9781319002183

The Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, and Writing

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781319002183

  • ISBN10:

    1319002188

  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2015-12-22
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
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Summary

Become a lifelong reader and improve your writing skills as Bedford Introduction to Literature exposes you to classic and contemporary writers while thorough support and activities give you ample practice.


Table of Contents

[[Notes: New selections are marked with an asterisk]]

Contents

Resources for Reading and Writing about Literature

Preface for Instructors

INTRODUCTION: READING IMAGINATIVE LITERATURE

The Nature of Literature

EMILY DICKINSON, A narrow Fellow in the Grass

The Value of Literature

The Changing Literary Canon

FICTION

The Elements of Fiction

1. Reading Fiction

Reading Fiction Responsively

KATE CHOPIN, The Story of an Hour

A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of "The Story of an Hour"

A SAMPLE PAPER: Differences in Responses to Kate Chopin’s "The Story of an Hour"

Explorations and Formulas

A COMPARISON OF TWO STORIES

KAREN VAN DER ZEE, From A Secret Sorrow

GAIL GODWIN, A Sorrowful Woman

PERSPECTIVES

KAY MUSSELL, Are Feminism and Romance Novels Mutually Exclusive?

THOMAS JEFFERSON, On the Dangers of Reading Fiction

2. Writing about Fiction

From Reading to Writing

Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing

A SAMPLE PAPER IN PROGRESS

A First Response to A Secret Sorrow and "A Sorrowful Woman"

Brainstorming

A Sample Brainstorming List

Revising: First and Second Drafts

A Sample First Draft: Separate Sorrows

A Sample Second Draft: Separate Sorrows

Final Paper: Fulfillment or Failure? Marriage in A Secret Sorrow and "A Sorrowful Woman"

3. Plot

EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS, From Tarzan of the Apes

*ALICE WALKER, The Flowers

A young girl’s innocent summer stroll comes to an abrupt end when she makes a dark discovery.

WILLIAM FAULKNER, A Rose for Emily

PERSPECTIVE

WILLIAM FAULKNER, On "A Rose for Emily"

A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of "A Rose for Emily"

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Conflict in the Plot of Faulkner’s "A Rose for Emily"

ANDRE DUBUS, Killings

PERSPECTIVE

A. L. BADER, Nothing Happens in Modern Short Stories

ENCOUNTERING FICTION: COMICS AND GRAPHIC STORIES

EDWARD GOREY, From The Hapless Child

4. Character

CHARLES DICKENS, From Hard Times

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Character Development in Dickens’s Hard Times

*JAMAICA KINCAID, Girl

From a mother to a daughter: a demanding to-do list of how to be a perfect woman.

MAY-LEE CHAI, Saving Sourdi

HERMAN MELVILLE, Bartleby, the Scrivener

PERSPECTIVES

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, On Herman Melville’s Philosophic Stance

DAN McCALL, On the Lawyer’s Character in "Bartleby, the Scrivener"

ENCOUNTERING FICTION: COMICS AND GRAPHIC STORIES

LYNDA BARRY, Spelling

5. Setting

ERNEST HEMINGWAY, Soldier’s Home

PERSPECTIVE

ERNEST HEMINGWAY, On What Every Writer Needs

*F. SCOTT FITZGERALD, The Ice Palace

Sally Carrol Happer of Tarleton, Georgia dreams of moving to the North to marry a Yankee. When she finally travels North in January to consider a new life with Harry Bellamy, tensions arise between the cultures and lifestyles of the North and the South. Can she survive the bitter cold?

FAY WELDON, IND AFF, or Out of Love in Sarajevo

PERSPECTIVE

FAY WELDON, On the Importance of Place in "IND AFF"

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Significance of Setting in Fay Weldon’s "IND AFF"

 

6. Point of View

Third-Person Narrator

First-Person Narrator

JOHN UPDIKE, A&P

*ALICE MUNRO, Wild Swans

With Flo’s seemingly exaggerated warnings in mind about the deviance and danger one may encounter in the world, Rose’s transformative experience aboard a train to Toronto causes her to feel, at once, both reluctance and desire.

MAGGIE MITCHELL, It Would Be Different If

ENCOUNTERING FICTION: COMICS AND GRAPHIC STORIES

MARJANE SATRAPI, "The Trip," From Persepolis

7. Symbolism

TOBIAS WOLFF, That Room

RALPH ELLISON, Battle Royal

PERSPECTIVE

MORDECAI MARCUS, What Is an Initiation Story?

A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of "Battle Royal"

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Symbolism in Ellison’s "Battle Royal"

MICHAEL OPPENHEIMER, The Paring Knife

DAGOBERTO GILB, Romero’s Shirt

 

8. Theme

STEPHEN CRANE, The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky

KATHERINE MANSFIELD, Miss Brill

*XU XI, Famine

A middle-aged Chinese woman, consumed by memories of her recently-deceased parents and their fears of hunger and poverty, takes an opulent trip to New York in hopes of forgetting her past.

9. Style, Tone, and Irony

Style

Tone

Irony

RAYMOND CARVER, Popular Mechanics

PERSPECTIVE

JOHN BARTH, On Minimalist Fiction

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Minimalist Style of Carver’s "Popular Mechanics"

SUSAN MINOT, Lust

RICK MOODY, Boys

*GEOFF WYSS, How to Be a Winner

A sports consultant unwittingly recounts his own past in telling the story of loser-turned-winner Michael Wiltonberry to a football team he vows to turn into winners, too.

