Biochemistry for Sport and Exercise Metabolism

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-12-12
  • Publisher: Wiley

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How do our muscles produce energy for exercise and what are the underlying biochemical principles involved? These are questions that students need to be able to answer when studying for a number of sport related degrees. This can prove to be a difficult task for those with a relatively limited scientific background. Biochemistry for Sport and Exercise Metabolism addresses this problem by placing the primary emphasis on sport, and describing the relevant biochemistry within this context. The book opens with some basic information on the subject, including an overview of energy metabolism, some key aspects of skeletal muscle structure and function, and some simple biochemical concepts. It continues by looking at the three macromolecules which provide energy and structure to skeletal muscle - carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. The last section moves beyond biochemistry to examine key aspects of metabolism - the regulation of energy production and storage. Beginning with a chapter on basic principles of regulation of metabolism it continues by exploring how metabolism is influenced during high-intensity, prolonged, and intermittent exercise by intensity, duration, and nutrition. Key Features: A clearly written, well presented introduction to the biochemistry of muscle metabolism. Focuses on sport to describe the relevant biochemistry within this context. In full colour throughout, it includes numerous illustrations, together with learning objectives and key points to reinforce learning. Biochemistry for Sport and Exercise Metabolism will prove invaluable to students across a range of sport-related courses, who need to get to grips with how exercise mode, intensity, duration, training status and nutritional status can all affect the regulation of energy producing pathways and, more important, apply this understanding to develop training and nutrition programmes to maximise athletic performance.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Basic Muscle Physiology and Energeticsp. 1
Energy sources for muscular activityp. 3
Adenosine triphosphate: the energy currencyp. 3
Energy continuump. 4
Energy supply for muscle contractionp. 4
Energy systems and running speedp. 7
Why can't a marathon be sprinted?p. 7
Energy sources and musclep. 8
Can muscle use protein for energy?p. 9
Key pointsp. 10
Skeletal muscle structure and functionp. 11
Skeletal muscle structurep. 12
Gross anatomical structurep. 12
The muscle fibrep. 13
Muscle contractionp. 18
Propagation of the action potentialp. 18
Excitation-contraction couplingp. 18
The sliding filament mechanismp. 20
Muscle fibre typesp. 21
General classification of muscle fibresp. 21
Muscle fibre distributionp. 23
Muscle fibre recruitmentp. 24
Muscles in actionp. 26
Types of muscle contractionp. 26
The twitch contractionp. 26
The length-tension relationshipp. 27
Tetanus contractionsp. 27
Force-velocity relationshipp. 28
Muscle fatiguep. 29
Key pointsp. 29
Biochemical conceptsp. 31
Organization of matterp. 32
Matter and elementsp. 32
Atoms and atomic structurep. 32
Atomic number and mass numberp. 34
Atomic massp. 34
Ions, molecules, compounds and macronutrientsp. 34
Chemical bondingp. 35
Ionic bondsp. 36
Covalent bondsp. 36
Molecular formulae and structuresp. 38
Functional groupsp. 39
Chemical reactions, ATP and energyp. 40
Energyp. 40
ATPp. 41
Units of energyp. 42
Types of chemical reactionsp. 43
Waterp. 45
General functions of waterp. 45
Water as a solventp. 46
Solutions and concentrationsp. 46
Acid-base balancep. 47
Acids, bases and saltsp. 47
pH Scalep. 48
Buffersp. 49
Cell structurep. 49
The plasma membranep. 50
The nucleusp. 51
Cytoplasm and organellesp. 51
Key pointsp. 53
Fundamentals of Sport and Exercise Biochemistryp. 55
Proteinsp. 57
Protein functionp. 58
General protein functionp. 59
Amino acidsp. 62
Amino acid structurep. 62
Protein structurep. 62
Primary structurep. 62
Secondary structurep. 65
Tertiary structurep. 65
Quaternary structurep. 65
Proteins as enzymesp. 67
Mechanisms of enzyme actionp. 67
