Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-12-06
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making it accessible to students with no prior training in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical level that is appealing for undergraduates * Provides a useful educational tool via laboratory demonstrations, which can be viewed over the web or on the accompaning CD-ROM * Contains simple and informative experiments

Table of Contents

Outline, scope, and rationale of the bookp. xiii
Prefacep. xiv
Natural fluid dynamicsp. xv
Rotating fluid dynamics: GFD Lab 0p. xvii
Holicismp. xix
Characteristics of the atmospherep. 1
Geometryp. 1
Chemical composition of the atmospherep. 2
Physical properties of airp. 4
Dry airp. 4
Moist airp. 5
GFD Lab I: Cloud formation on adiabatic expansionp. 7
Problemsp. 7
The global energy balancep. 9
Planetary emission temperaturep. 9
The atmospheric absorption spectrump. 13
The greenhouse effectp. 14
A simple greenhouse modelp. 14
A leaky greenhousep. 16
A more opaque greenhousep. 16
Climate feedbacksp. 19
Further readingp. 20
Problemsp. 20
The vertical structure of the atmospherep. 23
Vertical distribution of temperature and greenhouse gasesp. 23
Typical temperature profilep. 23
Atmospheric layersp. 24
The relationship between pressure and density: hydrostatic balancep. 26
Vertical structure of pressure and densityp. 28
Isothermal atmospherep. 28
Non-isothermal atmospherep. 28
Densityp. 29
Further readingp. 29
Problemsp. 29
Convectionp. 31
The nature of convectionp. 32
Convection in a shallow fluidp. 32
Instabilityp. 33
Convection in waterp. 34
Buoyancyp. 34
Stabilityp. 35
Energeticsp. 36
GFD Lab II: Convectionp. 36
Dry convection in a compressible atmospherep. 39
The adiabatic lapse rate (in unsaturated air)p. 39
Potential temperaturep. 41
The atmosphere under stable conditionsp. 42
Gravity wavesp. 42
Temperature inversionsp. 44
Moist convectionp. 46
Humidityp. 47
Saturated adiabatic lapse ratep. 49
Equivalent potential temperaturep. 50
Convection in the atmospherep. 50
Types of convectionp. 51
Where does convection occur?p. 55
Radiative-convective equilibriump. 56
Further readingp. 57
Problemsp. 57
The meridional structure of the atmospherep. 61
Radiative forcing and temperaturep. 62
Incoming radiationp. 62
Outgoing radiationp. 63
The energy balance of the atmospherep. 64
Meridional structure of temperaturep. 64
Pressure and geopotential heightp. 67
Moisturep. 70
Windsp. 73
Distribution of windsp. 74
Further readingp. 78
Problemsp. 78
The equations of fluid motionp. 81
Differentiation following the motionp. 82
Equation of motion for a nonrotating fluidp. 84
Forces on a fluid parcelp. 84
The equations of motionp. 86
Hydrostatic balancep. 87
Conservation of massp. 87
Incompressible flowp. 88
Compressible flowp. 88
Thermodynamic equationp. 89
Integration, boundary conditions, and restrictions in applicationp. 89
Equations of motion for a rotating fluidp. 90
GFD Lab III: Radial inflowp. 90
Transformation into rotating coordinatesp. 93
The rotating equations of motionp. 94
GFD Labs IV and V: Experiments with Coriolis forces on a parabolic rotating tablep. 96
Putting things on the spherep. 100
GFD Lab VI: An experiment on the Earth's rotationp. 103
Further readingp. 104
Problemsp. 104
Balanced flowp. 109
Geostrophic motionp. 110
The geostrophic wind in pressure coordinatesp. 112
Highs and lows; synoptic chartsp. 114
Balanced flow in the radial-inflow experimentp. 116
The Taylor-Proudman theoremp. 117
GFD Lab VII: Taylor columnsp. 118
The thermal wind equationp. 119
GFD Lab VIII: The thermal wind relationp. 120
The thermal wind equation and the Taylor-Proudman theoremp. 122
GFD Lab IX: cylinder "collapse" under gravity and rotationp. 123
Mutual adjustment of velocity and pressurep. 125
Thermal wind in pressure coordinatesp. 126
Sub geostrophic flow: the Ekman layerp. 129
GFD Lab X: Ekman layers: frictionally-induced cross-isobaric flowp. 130
Ageostrophic flow in atmospheric highs and lowsp. 130
Planetary-scale ageostrophic flowp. 133
Problemsp. 135
The general circulation of the atmospherep. 139
Understanding the observed circulationp. 140