ENCOUNTERING FICTION: COMICS AND GRAPHIC STORIES

MATT GROENING, Life in Hell

10. Combining the Elements of Fiction: A Writing Process

The Elements Together

Mapping the Story

DAVID UPDIKE, Summer

Questions for Writing: Developing a Topic into a Revised Thesis

A Sample Brainstorming List

A Sample First Thesis

A Sample Revised Thesis

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Plot and Setting in David Updike’s "Summer"

Approaches to Fiction

11. A Study of Nathaniel Hawthorne

A Brief Biography and Introduction

CHRONOLOGY

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, Young Goodman Brown

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, The Minister’s Black Veil

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, The Birthmark

PERSPECTIVES ON HAWTHORNE

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, On Solitude

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, On the Power of the Writer’s Imagination NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, On His Short Stories

HERMAN MELVILLE, On Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Tragic Vision

GAYLORD BREWER, "The Joys of Secret Sin"

12. A Study of Flannery O’Connor

A Brief Biography and Introduction

CHRONOLOGY

FLANNERY O’CONNOR, A Good Man Is Hard to Find

FLANNERY O’CONNOR, Good Country People

FLANNERY O’CONNOR, Revelation

PERSPECTIVES ON O’CONNOR

FLANNERY O’CONNOR, On the Use of Exaggeration and Distortion

JOSEPHINE HENDIN, On O’Connor’s Refusal to "Do Pretty"

CLAIRE KAHANE, The Function of Violence in O’Connor’s Fiction

EDWARD KESSLER, On O’Connor’s Use of History

TIME MAGAZINE, On "A Good Man is Hard to Find"

13. A Critical Case Study: William Faulkner’s "Barn Burning"

WILLIAM FAULKNER, Barn Burning

PERSPECTIVES ON FAULKNER

JANE HILES, Blood Ties in "Barn Burning"

BENJAMIN DEMOTT, Abner Snopes as a Victim of Class

GAYLE EDWARD WILSON, Conflict in "Barn Burning"

JAMES FERGUSON, Narrative Strategy in "Barn Burning"

Questions for Writing: Incorporating the Critics

A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: The Fires of Class Conflict in William Faulker’s "Barn Burning" (excerpt)

14. A Cultural Case Study: James Joyce’s "Eveline"

A Brief Biography and Introduction

CHRONOLOGY

JAMES JOYCE, Eveline

Documents

THE ALLIANCE TEMPERANCE ALMANACK, On the Resources of Ireland

BRIDGET BURKE, A Letter Home from an Irish Emigrant

A Plot Synopsis of The Bohemian Girl

15. A Study of Dagoberto Gilb: The Author Reflects on Three Stories

A Brief Biography and An Introduction to His Work

CHRONOLOGY

INTRODUCTION: DAGOBERTO GILB, How Books Bounce

STORY: DAGOBERTO GILB: Love in L.A.

ESSAY: On Writing Love in L.A.

STORY: DAGOBERTO GILB: Shout

ESSAY: On Writing Shout

STORY: DAGOBERTO GILB: Uncle Rock

ESSAY: On Writing Uncle Rock

PERSPECTIVES

DAGOBERTO GILB, On Physical Labor

DAGOBERTO GILB, On Distortions of Mexican American Culture

INTERVIEW: Michael Meyer Interviews Dagoberto Gilb

FACSIMILIES: Two Draft Manuscript Pages

Suggested Topics for Longer Papers

16. A Thematic Case Study: War

MURIEL SPARK, The First Year of My Life

TIM O’BRIEN, How to Tell a True War Story

*GAVIN FORD KOVITE, When Engaging Targets, Remember

What decision do you make when all your choices will have life-changing consequences for you, your squad, and possibly innocent civilians? A vivid sketch of a scenario faced by a US infantryman in Iraq, contemplating the difficult, split-second decisions he has to make and the potential impact he’ll have to live with long after the war is over.

*PHIL KLAY, Redeployment

A US Marine, having returned home to his wife and dog, works through memories of his deployment in Iraq and tries, with difficulty, to readjust to an everyday life that stands in stark contrast to his former life at war.

 

17. A Thematic Case Study: Humor and Satire

ANNIE PROULX, 55 Miles to the Gas Pump

JOYCE CAROL OATES, Hi Howya Doin’

*RON HANSEN, My Kid’s Dog

A comical account of the great pains a father takes to covertly handle the death of his kid’s dog; a dog towards whom he always had a great animosity.

MARK TWAIN, The Story of the Good Little Boy

18. A Thematic Case Study: Remarkably Short-Short Stories

*LYDIA DAVIS, Negative Emotions

About as short as a short-story could be: a humorous illustration of the fact that we love to hate.

RON CARLSON, Max

MARK HALLIDAY, Young Man on Sixth Avenue

DAVID FOSTER WALLACE, Incarnations of Burned Children

MARK BUDMAN, The Diary of a Salaryman

PETER MEINKE, The Cranes

TERRY L. TILTON, That Settles That

19. Stories for Further Reading

*TONI CADE BAMBARA, Sweet Town

Kit looks back on the wild days of her youth, specifically the crazy spring and summer she spent involved with a boy named B.J. and his sidekick, Eddie.

*STEPHEN CRANE, An Episode of War

Shot in the arm while dividing coffee rations, a lieutenant travels to the field hospital for treatment. Along the way he describes what he sees: snapshots of the terrible impact of war. What is the significance of one wound in the context of a whole war?

*CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, If I Were a Man

In a bizarre turn of events, Mollie Mathewson becomes a man. Seeing and hearing things from her husband’s perspective, she learns about traditionally-accepted gender roles and stereotypes and begins to form "new views, strange feelings" about these commonly held beliefs of gender difference and the source that perpetuates these unfair views of women.

ZORA NEALE HURSTON, Spunk

D. H. LAWRENCE, The Horse Dealer’s Daughter

JACK LONDON, To Build a Fire

EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Cask of Amontillado

 

POETRY

THE ELEMENTS OF POETRY

20. Reading Poetry

Reading Poetry Responsively

LISA PARKER, Snapping Beans

ROBERT HAYDEN, Those Winter Sundays

JOHN UPDIKE, Dog’s Death

The Pleasure of Words

WILLIAM HATHAWAY, Oh, Oh

A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of "Oh, Oh"

ROBERT FRANCIS, Catch

A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: Tossing Metaphors Together in Robert Francis’s "Catch"

PHILIP LARKIN, A Study of Reading Habits

ROBERT MORGAN, Mountain Graveyard

E. E. CUMMINGS, l(a

ANONYMOUS, Western Wind

REGINA BARRECA, Nighttime Fires

Suggestions for Approaching Poetry

BILLY COLLINS, Introduction to Poetry

Poetry in Popular Forms

Encountering Poetry: Images of Poetry in Popular Culture

POSTER: Dorothy Parker, Unfortunate Coincidence

PHOTO: Carl Sandburg, Window

CARTOON: Roz Chast, The Love Song of J. Alfred Crew

PHOTO: Tim Taylor, I shake the delicate apparatus

POSTER: Eric Dunn and Mike Wigton, National Poetry Slam

PHOTO: Kevin Fleming

WEB SCREEN: Poetry-portal.com

WEB SCREEN: Ted Kooser, American Life in Poetry

POEM IN NEWSPAPER: MICHAEL MCFEE, Spitwads

HELEN FARRIES, Magic of Love

JOHN FREDERICK NIMS, Love Poem

Poems for Further Study

MARY OLIVER, The Poet with His Face in His Hands

JIM TILLEY, The Big Questions

ALBERTO RÍOS, Seniors

*ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, The Eagle

*EDGAR ALLAN POE, Sonnet—To Science

*WILLA CATHER, Prairie Spring

CORNELIUS EADY, The Supremes

*TED KOOSER, Selecting a Reader

21. Writing about Poetry: From Inquiry to Final Paper

From Reading to Writing

Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing

ELIZABETH BISHOP, Manners

A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of "Manners"

A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: Memory in Elizabeth Bishop’s "Manners"

22. Word Choice, Word Order, and Tone

Word Choice

Diction

Denotations and Connotations

RANDALL JARRELL, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner

Word Order

Tone

MARILYN NELSON, How I Discovered Poetry

KATHARYN HOWD MACHAN, Hazel Tells LaVerne

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Tone in Katharyn Howd Machan’s "Hazel Tells LaVerne"

MARTÍN ESPADA, Latin Night at the Pawnshop

PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, To a Captious Critic

Diction and Tone in Four Love Poems

ROBERT HERRICK, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time

ANDREW MARVELL, To His Coy Mistress

ANN LAUINGER, Marvell Noir

SHARON OLDS, Last Night

*PERSPECTIVE: GENE WEINGARTEN, DAN WEINGARTEN, AND DAVID CLARK, Barney and Clyde, The Defenestration of Frog

Poems for Further Study

*WALT WHITMAN, The Dalliance of the Eagles

THOMAS HARDY, The Convergence of the Twain

DAVID R. SLAVITT, Titanic

JOANNE DIAZ, On My Father’s Loss of Hearing

*DANUSHA LAMERIS, Names

MARY OLIVER, Oxygen

CATHY SONG, The Youngest Daughter

*ANGELA ALAIMO O’DONNELL, Messenger

JOHN KEATS, Ode on a Grecian Urn

GWENDOLYN BROOKS, We Real Cool

JOAN MURRAY, We Old Dudes

*ALICE JONES, The Lungs

LOUIS SIMPSON, In the Suburbs

GARRISON KEILLOR, The Anthem

A Note on Reading Translations

Three Translations of a Poem by Sappho

SAPPHO, Immortal Aphrodite of the broidered throne

(translated by Henry T. Wharton)

SAPPHO, Beautiful-throned, immortal Aphrodite

(translated by Thomas Wentworth Higginson)

SAPPHO, Prayer to my lady of Paphos

(translated by Mary Barnard)

 

23. Images

Poetry’s Appeal to the Senses

WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, Poem

WALT WHITMAN, Cavalry Crossing a Ford

DAVID SOLWAY, Windsurfing

THEODORE ROETHKE, Root Cellar

MATTHEW ARNOLD, Dover Beach

RUTH FORMAN, Poetry Should Ride the Bus

Poems for Further Study

AMY LOWELL, The Pond

*ADELAIDE CRAPSEY, November Night

RUTH FAINLIGHT, Crocuses

MARY ROBINSON, London’s Summer Morning

WILLIAM BLAKE, London

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Imagery in William Blake’s "London" and Mary Robinson’s "London’s Summer Morning"

WILFRED OWEN, Dulce et Decorum Est

PATRICIA SMITH, What It’s Like to Be a Black Girl (for Those of You Who Aren’t)

*CHARLES SIMIC, Fork

*SEAMUS HEANEY, The Pitchfork

SALLY CROFT, Home-Baked Bread

JOHN KEATS, To Autumn

PERSPECTIVE: T. E. HULME, On the Differences between Poetry and Prose

24. Figures of Speech

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, From Macbeth (Act V, Scene v)