Factors affecting rates of enzymatic reactionsp. 68
Coenzymes and cofactorsp. 70
Classification of enzymesp. 70
Regulation of enzyme activityp. 72
Protein turnoverp. 73
Overview of protein turnoverp. 73
DNA structurep. 73
Transcriptionp. 74
The genetic codep. 74
Translationp. 76
Amino acid metabolismp. 78
Free amino acid poolp. 79
Transaminationp. 79
Deaminationp. 80
Branched chain amino acidsp. 82
Glucose-alanine cyclep. 82
Glutaminep. 82
The urea cyclep. 85
Key pointsp. 85
Carbohydratesp. 87
Relevance of carbohydrates for sport and exercisep. 88
Types and structure of carbohydratesp. 90
Monosaccharidesp. 90
Disaccharides and polysaccharidesp. 91
Metabolism of carbohydratesp. 92
Glycogenolysisp. 93
Glycolysisp. 95
Lactate metabolismp. 98
The 'link' reaction; production of acetyl-CoAp. 98
The TCA (or Krebs) cyclep. 98
Electron transport chainp. 98
Oxidative phosphorylationp. 100
Calculation of ATP generated in glucose oxidationp. 101
Overview of glucose oxidationp. 102
Fructose metabolismp. 102
Gluconeogenesisp. 102
Glycogenesisp. 103
Key pointsp. 107
Lipidsp. 109
Relevance of lipids for sport and exercisep. 110
Structure of lipidsp. 112
Classification of lipidsp. 112
Compound lipidsp. 115
Derived lipidsp. 115
Metabolism of lipidsp. 115
Lipolysisp. 115
-oxidationp. 118
Ketone body formationp. 119
Formation of fatty acidsp. 119
Triglyceride synthesisp. 122
Key pointsp. 124
Metabolic Regulation in Sport and Exercisep. 127
Principles of metabolic regulationp. 129
How are catabolic and anabolic reactions controlled?p. 130
Hormonesp. 130
Peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and regulationp. 133
Adrenaline activation of glycogenolysisp. 134
Adrenaline activation of lipolysisp. 135
Insulin activation of glycogen synthasep. 135
Insulin inhibition of lipolysisp. 137
Insulin stimulation of protein synthesisp. 137
Steroid hormones and regulationp. 138
Allosteric effectorsp. 140
Regulation of glycogen phosphorylasep. 140
Regulation of PFKp. 140
Regulation of PDHp. 140
Regulation of CPT1p. 142
AMPK as a metabolic regulatorp. 142
Key pointsp. 144
High-intensity exercisep. 145
Overview of energy production and metabolic regulation in high-intensity exercisep. 145
Definition of high-intensity exercisep. 145
Energy production during high-intensity exercisep. 146
Evidence of energy sources used in HIEp. 148
Metabolic regulation during high-intensity exercisep. 152
Effects of exercise durationp. 152
Effects of nutritional statusp. 153
Can nutritional ergogenic aids help HIE?p. 154
Effects of trainingp. 155
Mechanisms of fatiguep. 157
Reduced ATPp. 158
Reduced PCrp. 159
Increased Pip. 159
Lactate and H+p. 160
Key pointsp. 161
Endurance exercisep. 163
Overview of energy production and metabolic regulation in endurance exercisep. 164
Definition and models of endurance exercisep. 164
Energy production in endurance exercisep. 164
Overview of metabolic regulation in endurance exercisep. 165
Effects of exercise intensityp. 166
CHO metabolismp. 166
Lipid metabolismp. 168
Effects of exercise durationp. 172
Effects of nutritional statusp. 174
CHO-loading and muscle glycogen availabilityp. 174
Fat-loading strategiesp. 176
Pre-exercise and during-exercise CHO ingestionp. 178
Pre-exercise FFA availabilityp. 181
Effects of training statusp. 183
CHO metabolismp. 183
Lipid metabolismp. 184
Protein metabolismp. 188
Mechanisms of fatiguep. 189
Key pointsp. 192
High-intensity intermittent exercisep. 195
Overview of energy production in intermittent exercisep. 196
Definition and models of intermittent exercisep. 196
Energy systems utilized in intermittent exercisep. 197
Metabolic regulation in intermittent exercisep. 197
Effects of manipulating work-rest intensity and ratiop. 202
Effects of nutritional statusp. 206
Muscle glycogen availabilityp. 207
Pre-exercise CHO ingestionp. 207
CHO ingestion during exercisep. 209
Muscle adaptations to interval trainingp. 210
Mechanisms of fatiguep. 215
Carbohydrate availabilityp. 216
PCr depletionp. 217
Acidosisp. 218
Extracellular potassiump. 220
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)p. 221
Pi accumulation and impaired Ca2+ releasep. 223
Key pointsp. 224
References and suggested readingsp. 227
Indexp. 241
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