Biochemistry Demystified

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-07-17
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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Trying to understand the chemical processes of living organisms but having trouble metabolizing the complex concepts? Here's your lifeline! Biochemistry Demystified helps synthesize your understanding of this important topic.

Author Biography

Sharon Walker, Ph.D., is a Diplomat of the American Board of Toxicology (DABT) and has done extensive research in various areas of biomedicine. She has taught graduate courses in immunology, epidemiology, cell biology, and statistics. Dr. Walker is the author of Biotechnology Demystified.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
The Chemistry of Biomoleculesp. 1
Review of Basic Chemical Conceptsp. 1
Forces That Hold Atoms and Molecules Togetherp. 2
Forces That Drive Reactionsp. 8
The Unique Measurements of Hydrogen Ion Concentration-pHp. 18
The Unique Properties of the Carbon Atomp. 20
The Importance of Molecular Arrangement-Stereochemistryp. 23
Summaryp. 26
Quizp. 29
Cell Structures and Cell Divisionp. 31
Introductionp. 31
Cell Theoryp. 32
The Three Domains of Lifep. 32
Cell Containmentp. 35
Introduction to Cell Organellesp. 38
Summaryp. 47
Quizp. 49
Carbohydratesp. 53
Monosaccharidep. 54
Reducing and Nonreducing Sugarsp. 63
Derivatives of Carbohydratesp. 63
Glycosidic Bond and Disaccharidesp. 65
Polysaccharidesp. 68
Glycoconjugatesp. 70
Summaryp. 71
Quizp. 71
Lipidsp. 75
Fatty Acidsp. 76
Triglyceridesp. 80
Sphingolipidsp. 81
Nonsaponifiable Lipidsp. 82
Cholesterolp. 84
An Overview of the Cell Membranep. 85
Summaryp. 89
Quizp. 89
Lipid Metabolismp. 93
Lipases and Phospholipasesp. 93
Cholesterol Releasep. 96
[beta] Oxidation of Fatty Acidsp. 96
Energy Yieldp. 98
Summaryp. 99
Quizp. 99
Protein Structurep. 101
Introductionp. 101
General Characteristics of Proteinsp. 102
Summaryp. 122
Quizp. 124
Protein Assembly and Disassemblyp. 127
Introductionp. 127
A Few Words about Oxidation-Reduction Potentialp. 128
Acquisition of Nitrogen from the Environmentp. 128
Essential versus Nonessential Amino Acidsp. 130
Summaryp. 146
Quizp. 147
Nucleic Acids and Nucleotidesp. 151
Pyrimidinesp. 152
Summaryp. 171
Quizp. 171
Enzymesp. 175
Enzyme Naming Conventionsp. 177
Turnover Numberp. 183
Inhibitorsp. 186
Irreversible and Reversible Inhibitionp. 189
Regulation of Enzyme Activityp. 189
Coenzymes and Cofactorsp. 190
Isozymesp. 193
Summaryp. 194
Quizp. 194
Glycolysisp. 197
Introductionp. 198
The Preparatory Phasep. 199
The Pay-Off Phase of Glycolysisp. 202
Hexokinase Regulationp. 205
Phosphofructokinase Regulationp. 207
Pyruvate Kinase Regulationp. 207
More on the Liverp. 211
Ethanol Fermentationp. 212
Other Sugars in Glycolysisp. 212
Glycolysis and Cancerp. 214
Summaryp. 217
Quizp. 217
The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylationp. 221
The Citric Acid Cyclep. 222
The Electron Transport Chain and Protein Complexesp. 232
ATP Synthesisp. 235
Summaryp. 237
Quizp. 237
Control of Chemical Processes-Signal Biomoleculesp. 241
Hormonesp. 242
Areas of Hormone Productionp. 249
Summaryp. 257
Quizp. 257
Specialty Functionsp. 261
Hemoglobinp. 261
The Molecular Structure of Oxygen Transport Moleculesp. 262
Release of Oxygenp. 265
Factors That Modulate Oxygen Transport and Releasep. 267
Other Functions of Hemoglobinp. 271
Chemicals That Impede Hemoglobin Functions-Poisonsp. 272
Disease Conditions Resulting from Abnormal Hemoglobinp. 272
Summaryp. 273
Photosynthesisp. 275
The Overall Scheme by Which Energy Is Captured and Carbon Is Reducedp. 275
The Molecular Structure of Chlorophyllp. 277
The Details of Energy Capture and Production of ATPp. 278
The Details of Carbon Reductionp. 281
Photorespiration-A Metabolic Process That Does More Harm Than Goodp. 283
Summaryp. 285
Quizp. 285
Bioinformation, Analytical Techniques, and Bioinformaticsp. 289
Introductionp. 289
Production of Proteinsp. 290
Methods Used to Study Protein Structure and Functionp. 294
Determining Base Code Sequences on DNAp. 303
Analytical Techniques in Deriving Relationships Between Genomesp. 310
Summaryp. 314
Quizp. 316
Final Examp. 319
Answers to Quiz and Exam Questionsp. 339
Common Structuresp. 345
Indexp. 351
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