Simile and Metaphor

MARGARET ATWOOD, you fit into me

EMILY DICKINSON, Presentiment — is that long Shadow—on the lawn—

ANNE BRADSTREET, The Author to Her Book

RICHARD WILBUR, The Writer

Other Figures

EDMUND CONTI, Pragmatist

DYLAN THOMAS, The Hand That Signed the Paper

JANICE TOWNLEY MOORE, To a Wasp

*TAJANA KOVICS, Text Message

Poems for Further Study

GARY SNYDER, How Poetry Comes to Me

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Metaphor in Gary Snyder’s "How Poetry Comes to Me"

*MARTÍN ESPADA, The Mexican Cabdriver’s Poem for His Wife, Who Has Left Him

WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, To Waken an Old Lady

ERNEST SLYMAN, Lightning Bugs

JUDY PAGE HEITZMAN, The Schoolroom on the Second Floor of the Knitting Mill

*STEPHEN CRANE, The Wayfarer

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, London, 1802

JIM STEVENS, Schizophrenia

JOHN DONNE, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning

LINDA PASTAN, Marks

*KAY RYAN, Learning

*LUCILLE CLIFTON, Come Home from the Movies

RONALD WALLACE, Building an Outhouse

ELAINE MAGARRELL, The Joy of Cooking

PERSPECTIVE: JOHN R. SEARLE, Figuring Out Metaphors

25. Symbol, Allegory, and Irony

Symbol

ROBERT FROST, Acquainted with the Night

Allegory

EDGAR ALLAN POE, The Haunted Palace

Irony

EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, Richard Cory

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Irony in Edwin Arlington Robinson’s "Richard Cory"

KENNETH FEARING, AD

E. E. CUMMINGS, next to of course god america i

STEPHEN CRANE, A Man Said to the Universe

Poems for Further Study

BOB HICOK, Making it in poetry

*JANE KENYON, Not Writing

KEVIN PIERCE, Proof of Origin

*CARL SANDBURG, A Fence

WALLACE STEVENS, Anecdote of the Jar

JULIO MARZÁN, Ethnic Poetry

MARK HALLIDAY, Graded Paper

JAMES MERRILL, Casual Wear

HENRY REED, Naming of Parts

ROBERT BROWNING, My Last Duchess

*WILLIAM BLAKE, A Poison Tree

*PAUL MULDOON, Symposium

PERSPECTIVE: EZRA POUND, On Symbols

26. Sounds

Listening to Poetry

ANONYMOUS, Scarborough Fair

JOHN UPDIKE, Player Piano

EMILY DICKINSON, A Bird came down the Walk—

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Sound in Emily Dickinson’s "A Bird came down the Walk—"

Rhyme

RICHARD ARMOUR, Going to Extremes

ROBERT SOUTHEY, From "The Cataract of Lodore"

PERSPECTIVE: DAVID LENSON, On the Contemporary Use of Rhyme

Sound and Meaning

GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, God’s Grandeur

Poems for Further Study

DIANE LOCKWARD, Linguine

LEWIS CARROLL (CHARLES LUTWIDGE DODGSON), Jabberwocky

WILLIAM HEYEN, The Trains

JOHN DONNE, Song

*WILFRED OWEN, Futility

*ANDREW HUDGINS, The Ice-Cream Truck

PAUL HUMPHREY, Blow

ROBERT FRANCIS, The Pitcher

HELEN CHASIN, The Word Plum

RICHARD WAKEFIELD, The Bell Rope

*JEAN TOOMER, Unsuspecting

JOHN KEATS, Ode to a Nightingale

*KAY RYAN, Dew

HOWARD NEMEROV, Because You Asked about the Line between Prose and Poetry

27. Patterns of Rhythm

Some Principles of Meter

WALT WHITMAN, From Song of the Open Road

*SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, Mnemonic

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, My Heart Leaps Up

Suggestions for Scanning a Poem

TIMOTHY STEELE, Waiting for the Storm

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Rhythm of Anticipation in Timothy Steele’s "Waiting for the Storm"

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, That the Night Come

Poems for Further Study

WILLIAM TROWBRIDGE, Drumming Behind You in the High School Band

ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, Break, Break, Break

ALICE JONES, The Foot

A. E. HOUSMAN, When I was one-and-twenty

*VIRGINIA HAMILTON ADAIR, Pro Snake

RACHEL HADAS, The Red Hat

ROBERT HERRICK, Delight in Disorder

BEN JONSON, Still to Be Neat

WILLIAM BLAKE, The Lamb

WILLIAM BLAKE, The Tyger

CARL SANDBURG, Chicago

*E.E. CUMMINGS, O Sweet Spontaneous

JOHN MALONEY, Good!

THEODORE ROETHKE, My Papa’s Waltz

*RONALD WALLACE, Dogs

PERSPECTIVE: LOUISE BOGAN, On Formal Poetry

28. Poetic Forms

Some Common Poetic Forms

A. E. HOUSMAN, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now

ROBERT HERRICK, Upon Julia’s Clothes

Sonnet

JOHN KEATS, On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, The World Is Too Much with Us

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun

EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, I will put Chaos into fourteen lines

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Fixed Form in Edna St. Vincent Millay’s "I will put Chaos into fourteen lines"

SHERMAN ALEXIE, The Facebook Sonnet

*THOMAS HARDY, At the Altar-Rail

R.S. GWYNN, Shakespearean Sonnet

Villanelle

DYLAN THOMAS, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night

EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, The House on the Hill

Sestina

ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE, Sestina

FLORENCE CASSEN MAYERS, All-American Sestina

Epigram

SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, What Is an Epigram?

