9780865425880

Atlas of Clinical Endocrinology

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780865425880

  • ISBN10:

    0865425884

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-02-01
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

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Summary

(Current Medicine) Univ. of California, Los Angeles. Includes Thyroid Diseases, Diabetes, Neuroendocrinology and Pituitary Disease, Human Nutrition and Obesity, and Osteoporosis. Addresses state-of-the-art information and solutions to problems covered. Abundant illustrations.

Table of Contents

Thyroid Hormone Formation, Secretion, Transport, Metabolism, and Action
Laura Sabatino
Inder J. Chopra
Thyroid Hormone Formation and Secretion
1(2)
Thyroid Peroxidase
3(1)
Thyroglobulin
3(2)
Thyroid Hormone Transport
5(2)
Thyroid Hormone Metabolism
7(1)
Thyroid Hormone Sulfation
8(2)
Thyroid Hormone Action
10(5)
Serum Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
Elaine M. Kaptein
Jerald C. Nelson
Thyroid Regulation
15(1)
Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Measurements
16(2)
Serum Total-Hormone and Free-Hormone Measurements
18(1)
Serum Free-Thyroxine Measurements
19(6)
Serum Free-Triiodothyronine Measurement
25(1)
Relationship Between Serum TSH and Free T4
26(1)
Effects of Drugs on Thyroid Hormone Metabolism
27(1)
Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Nonthyroidal Illnesses
28(1)
Thyroid Function Testing
29(5)
Congenital and Iodine-Deficiency Goiters
Geraldo Medeiros-Neto
Classification
34(1)
Central Hypothyroidism
34(4)
Thyroid Dysgenesis and Thyroid Transcription Factors
38(1)
Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Defects
39(2)
Pendred's Syndrome
41(1)
Abnormal Thyroglobulin Synthesis or Secretion
42(1)
Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Action
43(2)
Iodine Deficiency Disorders
45(8)
Nontoxic Diffuse and Nodular Goiter
Hossein Gharib
Solitary Nodules
53(6)
Diffuse Goiter
59(1)
Multinodular Goiter
60(3)
Enlarging Goiter
63(1)
Incidentaloma
64(4)
Diagnosis and Management of Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas
Ernest L. Mazzaferri
Incidence and Diagnosis
68(2)
Prognosis
70(5)
Therapy
75(6)
Hyperthyroidism
Leonard Wartofsky
Thyrotoxicosis
81(2)
Diagnosis
83(4)
Signs and Symptoms of Graves' Disease
87(1)
Treatment
87(3)
Thyroid Storm
90(4)
Graves' Disease
Kenneth D. Burman
Kenneth L. Becker
Albert S. Cytryn
Todd A. Goodglick
Graves' Ophthalmopathy
94(5)
Thyroid Gland
99(1)
Extrathyroidal Manifestations
99(4)
Hyperthyroidism from Toxic Nodules and Other Causes
John C. Morris
Diagnosis
103(3)
Toxic Nodules
106(4)
Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis
110(3)
Hypothyroidism
Lawrence E. Shapiro
Case History
113(1)
Etiology and Clinical Findings in Hypothyroidism
114(6)
Syndromes Causing Transient Hypothyroidism
120(2)
Treatment of Hypothyroidism
122(3)
Lymphocytic Thyroiditis: Hashimoto's Disease
Michael D. Brennan
Prevalence
125(1)
Pathogenesis, Immunopathology, and Inheritance
126(1)
Histopathology
127(2)
Cytopathology
129(2)
Clinical Features
131(3)
Laboratory Investigations
134(1)
Treatment
134(3)
Thyroiditis
Kenneth H. Hupart
Scope and Pathology
137(2)
Subacute Thyroiditis
139(3)
Silent Thyroiditis
142(1)
Postpartum Thyroiditis
143(1)
Thyroiditis From Other Causes
144(2)
Riedel's Thyroiditis
146(2)
Thyroid Dysfunction in the Elderly
Peter A. Singer
Changes in Thyroid Function With Aging
148(1)
Hypothyroidism
148(4)
Hyperthyroidism
152(3)
Goiter
155(2)
Thyroid Cancer
157(4)
Thyroid Regulation and Disease in Pregnancy
Daniel Glinoer
Regulation of Thyroid Function in Pregnancy
161(8)
Hypothyroidism and Pregnancy
169(5)
Hyperthyroidism and Pregnancy
174(7)
Thyroid Surgery
Electron Kebebew
Orlo H. Clark
Anatomy and Embryology
