Behavior of Marine Fishes : Capture Processes and Conservation Challenges

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-06-16
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Understanding fish behavior in relation to potential commercial capture methods is of fundamental importance to reducing commercial bycatch and marine fisheries conservation efforts. A more thorough understanding of fish behaviors and responses to fishing gear will allow commercial fishers to more effectively capture target species while reducing the catch of unwanted species. Behavior of Marine Fishes: Capture Process and Conservation Challenges provides the reader with basic behavioral principles and patterns, information on fish behavior and fish capture processes using several types of common fishing gear, and challenges facing the marine fisheries industry in efforts to maintain sustainable use of marine resources. This volume, with contributions from leading applied fish behaviorists and fishing gear technologists from around the world, will be a valuable reference for researchers, fishing gear technologists, fisheries managers, students, and conservationists.

Author Biography

Pingguo He, PhD, is an Associate professor in the School for Marine Science and Technology at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. Prior to this position, he was a Research Associate Professor of Fisheries at the Institute for the Study of the Earth, Oceans, and Space and an Extension Specialist for Commercial Fisheries at the New Hampshire Sea Grant, the University of New Hampshire. Dr. He specializes in fish behavior during capture processes and conservation engineering principles to reduce impact of fishing to the marine ecosystem.

Table of Contents

Contributorsp. ix
Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. xiii
Locomotion and Sensory Capabilities in Marine Fishp. 3
Swimming in Marine Fishp. 5
Introductionp. 5
The Swimming Apparatusp. 5
Swimming-Related Adaptationsp. 8
Styles of Swimmingp. 12
Interactions between Fish and Water: Fish Wakesp. 13
Energy Required for Swimmingp. 14
Swimming Speeds and Endurancep. 18
Concluding Remarksp. 19
Fish Vision and Its Role in Fish Capturep. 25
Introductionp. 25
Structure of the Fish Eyep. 25
Visual Functionp. 27
Visual Capacity: Visual Acuity, Separable Angle, and Maximum Sighting Distancep. 32
Color and Appearance of Fishing Gear Underwaterp. 35
Fish Vision and Its Application in Fish Capturep. 36
Concluding Remarksp. 40
Hearing in Marine Fish and Its Application in Fisheriesp. 45
Introductionp. 45
Properties of Underwater Sound and Vibrationp. 45
Underwater Sound Sources and Their Characteristicsp. 47
General Morphology and Functions of Inner Ears and Ancillary Structuresp. 48
Responses of Fish to Sound and Its Application in Fisheriesp. 53
Concluding Remarksp. 60
Fish Behavior near Fishing Gears during Capture Processesp. 65
Fish Behavior near Bottom Trawlsp. 67
Introductionp. 67
Trawl Gear and Trawl Fisheriesp. 67
Fish Behavior in the Pretrawl Zone (Zone 1)p. 69
Fish Behavior between Trawl Doors and in the Net Mouth (Zone 2)p. 75
Fish Behavior inside the Trawl Net and the Codend (Zone 3)p. 82
Factors Influencing Fish Behavior near Trawlsp. 89
Concluding Remarksp. 95
Fish Behavior in Relation to Longlinesp. 105
Introductionp. 105
Worldwide Longline Fisheriesp. 106
Description of the Gearp. 108
Chemoreception and Food Search-The Basis for Bait Fishingp. 110
Interactions between the Fish and the Longline Gearp. 114
Conservation Challenges and Potential Solutionsp. 123
Concluding Remarksp. 130
Future Challengesp. 132
Fish Pots: Fish Behavior, Capture Processes, and Conservation Issuesp. 143
Introductionp. 143
Worldwide Use of Fish Potsp. 143
Fish Behavior in Relation to Potsp. 146
Conservation Challenges and Solutionsp. 150
Concluding Remarksp. 154
Large-scale Fish Traps: Gear Design, Fish Behavior, and Conservation Challengesp. 159
Introductionp. 159
Trap Fisheries and Trap Designsp. 159
Fish Behavior in and around Trapsp. 165
Fish Behavior and Trap Designsp. 170
Size and Species Selectivity and Mortality of Escapees and Discardsp. 172
Conservation Issues and Mitigation Measures in Trap Fisheriesp. 174
Concluding Remarksp. 178
Fish Behavior near Gillnets: Capture Processes, and Influencing Factorsp. 183
Introductionp. 183
Capture Mechanisms, Gear Designs, and Fishing Efficiencyp. 184
Size Selectivity of Gillnetsp. 187
Fish Behavior and Gillnet Fishingp. 189
Measures to Reduce Bycatch and Discards in Gillnetsp. 192
Interaction of Marine Mammals, Seabirds, and Sea Turtles with Gillnetsp. 195
Derelict Gillnets: Ghost Fishing Problems and Solutionsp. 197
Concluding Remarksp. 198
Electric Senses of Fish and Their Application in Marine Fisheriesp. 205
Introductionp. 205
Properties of an Electric Field in Waterp. 206
The Electric Fieldp. 209
Application in Marine Fisheriesp. 219
Conservation Issuesp. 228
Concluding Remarksp. 231
Contemporary Issues in Capture and Conservation in Marine Fisheriesp. 237
Technical Measures to Reduce Bycatch and Discards in Trawl Fisheriesp. 239
Introductionp. 239
Bycatch and Discard in World Fisheriesp. 240
Cause of Bycatch and Discardp. 242
Technical Measures to Reduce Bycatch and Discardp. 242
Implementation of Discard Reduction Measures in Trawl Fisheriesp. 257
Discussionp. 258
Concluding Remarksp. 259
Mortality of Animals that Escape Fishing Gears or Are Discarded after Capture: Approaches to Reduce Mortalityp. 265
Introductionp. 265
Mortality of Discards and Escapeesp. 266
Assessment of Mortalityp. 269
Factors Causing Stress, Injury, and Mortalityp. 276
Measures to Improve Survivalp. 283
Concluding Remarksp. 286
Effect of Trawling on the Seabed and Mitigation Measures to Reduce Impactp. 295
Introductionp. 295
Review of Recent Studies on the Seabed Impact of Trawlingp. 295
Description of Trawls and Their Operationp. 296
Pelagic and Semipelagic Trawlsp. 299
Groundgear Modificationsp. 301
Trawl Door Considerationsp. 305
Other Trawl Gear Componentsp. 306
Beam Trawlsp. 309
Concluding Remarksp. 310
Measures to Reduce Interactions of Marine Megafauna with Fishing Operationsp. 315
Introductionp. 315
Species and Fisheries Involvedp. 316
Extent of Bycatchp. 318
Nature of the Problemp. 320
Regulatory Frameworksp. 321
Potential Mitigation Measuresp. 325
Concluding Remarksp. 337
Appendix: Species Names Mentioned in the Textp. 343
Indexp. 347
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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