Assessment : In Special and Inclusive Education

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  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-01-29
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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As the standard professional resource in the field, ASSESSMENT IN SPECIAL AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION, 11th Edition, offers basic assessment information along with a handbook-style reference of actual reviews of the tests most administered in K?12 schools. Completely up to date, the Eleventh Edition takes a new "dual approach"?teaching readers how to do assessments correctly as well as how to use assessment information to enhance student competence. It educates those who assess students to broaden their labors from efforts designed to make predictions about students' lives to efforts designed to make a difference in the lives of the students they serve.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Context for Assessment in Schools and Current Practices
Assessment Defined
The Importance of Assessment in School and Society
Types of Assessment Decisions Made by Educators
Screening Decisions: Are There Unrecognized Problems?
Progress Monitoring Decisions: Is the Student Making Adequate Progress?
Instructional Planning and Modification Decisions: What Can We Do to Enhance Competence and Build Capacity, and How Can We Do It?
Resource Allocation Decisions: Are Additional Resources Necessary?
Eligibility for Special Education Services Decisions: Is the Student Eligible for Special Education and Related Services?
Program Evaluation: Are Instructional Programs Effective?
Accountability Decisions: Does What We Do Lead to Desired Outcomes?
Important Things to Think About as You Read and Study This Textbook
The Type of Decision Determines Type of Information Needed
Focus on Alterable Behaviors
Assess Instruction Before Assessing Learners
Assessment Is Broader than Testing
Assessments Have Consequences
Not All Assessments are Equal
Assessment Practices are Dynamic
Preparing to Learn About Assessment in Special and Inclusive Education in Today's Schools
Good News
Legal and Ethical Considerations in Assessment
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Major Assessment Provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA)
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
2004 Reauthorization of IDEA
Ethical Considerations
Recognition of the Boundaries of Professional Competence
Respect for the Dignity of Persons
Adherence to Professional Standards on Assessment Test Security
Test Scores and How to Use Them
Basic Quantitative Concepts
Scales of Measurement
Characteristics of Distributions
Average Scores
Measures of Dispersion
Scoring Student Performance
Objective Versus Subjective Scoring
Summarizing Student Performance
Interpretation of Test Performance
Criterion-Referenced Interpretations
Referenced Interpretations
Norm-Referenced Interpretations
Norms Important Characteristics
Proportional Representation
Number of Subjects
Age of Norms
Relevance of Norms
Technical Adequacy
Reliability Error in Measurement
The Reliability Coefficient
Standard Error of Measurement
Estimated True Scores
Confidence Intervals
Validity General Validity
Methods of Validating Test Inferences
Factors Affecting General Validity
Responsibility for Valid Assessment
Using Test Adaptations and Accommodations
Why Be Concerned About Testing Adaptations? Changes in Student Population
Changes in Educational Standards
The Need for Accurate Measurement
It Is Required by Law
The Importance of Promoting Test Accessibility
Concept of Universal Design
Universal Design Applications
Promote Better Testing for All
Factors to Consider in Making Accommodation Decisions
Ability to Understand Assessment Stimuli
Ability to Respond to Assessment Stimuli
Normative Comparisons
Exposure to the Curriculum Being Tested (Opportunity to Learn)
Environmental Considerations
Cultural Considerations
Linguistic Considerations
Categories of Testing Accommodations
Recommendations for Making Accommodation Decisions During Eligibility Testing
Students with Disabilities
Recommendations for Making Accommodation Decisions During Accountability Testing
Assessment in Classrooms
Assessing Behavior Through Observation
General Considerations
Live or Aided Observation
Obtrusive Versus Unobtrusive Observation
Contrived Versus Naturalistic Observation
Defining Behavior
Measurable Characteristics of Behavior
Sampling Behavior
Conducting Systematic Observations
Data Gathering
Data Summarization
Criteria for Evaluating Observed Performances
Teacher-Made Measures of Achievement
Ascertain Skill Development
Monitor Instruction
Document Instructio
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