DAVID MCCORD, Epitaph on a Waiter

PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, Theology

Limerick

Arthur Henry Reginald Butler, There was a young lady named Bright

LAURENCE PERRINE, The limerick’s never averse

Haiku

MATSUO BASHO, Under cherry trees

CAROLYN KIZER, After Basho-

*AMY LOWELL, Last night it rained

*GARY SNYDER, A Dent in a Bucket

Elegy

BEN JONSON, On My First Son

*ANDREW HUDGINS, Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead

Ode

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, Ode to the West Wind

Parody

BLANCHE FARLEY, The Lover Not Taken

Picture Poem

MICHAEL MCFEE, In Medias Res

PERSPECTIVE: ELAINE MITCHELL, Form

 

29. Open Form

WALT WHITMAN, From "I Sing the Body Electric"

PERSPECTIVE: WALT WHITMAN, On Rhyme and Meter

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Power of Walt Whitman’s Open Form Poem "I Sing the Body Electric"

DAVID SHUMATE, Shooting the Horse

RICHARD HAGUE, Directions for Resisting the SAT

*MICHAEL RYAN, I

*E.E. CUMMINGS, Old Age Sticks

WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, The Red Wheelbarrow

NATASHA TRETHEWEY, On Captivity

JULIO MARZÁN, The Translator at the Reception for Latin American Writers

*CHARLES HARPER WEBB, Descent

KEVIN YOUNG, Eddie Priest’s Barber Shop and Notary

ANONYMOUS, The Frog

*DAVID HERNANDEZ, All-American

CHRISTINA GEROGIANNIS, Headland

Found Poem

DONALD JUSTICE, Order in the Streets

30. Combining the Elements of Poetry: A Writing Process

The Elements Together

Mapping the Poem

JOHN DONNE, Death Be Not Proud

Asking Questions about the Elements

A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of "Death Be Not Proud"

A SAMPLE FIRST RESPONSE

Organizing Your Thoughts

A SAMPLE INFORMAL OUTLINE

The Elements and Theme

A SAMPLE EXPLICATION: The Use of Conventional Metaphors for Death in John Donne’s "Death Be Not Proud"

APPROACHES TO POETRY

31. A Study of Emily Dickinson

A Brief Biography and An Introduction to Her Work

EMILY DICKINSON

If I can stop one Heart from breaking

If I shouldn’t be alive

The Thought beneath so slight a film—

To make a prairie it takes a clover and one bee

Success is counted sweetest

Water, is taught by thirst

*Papa Above!

Safe in their Alabaster Chambers—(1859 version)

Safe in their Alabaster Chambers—(1861 version)

Portraits are to daily faces

Some keep the Sabbath going to Church—

*I taste a liquor never brewed—

"Heaven"— is what I cannot reach!

I like a look of Agony

Wild Nights—Wild Nights!

The Soul selects her own Society—

Much Madness is divinest Sense—

I dwell in Possibility—

After great pain, a formal feeling comes—

I heard a Fly buzz—when I died—

Because I could not stop for Death—

I felt a Cleaving in my Mind—

The Bustle in a House

Tell all the Truth but tell it slant—

*O Sumptuous moment

*A Route of Evanescence

From all the Jails the Boys and Girls

PERSPECTIVES ON EMILY DICKINSON

EMILY DICKINSON, A Description of Herself

THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON, On Meeting Dickinson for the First Time

MABEL LOOMIS TODD, The Character of Amherst

RICHARD WILBUR, On Dickinson’s Sense of Privation

SANDRA M. GILBERT AND SUSAN GUBAR, On Dickinson’s White Dress

PAULA BENNETT, On "I heard a Fly buzz— when I died—"

MARTHA NELL SMITH, On "Because I could not stop for Death—"

Questions for Writing about an Author in Depth

A SAMPLE IN-DEPTH STUDY

EMILY DICKINSON

"Faith" is a fine invention

I know that He exists

I never saw a Moor—

Apparently with no surprise

A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER

Religious Faith in Four Poems by Emily Dickinson

Suggested Topics for Longer Papers

[[COLOR INSERT]]

Poetry and the Visual Arts

Painting: GRANT WOOD, American Gothic

Poem: JOHN STONE, American Gothic

Woodblock print: KIAGAWA UTAMARO, Girl Powdering Her Neck

Poem: CATHY SONG, Girl Powdering Her Neck

Sculpture: MAYA LIN, The Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial

Poem: YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA, Facing It

Painting: PIETER BRUEGHEL THE ELDER, Two Chained Monkeys

Poem: WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA, Brueghel’s Two Monkeys

Painting: EDWARD HOPPER, House by the Railroad

Poem: EDWARD HIRSCH, Edward Hopper and the House by the Railroad

*Painting: JOHANNES VERMEER, The Milkmaid

*Poem: WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA, Vermeer

32. A Study of Robert Frost

A Brief Biography and An Introduction to His Work

ROBERT FROST

The Road Not Taken

The Pasture

Mowing

*My November Guest

Mending Wall

After Apple-Picking

Birches

"Out, Out—"

The Oven Bird

Fire and Ice

Dust of Snow

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

The Need of Being Versed in Country Things

*Nothing Gold Can Stay

*Once by the Pacific

Neither Out Far nor In Deep

Design

*The Gift Outright

PERSPECTIVES ON ROBERT FROST

ROBERT FROST, "In White": An Early Version of "Design"

ROBERT FROST, On the Living Part of a Poem

AMY LOWELL, On Frost’s Realistic Technique

HERBERT R. COURSEN JR., A Parodic Interpretation of "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening"

PETER D. POLAND, On "Neither Out Far nor In Deep"

Suggested Topics for Longer Papers

33. A Study of Billy Collins: The Author Reflects on Five Poems

A Brief Biography and an Introduction to His Work

INTRODUCTION: BILLY COLLINS, How Do Poems Travel?