181(2)
Classification of Goiter and Thyroiditis
183(2)
Management of Thyroid Disease
185(4)
Technical Aspects of Thyroidectomy and Cervical Neck Node Dissection
189(3)
Complications of Thyroidectomy
192(1)
Index 193(12)
Regulation of Insulin Secretion and Islet Cell Function
Gordon C. Weir
Susan Bonner-Weir
Arun Sharma
Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology
2(7)
Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes
9(7)
The Mechanisms of Insulin Action
Domenico Accili
Hiroko Kanno
Insulin Receptor
16(1)
Overview of Insulin Effects
16(2)
Role of Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins in Insulin Signaling
18(2)
Effectors of Insulin Action Downstream from Insulin Receptor Substrate
20(2)
Alternative Signaling Pathways
22(1)
Insulin Action on Glucose Metabolism
22(3)
Other Actions of Insulin
25(1)
Modulation of Insulin Action
26(4)
Consequences of Insulin Deficiency
Abbas E. Kitabchi
Structure of the Islets of Langerhans
30(2)
Definition and Criteria for Insulin-Deficient State
32(3)
Pathophysiology of Insulin-Deficient State
35(2)
Treatment of Acute Diabetic Complications
37(8)
Type I Diabetes
Mark A. Atkinson
Clinical Description
45(1)
Epidemiology
46(2)
Genetics
48(1)
Pathology
49(8)
Future Directions
57(3)
Management and Prevention of Complications in Type I Diabetes Mellitus
David M. Nathan
History of Type I Diabetes and Its Treatment
60(1)
Therapy for Type I Diabetes
60(3)
Results of Therapy:Glycemia
63(1)
Long-term Complications: Pathophysiology and Results of Intensive Therapy
64(3)
New Approaches to Therapy
67(5)
The Pathogenesis of Type 2 Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes
C. Ronald Kahn
Pathogenesis of Type 2 Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes
72(1)
The Role of Genes and the Environment
73(3)
Insulin Action and Insulin Resistance at the Molecular Level
76(3)
The Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance
79(2)
The Physiologic Basis for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
81(3)
Management and Prevention of Diabetic Complications
Sunder R. Mudaliar
Robert R. Henry
Complications of Diabetes
84(9)
Future Directions
93(2)
Insulin Resistance
Ele Ferrannini
Definition and Measurement
95(2)
Insulin Action
97(3)
Insulin Resistance
100(4)
Insulin Resistance Syndrome
104(6)
Hypoglycemia
John Service
Symptoms, Classification, and Glucose Behavior in Hypoglycemic Disorders
110(9)
Survival Rates and Recurrence
119(2)
Mechanisms of Hyperglycemic Damage in Diabetes
Michael Brownlee
Target-Organ Specificity of Hyperglycemic Damage
121(1)
Major Mechanisms of Hyperglycemic Damage
122(7)
Interrelationship of Mechanisms of Hyperglycemic Damage
129(1)
Potential Role of Insulin Resistance
130(1)
Genetics of Susceptibility to Complications
131(1)
Development of Complications During Posthyperglycemic Euglycemia
131(4)
Eye Complications of Diabetes
Lloyd Paul Aiello
Anatomy, Symptoms, and Pathology
135(2)
Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
137(2)
Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and Macular Edema
139(2)
Complications and Causes of Visual Loss
141(3)
Treatment
144(4)
Growth Factors and Potential Novel Therapies
148(3)
Diabetes and the Kidney
Robert C. Stanton
Demographics and Incidence
151(1)
Diabetic Nephropathy Diagnosis
152(6)
Treatment and Prevention
158(6)
Diabetic Neuropathies
Aaron Vinik
Pathogenesis
164(1)
Mononeuropathy and Entrapment
165(1)
Distal Neuropathy
166(1)
Components of Cutaneous Nerve
166(1)
Large Fiber Neuropathy
167(2)
C-Fiber Dysfunction in Small Fiber Neuropathy
169(2)
Neuroarthropathy
171(1)
Autonomic Neuropathy
172(2)
Gastropathy
174(6)
Secondary Forms of Diabetes
Veronica M. Catanese
Abnormal Glucose Homeostasis Secondary to Endocrinologic Disorders: Acromegaly
180(1)
