Assessment and Intervention for Executive Function Difficulties

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2008-12-05
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Supplemental Materials

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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.


In this text, the authors create an innovative blend of theory, research, and practice to offer clinicians a framework of the role of executive functions (EFs) in behavior and learning in educational settings, focusing on the practical issues involved in the use of assessment tools, tests, report writing, and the implementation and follow-up of targeted interventions. Six case studies are followed throughout the book to build an understanding of the executive difficulties of each child and provide assessments for identifying the difficulties and interventions for dealing with them. A companion CD provides the practitioner with a wealth of resources such as assessment forms, parent and teacher handouts, and behavior tracking charts. This book will offer a new understanding of executive functions to readers, and it will enhance their current practices in the assessment and intervention of executive functions. Book jacket.

Author Biography

George McCloskey, Ph.D., is a professor and director of School Psychology Research at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Lisa M. Perkins, MS, maintains a private practice at the Family Study Center in Danbury, Connecticut Bob Van Divner, Psy.D., is the coordinator of admissions assessment at the Milton Hershey School in Hershey, Pennsylvania

Table of Contents

List of Tables and Figuresp. xi
Series Editors' Forewordp. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Prefacep. xxi
Conceptual Overview
How Do Executive Function Difficulties Affect Children? Six Case Study Examplesp. 3
Case Vignettesp. 3
Case of Justinp. 3
Case of Kevinp. 4
Case of Carolinep. 6
Case of Brettp. 7
Case of Morganp. 7
Case of Alexp. 8
Thinking Throughp. 9
Introduction to Executive Functionsp. 11
What are Executive Functions?p. 13
Executive Functions and Intelligencep. 20
Case Vignettes Revisitedp. 27
Case of Justin Revisitedp. 27
Case of Kevin Revisitedp. 28
Case of Caroline Revisitedp. 30
Case of Brett Revisitedp. 31
Case of Morgan Revisitedp. 31
Case of Alex Revisitedp. 32
Thinking Throughp. 33
Summaryp. 34
Model of Executive Functionsp. 37
A General Holarchical Model of Executive Function Processes from an Integral Perspectivep. 37
Self-Activationp. 39
Self-Regulationp. 40
Self-Regulation and Domains of Functioningp. 43
Self-Realization and Self-Determinationp. 50
Self-Realizationp. 50
Self-Determinationp. 52
Self-Generationp. 54
Trans-Self Integrationp. 56
Arenas of Involvement for Executive Functionsp. 57
The Intrapersonal Arenap. 58
The Interpersonal Arenap. 58
The Environment Arenap. 59
The Symbol System Arenap. 59
Summaryp. 63
Executive Function Development and Related Issuesp. 65
Executive Function Developmentp. 65
Internal Command Versus External Demandp. 72
Executive Functions and Clinical Diagnosesp. 75
Executive Functions and Schoolp. 78
Executive Functions and Brain Behavior Relationshipsp. 81
Case Vignettes Revisitedp. 87
Justinp. 87
Kevinp. 87
Carolinep. 88
Brettp. 88
Morganp. 88
Alexp. 89
Conclusionp. 89
Assessment and Intervention
Assessment of Executive Function Capacities: Methods, Techniques, and Interpretationp. 93
The State of the Art in Assessment of Executive Functionsp. 93
Establishing a General Framework for Assessing Executive Functionsp. 97
Indirect Informal Methodsp. 102
Conducting Informal Interviews with Parents and Teachersp. 103
Indirect Formal Methodsp. 105
Direct Formal Methodsp. 106
What Do Formal Tests of Executive Function Test?p. 108
Principles of Formal Executive Function Assessmentp. 113
Interpretation of Formal Tests Using Cascading Production Analysisp. 116
Cascading Production Decrementsp. 117
Cascading Production Incrementsp. 122
Cautions Related to Interpretation of Executive Function Deficits Using Formal Testsp. 125
Direct Formal Methodsp. 125
Direct Informal Methodsp. 126
Interviews with the Childp. 127
Behavior Observations Across Multiple Settingsp. 127
Process-Oriented Assessmentp. 129
Structured Methods for Employing the Process Approachp. 132
Symbol Searchp. 132
Codingp. 132
Limitations of Informal Direct Methodsp. 133
Summaryp. 134
Academic Skill Development and Assessment of Executive Functionsp. 135
Executive Functions and Classroom Functioning: Learning Versus Producingp. 136
Assessment of Executive Function Difficulties Involved in Academic Skill Problemsp. 139
Self-Regulation Executive Functions and Readingp. 140
Assessment of Self-Regulation Executive Functions Involved in Readingp. 144
Learning and Producing Reading Disabilitiesp. 152
Self-Regulation Executive Functions and Written Expressionp. 153
Assessment of Executive Functions Involved in Written Expressionp. 160