POEM: BILLY COLLINS, Osso Buco

ESSAY: BILLY COLLINS, On Writing "Osso Buco"

POEM: BILLY COLLINS, Nostalgia

ESSAY: BILLY COLLINS, On Writing "Nostalgia"

POEM: BILLY COLLINS, Questions About Angels

ESSAY: BILLY COLLINS, On Writing "Questions About Angels"

POEM: BILLY COLLINS, Litany

ESSAY: BILLY COLLINS, On Writing "Litany"

POEM: BILLY COLLINS, Building with Its Face Blown Off

PERSPECTIVE: On "Building with Its Face Blown Off": Michael Meyer Interviews Billy Collins

FACSIMILES: BILLY COLLINS, Three Draft Manuscript Pages

Suggested Topics for Longer Papers

34. A Study of Julia Alvarez: The Author Reflects on Five Poems

A Brief Biography and An Introduction to Her Work

ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "Queens, 1963"

POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, Queens, 1963

PERSPECTIVE: MARNY REQUA, From an Interview with Julia Alvarez

ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "Housekeeping Cages" and Her Housekeeping

Poems

POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, Housekeeping Cages

ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "Dusting"

POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, Dusting

ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "Ironing Their Clothes"

POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, Ironing Their Clothes

ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "Sometimes the Words Are So Close" (From

the "33" Sonnet Sequence)

POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, Sometimes the Words Are So Close

FACSIMILES: JULIA ALVAREZ, Four Draft Manuscript Pages

ESSAY: JULIA ALVAREZ, On Writing "First Muse"

POEM: JULIA ALVAREZ, First Muse

PERSPECTIVE: KELLI LYON JOHNSON, Mapping an Identity

35. A Critical Case Study: T. S. Eliot’s "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"

A Brief Biography

T. S. ELIOT, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

PERSPECTIVES ON T. S. ELIOT

ELISABETH SCHNEIDER, Hints of Eliot in Prufrock

BARBARA EVERETT, The Problem of Tone in Prufrock

MICHAEL L. BAUMANN, The "Overwhelming Question" for Prufrock

FREDERIK L. RUSCH, Society and Character in "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"

Suggested Topics for Longer Papers

36. A Cultural Case Study: Harlem Renaissance Poets Claude McKay, Georgia Douglas Johnson, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen

INTRODUCTION

CHRONOLOGY

CLAUDE MCKAY, A Brief Biography and an Introduction to His Work

CLAUDE MCKAY

The Harlem Dancer

If We Must Die

The Tropics in New York

The Lynching

*The White City

America

*The Barrier

GEORGIA DOUGLAS JOHNSON, A Brief Biography and an Introduction to Her Work

GEORGIA DOUGLAS JOHNSON

Youth

Foredoom

Calling Dreams

Lost Illusions

Fusion

*Prejudice

I Want to Die While You Love Me

LANGSTON HUGHES, A Brief Biography and an Introduction to His Work

LANGSTON HUGHES

The Negro Speaks of Rivers

Jazzonia

Lenox Avenue: Midnight

Ballad of the Landlord

125th Street

Harlem

COUNTEE CULLEN, A Brief Biography and an Introduction to His Work

COUNTEE CULLEN

Yet Do I Marvel

Incident

For a Lady I Know

Tableau

From the Dark Tower

To Certain Critics

PERSPECTIVES

CLAUDE MCKAY, On Being Neither a Classicist nor Modernist

KAREN JACKSON FORD, Hughes’s Aesthetics of Simplicity

DAVID CHINITZ, The Romanticization of Africa in the 1920s

ALAIN LOCKE, Review of Georgia Douglas Johnson’s Bronze: A Book of Verse

COUNTEE CULLEN, On Racial Poetry

ONWUCHEKWA JEMIE, On Universal Poetry

Suggested Topics for Longer Papers

37. A Thematic Case Study: Love and Longing

CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Not marble, nor the gilded monuments

ANNE BRADSTREET, To My Dear and Loving Husband

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways

EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, Recuerdo

EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY, I, Being Born a Woman, Distressed

*C.K. WILLIAMS, Love: Beginnings

JOAN MURRAY, Play-by-Play

*LAURE-ANNE BOSSELAAR, The Pleasures of Hating

BILLIE BOLTON, Memorandum

LUISA LOPEZ, Junior Year Abroad

Suggested Topics for Longer Papers

38. A Thematic Case Study: Humor and Satire

JOHN CIARDI, Suburban

*E.E. CUMMINGS, When Serpents Bargain for the Right to Squirm

HARRYETTE MULLEN, Dim Lady

RONALD WALLACE, In a Rut

HOWARD NEMEROV, Walking the Dog

*JIM TILLEY, Hello, Old Man

PETER SCHMITT, Friends with Numbers

MARTÍN ESPADA, The Community College Revises Its Curriculum in Response to Changing Demographics