Cushing Syndrome
181(2)
Glucagonoma
183(1)
Pheochromocytoma
184(1)
Thyrotoxicosis
185(1)
Hyperprolactinemia
185(1)
Pancreatoprivic Diabetes: Pancreatectomy and Chronic Pancreatitis
186(1)
Hemochromatosis
186(1)
Pharmacologic Effects on Glucose Homeostasis
187(1)
Genetic Syndromes Affecting Glucose Tolerance
188(3)
Obesity
Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
Prevalence of Obesity
191(1)
Obesity and the Risk for Other Diseases
192(1)
Role of Molecular Mechanisms
192(2)
Role of Monogenic Mechanisms
194(5)
Treatment of Obesity
199(3)
Relative Risk for Obesity
202(3)
Index 205
The Nature of Osteoporosis
Robert Marcus
Osteoporotic Bone
1(2)
Bone Mass Measurement
3(1)
Qualitative Abnormalities in Osteoporotic Bone
4(2)
Bone Geometry
6(2)
Role of Remodeling in Lifelong Acquisition and Loss of Bone
8(6)
Bone Acquisition and Peak Bone Mass
Laura Bachrach
Bone Mineral Acquisition
14(4)
Calcium Economics and Bone Health
18(2)
Physical Activity and Bone Mass
20(2)
Acquisitional Osteopenia
22(7)
Adult Bone Maintenance
Douglas P. Kiel
Nutritional Influences on Bone
29(2)
Hormonal Effects on Bone
31(3)
Physical Activity and Bone
34(1)
Aging and Gender Effects on Bone
35(2)
Smoking, Alcohol, and Bone
37(3)
Epidemiology of Osteoporosis and Associated Fractures
Loran M. Salamone
Jane A. Cauley
Epidemiology of Obsteoporosis
40(3)
Fracture Epidemiology
43(4)
Risk Factors for Osteoporotic Fractures
47(3)
Role of Falls
50(1)
Economic Impact of Osteoporotic Fractures
51(2)
Radiology of Osteoporotic Fracture
Jan Vandevenne
Gabrielle Bergman
Philipp Lang
Vertebral Compression Fractures
53(3)
Hip Fractures
56(1)
Pelvic Insufficiency Fractures
57(2)
Wrist Fractures
59(1)
Fractures of the Proximal Humerus
59(1)
Other Insufficiency Fractures
60(3)
Skeletal Assessment
Alan Burshell
Sonia Victores
History and Physical Examination
63(3)
Laboratory Assessment
66(2)
Bone Densitometry
68(5)
Estrogen-dependent Bone Loss and Osteoporosis
Robert Marcus
Nelson B. Watts
Bone Mass Protection and Reduction of Fracture Risk
73(4)
Nonskeletal Consequences of Estrogen Administration
77(3)
Alternatives to Estrogen Replacement Therapy
80(2)
The Decision to Take Hormone Replacement Therapy
82(4)
Osteoporosis in Men
Robert F. Klein
Incidence and Risk
86(2)
Bone Mass Density
88(2)
Causes
90(5)
Diagnosis and Evaluation
95(3)
Therapy
98(4)
Osteoporosis Associated with Systemic Illness and Medications
Paul D. Miller
Osteoporosis Related to Gastrointestinal Diseases
102(1)
Osteoporosis Related to Liver, Kidney, or Pancreatic Diseases
103(1)
Osteoporosis Related to Medication Administration
104(1)
Osteoporosis Related to Bone Marrow Disorders
104(3)
Osteoporosis Related to Endocrine Disorders
107(3)
Osteoporosis Related to Pregnancy
110(1)
Osteoporosis Related to Nutritional Deficiency
111(1)
Osteoporosis Related to Osteomalacia and Osteogenesis Imperfecta
111(4)
Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoporosis
Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick
Epidemiology and Risk Factors
115(1)
Pathophysiology
116(1)
Bone Histomorphometry
116(1)
Physical Findings
117(1)
Radiographic Diagnosis
117(3)
Bone Scans
120(4)
Immobilization Osteoporosis
B. Jenny Kiratli
Bone Biomechanics
124(3)
Clinical Evidence
127(4)
Long Bone Fractures Following Spinal Cord Injury
131(5)
Theoretical Framework for Fracture Risk Prediction
136(3)
Etiology and Biomechanics of Hip and Vertebral Fractures
Mary L. Bouxsein
Determinants of Fracture Risk and Introduction of the Factor of Risk
139(1)
Basic Bone Properties and Age-Related Changes
140(3)
Biomechanics of Hip Fractures
143(2)
Biomechanics of Vertebral Fractures
145(4)
Role of Nonpharmacologic Approach to Fracture and Osteoporosis
R. L. Prince
Overview of Bone Acquisition and Maintenance
149(2)
Dietary Intervention for Bone Maintenance