Executive Functions and Mathematicsp. 162
Assessment of Executive Functions Involved in Mathematicsp. 167
Executive Functions and Academic Production in the Upper Gradesp. 170
Case Vignettes Revisitedp. 172
Case of Justinp. 172
Case of Kevinp. 173
Case of Carolinep. 173
Case of Brettp. 174
Case of Morganp. 174
Case of Alexp. 176
Summaryp. 176
Interventions for Executive Function Difficultiesp. 177
Conceptual Basis for Executive Function Interventionp. 177
Executive Function Difficulties Are Associated With Suboptimal Brain Functionp. 177
Brain Function Can Be Altered Through Interventionp. 179
Interventions Can Activate the Use of Intact Brain Functionp. 179
Additional Issues Related to Intervention Conceptionp. 180
Balancing the Teaching of Internal Control with Requirements for External Controlp. 181
The Executive Function Environment in Which Interventions Will Be Implementedp. 181
The Use of Rewards and Punishment During Interventionp. 182
Maturation of Frontal Lobe Neural Circuitsp. 184
Consequences of Unacceptable Behaviorp. 186
Suggested General Guidelines for Planning and Implementing Interventionsp. 187
Interventions for Executive Function Difficulties: An Overview of the State of the Artp. 188
Intervention Strategies Specifically Dealing with Developing Internal Controlp. 189
Intervention Strategies Specifically Dealing with Developing External Controlp. 191
Additional Sources of Intervention Informationp. 192
The Environment Arena of Involvement: A New Frontier for Intervention?p. 193
Specific Intervention Strategies for Executive Function Difficultiesp. 194
Intervention Strategies for Developing Internal Controlp. 195
Increasing Awarenessp. 195
Modeling Appropriate Use of Executive Functionsp. 195
Teaching Specific Executive Functions as Skills Routinesp. 196
Using Verbal Mediationp. 196
Using Verbal or Nonverbal Labelingp. 196
Teaching the Use of Internal Feedbackp. 196
Establishing Self-Administered Rewardsp. 197
Intervention Strategies for Maintaining External Controlp. 197
Pharmacological Treatmentp. 197
Structuring the Environmentp. 197
Structuring Timep. 198
Externalizing Cues for Effective Processingp. 198
Providing Feedbackp. 198
Providing Rewardsp. 199
Aligning External Demands with Internal Desiresp. 199
Applying Intervention Strategies to the 23 Self-Regulation Capacitiesp. 199
Interventions for Executive Function Difficulties Impacting Academic Skill Productionp. 199
Interventions for Executive Function Difficulties Impacting Readingp. 204
Interventions for Executive Function Difficulties Impacting Written Expression Problemsp. 207
Interventions for Executive Function Difficulties Impacting Math Problemsp. 213
Intervention for Executive Function-Related Academic Production Difficulties in the Upper Gradesp. 216
Case Vignettes Revisitedp. 217
Interventions for Justinp. 217
Interventions for Kevinp. 220
Interventions for Carolinep. 223
Interventions for Brettp. 225
Interventions for Morganp. 227
Interventions for Alexp. 228
Summaryp. 229
Executive Functions in the School Settingp. 233
Sharing Knowledge of Executive Functionsp. 234
Applying Knowledge of Executive Functions to Enhance Group and Individual Instructionp. 235
Applying Knowledge of Executive Functions to Problem Behavior Assessment and Interventionp. 236
Approaches to Behavior Problem Interventionp. 241
Applying Executive Function Knowledge to Academic Problem Assessment and Interventionp. 243
Applying Knowledge of Executive Functions When Implementing and Evaluating Interventionsp. 245
How Should Decisions Be Made About Whether or Not Progress Is Being Made?p. 251
How Long Should Intervention Efforts Continue Without Major Modification If the Student Is Not Demonstrating Progress?p. 255
Applying Knowledge of Executive Functions to Advocate for System Changep. 259
Case Vignettes in the Context of School Settingsp. 260
Justin in the School Settingp. 260
Kevin in the School Settingp. 261
Caroline in the School Settingp. 262
Brett in the School Settingp. 263
Morgan in the School Settingp. 264
Alex in the School Settingp. 270
Summaryp. 271
Contextual Applications
Detailed Case Studyp. 275
Case of Carterp. 275
Background and Contextp. 275
Assessment Processesp. 277
Parent Interviewp. 277
Teacher Interviewsp. 278
Classroom Observationsp. 278
Parent and Teacher Behavior Ratingsp. 279
Interview with Carterp. 279
Individual Assessment Work with Carterp. 281
Executive Function Summaryp. 284
Conclusions Based on Assessment Activitiesp. 286
Summary of Problemsp. 290
Post-Assessment Activities and Program Planningp. 290
Program Implementation and Outcomesp. 293
Commentary on Carter's Casep. 298
Summary and Conclusionsp. 305
Conceptualization of Executive Functionsp. 305
Executive Functions and Assessmentp. 308
Executive Functions and Interventionp. 312
Knowledge Sharingp. 320
Closing Commentsp. 322
Referencesp. 327
Indexp. 345
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