GEORGE BILGERE, Stupid

GARY SOTO, Mexicans Begin Jogging

*DAVID WAGONER, Improving My Mind

THOMAS R. MOORE, At the Berkeley Free Speech Café

X. J. KENNEDY, On a Young Man’s Remaining an Undergraduate for Twelve Years

 

39. A Thematic Case Study: The Natural World

JANE HIRSHFIELD, Optimism

*WENDELL BERRY, The Peace of Wild Things

GAIL WHITE, Dead Armadillos

DAVE LUCAS, November

WALT MCDONALD, Coming Across It

ALDEN NOWLAN, The Bull Moose

KAY RYAN, Turtle

*MAXINE KUMIN, The Whole Hog

MARY OLIVER, Wild Geese

Suggested Topics for Longer Papers

40. A Thematic Case Study: The World of Work

DANA GIOIA, Money

TONY HOAGLAND, America

JAN BEATTY, My Father Teaches Me to Dream

MICHAEL CHITWOOD, Men Throwing Bricks

BARON WORMSER, Labor

ANGELA ALAIMO O’DONNELL, Touring the Mine

DAVID IGNATOW, The Jobholder

*TED KOOSER, Laundry

JOYCE SUTPHEN, Guys Like That

MARGE PIERCY, To be of use

Suggested Topics for Longer Papers

 

AN ANTHOLOGY OF POEMS

41. A Collection of Poems

ANONYMOUS, Bonny Barbara Allan

W.H. AUDEN, The Unknown Citizen

*APHRA BEHN, Song: Love Armed

WILLIAM BLAKE, Infant Sorrow

ANNE BRADSTREET, Before the Birth of One of Her Children

*ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, My Letters! all dead paper, mute and white!

*WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT, To a Waterfowl

ROBERT BURNS, A Red, Red Rose

GEORGE GORDON, LORD BYRON, She Walks in Beauty

SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE, Kubla Khan: or, a Vision in a Dream

JOHN DONNE, Batter My Heart

*PAUL LAURENCE DUNBAR, Sympathy

GEORGE ELIOT (MARY ANN EVANS), In a London Drawingroom

*RALPH WALDO EMERSON, Days

CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN, Queer People

THOMAS HARDY, In Time of "The Breaking of Nations"

*THOMAS HARDY, I Looked Up From My Writing

FRANCES E. W. HARPER, Learning to Read

GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, Pied Beauty

GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS, The Windhover

BEN JONSON, To Celia

JOHN KEATS, To one who has been long in city pent

JOHN KEATS, When I have fears that I may cease to be

*JOHN KEATS, Bright Star! Would I Were Steadfast As Thou Art—

JOHN KEATS, La Belle Dame sans Merci

*D.H. LAWRENCE, How Beastly the Bourgeois Is

EMMA LAZARUS, The New Colossus

AMY LOWELL, A Decade

JOHN MILTON, On the Late Massacre in Piedmont

JOHN MILTON, When I consider how my light is spent

*EDGAR ALLAN POE, To Helen

*EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, Miniver Cheevy

CHRISTINA GEORGINA ROSSETTI, Some Ladies Dress in Muslin Full and White

CHRISTINA GEORGINA ROSSETTI, Promises Like Pie-Crust

SIEGFRIED SASSOON, "They"

*WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Let me not to the marriage of true minds

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, That time of year thou mayst in me behold

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, When forty winters shall besiege thy brow

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, Ozymandias

LYDIA HUNTLEY SIGOURNEY, Indian Names

*JONATHAN SWIFT, A Description of the Morning

*EDMUND WALLER, Go, Lovely Rose

*WALT WHITMAN, As Adam Early in the Morning

WALT WHITMAN, When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer

WALT WHITMAN, One’s-Self I Sing

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud

*WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, Composed Upon Westminster Bridge

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, Mutability

STEFANIE WORTMAN, Mortuary Art

*WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, The Lake Isle of Innisfree

*WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, When You Are Old

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS, Leda and the Swan

DRAMA

The Study of Drama

42. Reading Drama

Reading Drama Responsively

SUSAN GLASPELL, Trifles

A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of Trifles

PERSPECTIVE

SUSAN GLASPELL, From the Short Story Version of Trifles

Elements of Drama

MICHAEL HOLLINGER, Naked Lunch

Drama in Popular Forms

LARRY DAVID, "The Pitch," a Seinfeld Episode

43. Writing about Drama

From Reading to Writing

Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing

A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: The Feminist Evidence in Trifles

44. A Study of Sophocles

Theatrical Conventions of Greek Drama

Tragedy

*SOPHOCLES, Oedipus the King (Translated by David Grene)

PERSPECTIVES ON SOPHOCLES

ARISTOTLE, On Tragic Character

SIGMUND FREUD, On the Oedipus Complex

MURIEL RUKEYSER, On Oedipus the King

DAVID WILES, On Oedipus the King as a Political Play

45. A Study of William Shakespeare

CHRONOLOGY

Shakespeare’s Theater

The Range of Shakespeare’s Drama: History, Comedy, and Tragedy

A Note on Reading Shakespeare

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, A Midsummer Night’s Dream

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

PERSPECTIVES ON SHAKESPEARE

THE MAYOR OF LONDON (1597), Objections to the Elizabethan Theater

LISA JARDINE, On Boy Actors in Female Roles

SAMUEL JOHNSON, On Shakespeare’s Characters

SIGMUND FREUD, On Repression in Hamlet

JAN KOTT, On Producing Hamlet

RUSSELL JACKSON, A Film Diary of the Shooting of Kenneth Branagh’s Hamlet

LINDA BAMBER, Feminine Rebellion and Masculine Authority in A Midsummer Night’s Dream