A mechanistic view of the circulationp. 141
The tropical Hadley circulationp. 142
The extratropical circulation and GFD Lab XI: Baroclinic instabilityp. 145
Energetics of the thermal wind equationp. 149
Potential energy for a fluid systemp. 149
Available potential energyp. 150
Release of available potential energy in baroclinic instabilityp. 152
Energetics in a compressible atmospherep. 153
Large-scale atmospheric energy and momentum budgetp. 154
Energy transportp. 154
Momentum transportp. 156
Latitudinal variations of climatep. 157
Further readingp. 158
Problemsp. 159
The ocean and its circulationp. 163
Physical characteristics of the oceanp. 164
The ocean basinsp. 164
The cryospherep. 165
Properties of seawater; equation of statep. 165
Temperature, salinity, and temperature structurep. 168
The mixed layer and thermoclinep. 171
The observed mean circulationp. 176
Inferences from geostrophic and hydrostatic balancep. 182
Ocean surface structure and geostrophic flowp. 183
Geostrophic flow at depthp. 184
Steric effectsp. 186
The dynamic methodp. 187
Ocean eddiesp. 188
Observations of ocean eddiesp. 188
Further readingp. 189
Problemsp. 190
The wind-driven circulationp. 197
The wind stress and Ekman layersp. 198
Balance of forces and transport in the Ekman layerp. 199
Ekman pumping and suction and GFD Lab XIIp. 201
Ekman pumping and suction induced by large-scale wind patternsp. 203
Response of the interior ocean to Ekman pumpingp. 206
Interior balancesp. 206
Wind-driven gyres and western boundary currentsp. 206
Taylor-Proudman on the spherep. 207
GFD Lab XIII: Wind-driven ocean gyresp. 211
The depth-integrated circulation: Sverdrup theoryp. 213
Rationalization of position, sense of circulation, and volume transport of ocean gyresp. 214
Effects of stratification and topographyp. 216
Taylor-Proudman in a layered oceanp. 217
Baroclinic instability in the oceanp. 218
Further readingp. 220
Problemsp. 220
The thermohaline circulation of the oceanp. 223
Air-sea fluxes and surface property distributionsp. 224
Heat, freshwater, and buoyancy fluxesp. 224
Interpretation of surface temperature distributionsp. 231
Sites of deep convectionp. 232
The observed thermohaline circulationp. 234
Inferences from interior tracer distributionsp. 234
Time scales and intensity of thermohaline circulationp. 239
Dynamical models of the thermohaline circulationp. 239
Abyssal circulation schematic deduced from Taylor-Proudman on the spherep. 239
GFD Lab XIV: The abyssal circulationp. 241
Why western boundary currents?p. 243
GFD Lab XV: Source sink flow in a rotating basinp. 245
Observations of abyssal ocean circulationp. 245
The ocean heat budget and transportp. 247
Meridional heat transportp. 248
Mechanisms of ocean heat transport and the partition of heat transport between the atmosphere and oceanp. 251
Freshwater transport by the oceanp. 255
Further readingp. 256
Problemsp. 256
Climate and climate variabilityp. 259
The ocean as a buffer of temperature changep. 261
Nonseasonal changes in SSTp. 262
El Nino and the Southern Oscillationp. 264
Interannual variabilityp. 264
"Normal" conditions-equatorial upwelling and the Walker circulationp. 266
ENSOp. 269
Other modes of variabilityp. 273
Paleoclimatep. 273
Climate over Earth historyp. 275
Paleotemperatures over the past 70 million years: the [delta superscript 18] recordp. 277
Greenhouse climatesp. 280
Cold climatesp. 280
Glacial-interglacial cyclesp. 282
Global warmingp. 291
Further readingp. 292
Problemsp. 292
Appendicesp. 295
Derivationsp. 295
The Planck functionp. 295
Computation of available potential energyp. 296
Internal energy for a compressible atmospherep. 296
Mathematical definitions and notationp. 296
Taylor expansionp. 296
Vector identifiesp. 297
Polar and spherical coordinatesp. 298
Use of foraminifera shells in paleoclimatep. 298
Laboratory experimentsp. 299
Rotating tablesp. 299
List of laboratory experimentsp. 300
Figures and access to data over the webp. 302
Referencesp. 303
Textbooks and reviewsp. 303
Other referencesp. 303
References to paleo-data sourcesp. 304
Indexp. 307
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