzing an Advertisement
287
The Paper Clip Project
288
The Rhetoric of Advertising
290
The Techniques of Advertising
290
Emotional Appeals Used in Advertising
292
The Language of Advertising
294
9 Writing an Argument from Sources
299
Finding a Question to Answer
299
Using the Library
301
Using the Online Catalog
302
Using Periodical Indexes
303
Using Book Reviews
303
Using Newspaper Indexes
305
Using Abstracts
305
Using Field Research—Interviews
305
Using Databases
306
Evaluating Source Material
308
Drawing Up a Working Bibliography
308
The Dangers of Undocumented Sources
310
Note-Taking Procedures
311
Using Your Notes to Create an Outline
311
The Preliminary Thesis Statement
312
Discovering Your Own Position
312
Creating the Rough Draft
313
Revising the Rough Draft into a Final Draft
314
Using the MLA, APA, and CSE Styles to Document the Manuscript
315
The MLA Style of In-Text Citation
315
Documenting Sources in the MLA "Works Cited" Format
319
Sample Annotated Student Research Paper in MLA Style
324
The APA Style of In-Text Citation
332
Preparing a List of References in the APA Format
333
Sample Annotated Student Research Paper in APA Style
336
The CSE Style of In-Text Citation
345
Documenting Sources in the CSE Style
345
Sample Annotated Student Research Paper in CSE Style
346
PART 2 357
Liberal Arts
Art and Architecture
357
RICHARD KELLER SIMON
"The Shopping Mall and the Formal Garden"
357
The shopping mall incorporates many garden designs of the past to create a self-enclosed world devoted to consuming.
Ethics and Bioethics
362
HANS RUESCH
"Slaughter of the Innocent"
362
Vivisection is not only cruel to the animal subjects, and immoral, but produces results that when applied to humans have proved lethal.
PHILIP WHEELWRIGHT
"The Meaning of Ethics"
369
A philosopher explains how the constraints of ethics can provide a powerful tool for evaluating and resolving complex moral dilemmas in everyday life.
History
388
FRED KAPLAN
"The End of History"
376
The short-lived nature of electronic documents challenges the notion of a permanent historical record.
Journalism
379
LANCE MORROW
"Imprisoning Time in a Rectangle"
379
Photojournalists can go beyond simply recording events and shape how we view history.
Language and Linguistics
383
HELEN KELLER
"The Day Language Came into My Life"
383
The author's experiences demonstrate that language is the indispensable key in being able to correlate events, objects, and emotions, and to relate to others.
Literature
386
URSULA LE GUIN
"American SF and The Other"
386
Science fiction not only stereotypes women but portrays the social, cultural, and racial "other" as alien.
Music
390
AARON COPLAND
"Film Music"
390
A composer argues that film scores play an important role in enhancing the visual effects of the movie.
Philosophy and Religion
396
JEAN-PAUL SARTRE
"Existentialism"
396
Belief in a universe in which God does not exist entails accepting responsibility for one's choices.
Social Science
402
American Studies
402
PHILIP SLATER
"Want-Creation Fuels Americans' Addictiveness"
402
The emphasis on success and quick solutions in American culture are the root causes of rampant drug use.
Business and Marketing
407
ROBERT F. HARTLEY
"The Edsel: Marketing, Planning and Research Gone Awry"
407
The author analyzes the classic marketing mistake of the twentieth century.
Communication
420
NEIL POSTMAN AND STEVE POWERS
"The Bias of Language, The Bias of Pictures"
420
Glitzy entertainment trumps real news in determining what gets covered on television newscasts.
Cultural Anthropology
427
HAROLD MINER
"Body Rituals Among the Nacirema"
427
The bizarre rituals of a little-known tribe reveal an obsession with daily hygiene supplemented by frequent visits to health care professionals.
Economics
433
THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS
"The Principle of Population"
433
A perfect society is an illusion since population growth will always exceed the available food supply.
Education
437
NAT HENTOFF
"'Speech Codes' on the Campus and Problems of Free Speech"
437
The author argues that campus speech codes are incompatible with the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech.
Political Science
444
DANIELA DEANE
"The Little Emperors"
444
A generation of overfed, spoiled boys who will be unable to find wives is one of the unanticipated results of China's mandatory one-child policy.
MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.
"I Have a Dream"
455
A leader of the civil rights movement uses a variety of rhetorical strategies to argue for the acceptance of his dream of freedom and equality for all Americans.
Psychology
459
STANLEY MILGRAM
"The Perils of Obedience"
459
The veneer of authority was sufficient justification for some subjects to inflict painful shocks on others in this classic experiment.
PHILIP G. ZIMBARDO
"The Stanford Prison Experiment"
473
Student volunteers overly identified with their roles as warden or prisoner in this experiment that had to be brought to an early halt.
Sociology
487
GLORIA STEINEM
"The Time Factor"
487
The founder of Ms. magazine explains how social class, gender, and race affect our ability to plan for the future.
Science
490
Biology
490
CHARLES DARWIN
from The Origin of the Species
490
The author replies to objections that the fossil record fails to show the full range of intermediary forms that his theory postulates.
ROBERT SAPOLSKY
"Bugs in the Brain"
501
The rabies virus surprisingly can deactivate a rat's instinctive fear of cats and thus can be ingested into the only species in which it can replicate itself.
ERIC SCIGLIANO
"Through the Eye of an Octopus"
505
Observation of the octopus, a big-brained invertebrate that displays cognitive traits, challenges the idea that intelligence evolved from fish to amphibians to primates.
Ecology and Environmental Studies
513
ELIZABETH KOLBERT
"Shishmaref, Alaska"
513
An up-to-the-minute report from the Arctic should alarm us about irreversible climate changes due to the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
JOSEPH K. SKINNER
"Big Mac and the Tropical Forests"
519
The destruction of tropical forests for cattle ranching to produce beef for fast-food chains is an environmental catastrophe.
Engineering
526
DONALD A. NORMAN
"Emotional Robots"
526
A professor of computer science and psychology foresees the day when robots will serve human needs in the home.
Epidemiology
531
GINA KOLATA
"An Incident in Hong Kong"
531
A recurrence of the 1918 influenza pandemic is inevitable given the state of animal-breeding locations and food markets in southern China and Hong Kong.
Genetics and Bioengineering
537
CAROL GRUNEWALD
"Monsters of the Brave New World"
537
The ability of scientists to create hybrid species raises questions about whether corporations should be able to invent and own new life forms.
Medicine
543
GEORGE E. VAILLANT
"We Should Retain the Disease Concept of Alcoholism"
543
A physician maintains that genes rather than character traits predispose certain people to become and remain alcoholics.
Oceanography
547
THOR HEYERDAHL
"How to Kill an Ocean"
547
The author's many voyages reveal how vulnerable the seemingly boundless ocean is to pollution.
Physics
557
CHARLES H. TOWNES
"Harnessing Light"
557
The Nobel prize–winning inventor of the laser discusses the research process that led to an invention that changed our world.
Zoology
562
DONALD R. GRIFFIN
"Wordy Apes"
562
A professor of animal behavior views evidence that the use of symbols and tokens by chimpanzees shows that primates possess the ability to communicate.
GUNJA SINHA
"You Dirty Vole"
570
The study of monogamy and promiscuity in voles can help us understand similar behavior in human beings.
Glossary 577
Credits 581
Index 587

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