LOUIS ADRIAN MONTROSE, On Amazonian Mythology in A Midsummer Night’s Dream

JAMES KINCAID, On the Value of Comedy in the Face of Tragedy

ENCOUNTERING DRAMA: A VISUAL PORTFOLIO

HAMLET IN POPULAR CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE

painting: Hamlet and Horatio in the Cemetery, by Eugène Delacroix

photo: Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet

movie still: Ethan Hawke as Hamlet

movie still: Laurence Olivier as Hamlet

painting: Ophelia: Here is Rosemary, by William Gorman Wills

cartoon: Ophelia, cartoon from The New Yorker, by Lee Lorenz

movie still: Kate Winslet as Ophelia

painting: The Death of Ophelia, by Eugène Delacroix

46. Modern Drama

Realism

Naturalism

Theatrical Conventions of Modern Drama

HENRIK IBSEN, A Doll’s House (Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp)

PERSPECTIVE

HENRIK IBSEN, Notes for A Doll House

Beyond Realism

47. A Critical Case Study: Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll House

PERSPECTIVES

A Nineteenth-Century Husband’s Letter to His Wife

BARRY WITHAM and JOHN LUTTERBIE, A Marxist Approach to A Doll House

CAROL STRONGIN TUFTS, A Psychoanalytic Reading of Nora

JOAN TEMPLETON, Is A Doll House a Feminist Text?

Questions for Writing: Applying a Critical Strategy

SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: On the Other Side of the Slammed Door in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House

48. A Critical Case Study: John Patrick Shanley’s Doubt: A Parable

A Brief Biography

*JOHN PATRICK SHANLEY, Doubt: A Parable

In a Catholic school in the 1960’s, a nun accuses a priest of something for which she has no proof. As the drama unfolds and toys with our sense of uncertainty, we are left to ask ourselves, "What do you do when you’re not sure?"

PERSPECTIVES

*JOHN PATRICK SHANLEY, On the Value of Doubt

*ALEX WITCHEL, On Shanley’s Experiences in Catholic School

*ELIZABETH CULLINGFORD, On the Whiplash Climax of Doubt

*KENNETH TURAN, On the Film Version of Doubt

Plays in Performance

Photos of scenes from:

Oedipus the King

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

Hamlet

A Doll’s House

Doubt

Rodeo

Fences

Trying to Find Chinatown

Death of a Salesman

No Child…

Playwriting 101

Naked Lunch

 

49. A Thematic Case Study: An Album of Contemporary Humor and Satire

JANE ANDERSON, The Reprimand

SHARON E. COOPER, Mistaken Identity

JANE MARTIN, Rodeo

RICH ORLOFF, Playwriting 101: The Rooftop Lesson

*DAVID IVES, Moby-Dude, Or: The Three-Minute Whale

A short, silly, modern-take on the classic—complete with sound effects.

 

A Collection of Plays

50. Plays for Further Reading

DAVID HENRY HWANG, Trying to Find Chinatown

ARTHUR MILLER, Death of a Salesman

PERSPECTIVES

ARTHUR MILLER, Tragedy and the Common Man

ARTHUR MILLER, On Biff and Willy Lowman

NILAJA SUN, No Child…

*WENDY WASSERSTEIN, Tender Offer

When a father misses his daughter’s dance recital, they share a tentative yet sentimental moment as they talk through their complex relationship.

AUGUST WILSON, Fences

PERSPECTIVE

DAVID SAVRAN, An Interview with August Wilson

Critical Thinking and Writing

51. Critical Strategies for Reading

Critical Thinking

The Literary Canon: Diversity and Controversy

Formalist Strategies

Biographical Strategies

Psychological Strategies

Historical Strategies

Literary History Criticism

Marxist Criticism

New Historicist Criticism

Cultural Criticism

Gender Strategies

Feminist Criticism

Gay and Lesbian Criticism

Mythological Strategies

Reader-Response Strategies

Deconstructionist Strategies

52. Reading and the Writing Process

The Purpose and Value of Writing about Literature

Reading the Work Closely

Annotating the Text and Journal Note Taking

Annotated Text

Journal Note

Choosing a Topic

Developing a Thesis

Arguing about Literature

Questions for Arguing about Literature

Organizing a Paper

Writing a Draft

Writing the Introduction and Conclusion

Using Quotations

Revising and Editing

Questions for Writing: A Revision Checklist

Manuscript Form

Types of Writing Assignments

Explication

A SAMPLE STUDENT EXPLICATION: A Reading of Dickinson’s "There’s a certain Slant of light"

EMILY DICKINSON, There’s a certain Slant of light

Analysis

A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: "The A & P" as a State of Mind

Comparison and Contrast

A SAMPLE STUDENT COMPARISON: The Struggle for Women’s Self-Definition in "Eveline" and A Doll House

53. The Literary Research Paper

Choosing a Topic

Finding Sources

Annotated List of References

Electronic Sources

Evaluating Sources and Taking Notes

Developing a Thesis and Organizing the Paper

Revising

Documenting Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

The List of Works Cited

Parenthetical References

A SAMPLE STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER: How the Narrator Cultivates a Rose for Emily

54. Taking Essay Examinations

Preparing for an Essay Exam

Keep Up with the Reading

Take Notes and Annotate the Text

Anticipate Questions

Types of Exams

Closed-Book versus Open-Book Exams

Essay Questions

Strategies for Writing Essay Exams

Glossary of Literary Terms

Index of First Lines

Index of Authors and Titles

Index of Terms

 

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