Art of Thinking, The: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-01-01
  • Publisher: Longman
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Accessible and engaging, this unique text offers strategies for critical and creative thinking and includes many opportunities for practicing these fundamental skills.This text introduces students to the principles and techniques of critical thinking, taking them step-by-step through the problem-solving process. Emphasizing creative and active thought processes, the author asserts that good thinking isn't merely knowing whatnotto do; it is knowing whattodo. Discussions of how to evaluate ideas and how to question long-held assumptions or biases help students look at concepts critically. Brief guides to composing, speaking, and logic show students how to apply the skills that enable them to become clear and creative thinkers.

Table of Contents

Each chapter concludes with ˘Warm-Up Excercises,÷ ˘Applications,÷ and ˘Composition or Speech Excercise.÷
To the Instructor
Be Aware
Developing Your Thinking: An Overview
What Is Thinking?
The Importance of Thinking
Brain and Mind at Work
The Production Phase
The Judgment Phase
Good Thinking Is a Habit
The Structure of This Book
Getting the Most from Your Efforts
Using Feelings to Advantage
Learning to Concentrate
Coping with Frustration
Making Discussion Meaningful
Preliminary Thinking Strategies
Sample Exercises and Responses
Establish a Foundation
Free Will versus Determinism
What Is Truth?
What Is Knowing?
Ways of Knowing
The Problem of Remembering
What Are Opinions?
Expressions of Taste
Expressions of Judgment
Debating Moral Questions
The Basis of Moral Judgment
Dealing with Dilemmas
Broaden Your Perspective
Becoming an Individual
Habits That Hinder Thinking
The Mine-Is-Better Habit
Face Saving
Resistance to Change
Overcoming Bad Habits
Be a Critical Reader
Critical Reading Defined
Making Important Distinctions
The Distinction Between the Person and the Idea
The Distinction Between Matters of Taste and Matters of Judgment
The Distinction Between Fact and Interpretation
The Distinction Between Literal and Ironic Statements
The Distinction Between an Idea's Validity and the Quality of Its Expression
The Distinction Between Language and Reality
A Strategy for Critical Reading
Step 1: Skim
Step 2: Reflect
Step 3: Read
Step 4: Evaluate
Expressing Your Judgment
A Sample Evaluation
Be Creative
The Creative Process
Key Facts About Creativity
Characteristics of Creative People
Applying Creativity to Problems and Issues
Taking a Novel Approach
Devising or Modifying a Process or System
Inventing a New Product or Service
Finding New Uses for Existing Things
Improving Things
Inventing or Redefining a Concept
Stages in the Creative Process
The First Stage: Searching for Challenges
The Second Stage: Expressing the Problem or Issue
The Third Stage: Investigating the Problem or Issue
The Fourth Stage: Producing Ideas
Search for Challenges
The Importance of Curiosity
How Curiosity Is Lost
Regaining Your Curiosity
Six Helpful Techniques
Be Observant
Look for Imperfections
Note Your Own and Others' Dissatisfactions
Search for Causes
Be Sensitive to Implications
Recognize the Opportunity in Controversy
Express the Problem or Issue
Distinguishing Problems from Issues
Expressing Problems
Expressing Issues
When Problems Become Issues
Guidelines for Expressing Problems and Issues
Benefits of Careful Expression
It Helps You Move Beyond the Familiar and Habitual
It Keeps Your Thinking Flexible
It Opens Many Lines of Thought
A Sample Problem
A Sample Issue
Investigate the Problem or Issue
What to Look for
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