Billmeyer and Saltzman's Principles of Color Technology

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2019-04-09
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


This book offers detailed coverage of color, colorants, the coloring of materials, and reproducing the color of materials through imaging. It combines the clarity and ease of earlier editions with significant updates about the advancement in color theory and technology.
  • Provides guidance for how to use color measurement instrumentation, make a visual assessment, set a visual tolerance, and select a formulation
  • Supplements material with numerical examples, graphs, and illustrations that clarify and explain complex subjects
  • Expands coverage of topics including spatial vision, solid-state lighting, cameras and spectrophotometers, and translucent materials

Author Biography

ROY S. BERNS, PHD, is the Richard S. Hunter Professor in Color Science, Appearance, and Technology within the Program of Color Science at Rochester Institute of Technology, USA where he developed both M.S. and Ph.D. degree programs in Color Science. He has received scientific achievement awards from the Inter-Society Color Council, the Society of Imaging Science and Technology, the Colour Group of Great Britain, and the International Association of Colour. Dr. Berns is the author of the third edition of this book, as well as an author of over 200 publications.

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Physical Properties of Colors 1

A What this Book is about? 1

B The Spectrum and Wave Theory 2

C Light Sources 3

D Conventional Materials 5

Transmission 5

Absorption 6

Surface Scattering 7

Internal Scattering 7

Terminology – Dyes Versus Pigments 10

Spectral Characteristics of Conventional Materials 12

E Fluorescent Materials 12

F Gonioapparent Materials 14

Metallic Materials 14

Pearlescent Materials 14

Interference Materials 15

Diffraction Materials 16

G Photochromic and Thermochromic Colorants 16

H Summary 16

Chapter 2 Color and Spatial Vision 17

A Trichromacy 17

B Light and Chromatic adaptation 21

C Compression 23

D Opponency 23

E Spatial Vision 26

F Observer variability 29

G Summary 34

Chapter 3 Visual Color Specification 37

A One-Dimensional Scales 37

Hue 37

Lightness 38

Chromatic Intensity 39

B Three-Dimensional Systems 39

Geometries 39

Natural Color System 40

Munsell Color System 42

Other Color-Order Systems 46

C Color Appearance: Multidimensional systems 46

D Color-Mixing systems 47

RGB and HSB 47

The Pantone Matching System 48

Limitations of Color-Mixing Systems for Color Specification 49

E Summary 49

Chapter 4 Numerical Color Specification: Colorimetry 51

A Color Matching 51

B Derivation of the Standard observers 53

Theoretical Considerations 53

The Color-Matching Experiment 54

The 1924 CIE Standard Photopic Observer 57

The 1931 CIE Standard Colorimetric Observer 58

The 1964 CIE Standard Colorimetric Observer 61

Cone-Fundamental-Based Colorimetric Observers 62

C Calculating Tristimulus values for Materials 62

D Chromaticity Coordinates and the Chromaticity diagram 63

E Calculating Tristimulus values and Chromaticity Coordinates for sources 67

F Transformation of Primaries 68

Displays 68

Cone Fundamentals 71

G Approximately Uniformly Spaced Systems 71

L* Lightness 72

uv′ Uniform-Chromaticity Scale Diagram 72

Cieluv 73

Cielab 74

Rotation of CIELAB Coordinates 75

H Color-appearance models 78

I Whiteness and Yellowness 83

Whiteness 83

Yellowness 84

J Summary 84

Chapter 5 Color-Quality Specification 85

A Perceptibility and Acceptability Visual Judgments 85

B Color-Difference Geometry 86

C Ellipses and Ellipsoids 89

D The Color-Difference Problem 92

E Weighted Color-Difference Formulas 96

F CMC(L:C) Color-Difference Formula 99

G Ciede2000 Color-Difference Formula 100

H Uniform Color-Difference Spaces 105

I Determining Color-Tolerance Magnitude 106

J Summary 110

Chapter 6 Color and Material-Appearance Measurement 111

A Basic Principles of Measuring Color and Material Appearance 111

B The Sample 112

C Visual Color Measurement 113

D Measurement geometries 114

Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function 115

CIE Recommended Geometries for Measuring Spectral Reflectance Factor 115

CIE Recommended Geometries for Measuring Spectral Transmittance Factor 118

Multiangle Geometries 118

E Spectrophotometry 119

F Spectroradiometry 121

G Fluorescence Measurements 122

H Precision and Accuracy Measurements 124

Repeatability 125

Intramodel Reproducibility 127

Accuracy 128

I spectral Imaging 134

J Material-Appearance Measurements 137

Gloss 137

Microstructure – Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function 137

Macrostructure 142

Sparkle and Graininess 143

K Summary 144

Chapter 7 Lighting 145

A Standard Illuminants 145

B Luminance Illuminance and Luminous Efficacy 148

C Correlated Color Temperature 149

D Color Rendition 150

E Summary 155

Chapter 8 Metamerism and Color Inconstancy 157

A Metamerism Terminology 157

B Producing Metamers 158

C Indices of Metamerism 160

Special Index of Metamerism 160

General Index of Metamerism 162

Using Indices of Metamerism 163

D Color Inconstancy and Indices of Color Inconstancy 164

E Summary 168

Chapter 9 Optical Modeling of Colored Materials 169

A Generic Approach to Color Modeling 169

B Modeling Transparent Materials 171

C Modeling Opaque Materials 174

Opaque Paints 176

Opaque Textiles 181

D Modeling Gonioapparent Materials 184

E Color-Formulation Software 184

F Summary 188

Chapter 10 Color Imaging 189

A Analysis and Synthesis 190

B Color Management 191

C Additive versus Subtractive Mixing 195

D Displays and Encoding 198

E Printing 204

F Digital Cameras 212

Colorimetric Accuracy 213

Spectral Accuracy 217

G Spectral Color Reproduction 219

H Summary 219

Bibliography 221

Annotated Bibliography 237

Recommended Books 243

Index 247

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