151(7)
Role of Activity and Exercise
158(3)
Antiresorptive Therapies of Osteoporosis
Nelson B. Watts
Normal and Abnormal Bone Remodeling
161(2)
Antiresorptive Agents
163(7)
Bone Anabolic Agents
Clifford Rosen
Insulin-like Growth Factor
170(5)
Human Growth Hormone
175(1)
Parathyroid Hormone
176(2)
Sodium Fluoride
178(3)
Index 181(40)
Regulation of Pituitary Function
Ronald M. Lechan
Roberto Toni
Anatomy of the Pituitary Gland
2(3)
Cell Types of the Pars Distalis and Functional Implications
5(3)
Embryology of the Pituitary Gland
8(2)
Hypothalamic-Pituitary Communication
10(1)
Anatomy of the Hypothalamus
11(2)
Median Eminence, Organization, and Functional Implications
13(3)
Hypothalamic Tuberoinfundibular System
16(1)
Feedback Regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis
17(4)
Central Control of Tuberoinfundibular Neurons
21(1)
Hypothalamic Neurohypophyseal Tract
22(6)
Disorders of Growth
Dorothy I. Shulman
Barry B. Bercu
Short Stature
28(13)
Tall Stature
41(7)
Acromegaly
Connie B. Newman
Prevalence and Clinical Manifestations
48(2)
Morbidity and Mortality
50(4)
Treatment
54(10)
Hypopituitarism in Adults
Gerhard Baumann
Causes of Hypopituitarism
64(1)
Diagnosis of Hypopituitarism
65(8)
Clinical Features and Natural History of Hypopituitarism
73(1)
The Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency Syndrome and Its Response to Growth Hormone Treatment
74(8)
Prolactinomas
Arna Gudmundsdottir
Janet A. Schlechte
Regulation of Prolactin Secretion
82(1)
Causes of Hyperprolactinemia
83(1)
Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis
84(1)
Classification
85(2)
Treatment
87(6)
Osteopenia in Hyperprolactinemic Amenorrhea
93(1)
Incidentally Discovered Prolactinomas
94(2)
Thyrotropin- and Gonadotropin-Producing Tumors
Robert C. Smallridge
Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Thyrotropin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors
96(1)
Differential Diagnosis of Hyperthyroxinemia
96(1)
Clinical Features of Thyrotropin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors
97(2)
Imaging Studies in Thyrotropin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors
99(4)
Unusual Cases of Thyrotropin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors
103(2)
Medical Therapy of Thyrotopin-Secreting Pituitary Tumors
105(1)
Thyrotroph Hyperplasia
106(2)
Clinical Features of Gonadotroph Adenomas
108(3)
Medical Therapy of Gonadotroph Adenomas
111(2)
Goals for the Future
113(2)
Control of Reproductive System
Shalender Bhasin
Atam B. Singh
Charles Ellis Fisher
Role of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
115(7)
Role of FSH and LH
122(2)
Hypothalamic Dysfunction in Nutritional Disorders
124(1)
Other Congenital Syndromes Associated With Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism
125(1)
Clinical Manifestations of Hyopogonadotropic Hypogonadism
126(1)
Androgen Deficiency and Treatment
127(7)
Null-Cell Pituitary Adenomas and Other Nonpituitary, Perisellar Mass Lesions
Baha M. Arafah
Robert M. Tarr
Mark Cohen
Warren R. Selman
Null-Cell Pituitary Adenomas
134(15)
Parasellar Mass Lesions
149(9)
Cushing's Syndromes
Beverly M. K. Biller
Causes of Cushing's Syndrome
158(2)
Diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome
160(10)
Treatment of Cushing's Syndrome
170(4)
Diabetes Insipidus
Janet A. Amico
Normal Anatomy and Chemistry
174(2)
Causes of Diabetes Insipidus
176(4)
Pharmacology of Agents That Influence Vasopressin
180(1)
Physiologic Regulation of Vasopressin
181(2)
Responses in Patients With Diabetes Insipidus
183(3)
Treatment
186(3)
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion
Joseph G. Verbalis
Body Fluid Homeostasis
189(2)
Regulation of Arginine Vasopressin Secretion
191(5)
Pathogenesis of Hypo-osmolality and Hyponatremia
196(2)
Adaptation to Hypo-osmolality
198(3)
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion
201(3)
Evaluation and Therapy of Hyponatremic Disorders
204(8)
Hypothalamic Disorders
Brooke Swearingen
Pamela Schaefer
James M. Primavera
Anne Klibanski
Anatomy
212(1)
Congenital Disorders
213(2)
Neoplastic Disorders
215(5)
Inflammatory and Infectious Disorders
220(1)
Index 221
Fundamentals of Human Nutrition
David Heber
Susan Bowerman
Food Choices
2(1)
Macronutrients and Micronutrients
2(6)
Oxidation Stress
8(1)
Vitamins and Minerals
9(4)
Phytochemicals
13(1)
Xenobiotics
13(2)
Gene-Environment Interactions
15(1)
Food Pyramids
16(2)
Nutrition Growth and Development
Naomi D. Neufeld
Nutrition in Infancy
18(3)
Growth and Nutrition in Childhood
21(3)
Assessment of Caloric Requirements
24(1)
Endocrine Disorders
25(7)
Vitamins and Minerals
Jeffrey B. Blumberg
Diane L McKay
Role of Vitamins and Minerals in Health and Disease
32(2)
Recommended Dietary Allowances
34(2)
Heart Disease
36(5)
Cancer Prevention
41(3)
Bone Health
44(2)
Cognitive Function
46(1)
Vision
47(1)
Diabetes
48(2)
Immunity
50(3)
Immune Function and the Adaptation to Starvation
Benjamin Bonavida
Metabolic Functions
53(3)
Immunologic Manifestations
56(8)
Role of Vitamins and Minerals
64(5)
Causes and Metabolic Consequences of Obesity
David Heber
Morton Maxwell
Etiology of Obesity
69(3)
Health Consequenses of Obesity
72(8)
New Approaches to Understanding Obesity
80(3)
Botanical Dietary Supplements
David Heber
Susan Stangl
Overview
83(1)
Herbal Supplements
84(8)
Labeling of Herbal Supplements
92(5)
Diagnosis and Vertically Integrated Management of Obesity
David Heber
Diagnosis of Obesity
97(4)
Treatment of Obesity
101(8)
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus and Nutrition
Ann M. Coulston
Rationale for Nutrition Management
109(2)
Clinical Data to Support Intervention
111(9)
Nutrition and Atherosclerosis
David Kritchevsky
Atherosclerosis and Lipoprotenis
120(2)
Triglyceride Metabolism
122(1)
Atherogenesis and Cholesterol
122(1)
Lipid Metabolism
123(3)
Diets and Treatment
126(8)
Nutritional Status and Reproduction
Rachelle Bross
Atam B. Singh
Shalender Bhasin
Biochemical Pathways
134(1)
Historical and Anthropological Illustrations of the Link between Nutritional Status and Fertility
135(1)
Clinical Paradigms of Chronic Undernutrition Associated with Reproductive Dysfunction
136(4)
Effects of Experimental Caloric Deprivation on Reproductive Function in Young Men: The Minnesota Experiment
140(1)
Reproductive Dysfunction and Endocrine Abnormalities of Obesity
141(2)
Hormonal Abnormalities in Obese Women
143(6)
Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases
Charles H. Halsted
V.L.W. Go
Functional Gastrointestinal Anatomy
149(1)
Regulatory Mechanism of Gut Function
150(4)
Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients
154(2)
Vitamin B12
156(1)
Folate
157(2)
Other Vitamins and Minerals
159(2)
Intestinal Malabsorption
161(3)
Alcoholism and Alcoholic Liver Disease
164(3)
Nutrition for Cancer and Aging
David Heber
Factors Influencing the Development of Cancer
167(5)
Components of the Carcinogenic Process
172(2)
Food Constituents and Cancer
174(1)
Age-Related Changes and Cancer
175(1)
Anticancer Foods
175(2)
Metabolic Effects of Tumors
177(3)
Dietary Assessment, Dietary Guidelines, and Diets
Jennifer R. Eliasi
Johanna T. Dwyer
Anthropometric, Biochemical, Clinical, and Other Tools to Assess Nutritional Status
180(9)
Dietary Guidelines and Food Guidance Systems
189(7)
Diets
196(3)
Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Lalita Khaodhiar
Manoj K. Maloo
George L. Blackburn
Malnutrition
199(2)
Nutrition Assessment
201(3)
Parenteral Nutrition
204(6)
Enteral Nutrition
210(5)
Index 215

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