Biofuels Refining and Performance

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-01-07
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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Market: chemical engineers, agricultural and biological engineers, and mechanical engineers Covers safe handling and storage methods The rising cost of oil and its future scarcity have made biofuels a hot-button topic Features an international team of authors

Author Biography

A. Nag, Ph.D. is with the Department of Chemistryat the Indian Institute of Technology.

Table of Contents

Contributorsp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Energy and Its Biological Resourcesp. 1
Energy (Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow)p. 1
Energyp. 5
Thermodynamicsp. 5
Energy-Dependent Ecosystemsp. 7
Photosynthetic factorsp. 8
Bioenergyp. 9
Biological Energeticsp. 11
Chemical Cellp. 16
Models of Bioenergy Cellsp. 18
Oxidative phosphorylation pathp. 19
Photosynthetic pathp. 19
A Living Cell Is an Ideal Cellp. 21
Plant Cells Are Uniquep. 22
Photosynthetic bacteriap. 25
Biofuelsp. 25
Heterocystous blue-green algae (example, Anabaena cylindrica)p. 26
Photofermentation by photosynthetic bacteria (example, Rhodospirillium rubrum)p. 26
Methane productionp. 27
Plant Hydrocarbonsp. 27
Biogasp. 28
Gobargasp. 30
Biomass, Gasification, and Pyrolysisp. 34
Biomassp. 34
Gasification and pyrolysisp. 34
Bioluminescencep. 35
Hydrogenp. 37
Microbial conversionp. 38
Referencesp. 43
Photosynthetic Plants as Renewable Energy Sourcesp. 45
Introductionp. 45
Mechanism and Efficiency of Photosynthesis in Plantsp. 46
Photosynthetic Processp. 47
Hill reaction (light reaction)p. 48
Blackman's reaction (dark reaction)p. 49
Efficiency of photosynthesisp. 49
Plant Types and Growing Cyclesp. 52
Harvesting Plants for Bioenergyp. 60
Productsp. 61
Gaseous productsp. 62
Liquid productsp. 62
Solid productsp. 63
Referencesp. 66
Bioethanol: Market and Production Processesp. 69
Introductionp. 69
Global Market of Bioethanol and Future Prospectsp. 69
Overall Process of Bioethanol Productionp. 72
Production of Sugars from Raw Materialsp. 73
Sugar solution from starchy materialsp. 73
Acid hydrolysis of starchp. 74
Enzymatic hydrolysis of starchp. 75
Characterization of Lignocellulosic Materialsp. 76
Cellulosep. 76
Hemicellulosep. 77
Ligninp. 77
Sugar Solution from Lignocellulosic Materialsp. 77
Chemical hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materialsp. 78
Pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materialsp. 80
Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materialsp. 81
Basic Concepts of Fermentationp. 82
Conversion of Simple Sugars to Ethanolp. 83
Biochemical Basis of Ethanol Production from Hexosesp. 83
Chemical Basis of Ethanol Production from Pentosesp. 85
Microorganisms Related to Ethanol Fermentationp. 86
Yeastsp. 86
Bacteriap. 87
Filamentous fungip. 88
Fermentation Processp. 89
Batch processesp. 90
Fed-batch processesp. 91
Continuous processesp. 92
Series-arranged continuous flow fermentationp. 94
Strategies for fermentation of enzymatic lignocellulosic hydrolyzatesp. 95
Separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF)p. 95
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)p. 96
Comparison between enzymatic and acid hydrolysis for lignocellulosic materialsp. 97
Ethanol Recoveryp. 98
Distillationp. 98
Alternative Processes for Ethanol Recovery and Purificationp. 100
Ethanol Dehydrationp. 101
Molecular sieve adsorptionp. 101
Membrane technologyp. 101
Concluding Remarks and Future Prospectsp. 102
Referencesp. 102
Raw Materials to Produce Low-Cost Biodieselp. 107
Introductionp. 107
Nonedible Oilsp. 109
Bahapilu oilp. 110
Castor oilp. 111
Cottonseed oilp. 113
Cuphea oilp. 114
Jatropha curcas oilp. 115
Karanja seed oilp. 116
Linseed oilp. 117
Mahua oilp. 119
Nagchampa oilp. 120
Neem oilp. 121
Rubber seed oilp. 122
Tonka bean oilp. 123
Low-Cost Edible Oilsp. 124
Cardoon oilp. 124
Ethiopian mustard oilp. 125
Gold-of-pleasure oilp. 126
Tigernut oilp. 127
Used Frying Oilsp. 129
Animal Fatsp. 131
Future Linesp. 132
Allanblackia oilp. 133
Bitter almond oilp. 133
Chaulmoogra oilp. 134
Papaya oilp. 135
Sal oilp. 136
Tung oilp. 137
Ucuuba oilp. 138
Acknowledgmentsp. 139
Referencesp. 140
Fuel and Physical Properties of Biodiesel Componentsp. 149
Introductionp. 149
Cetane Number and Exhaust Emissionsp. 152
Cold-Flow Propertiesp. 154
Oxidative Stabilityp. 156
Iodine valuep. 157
Viscosityp. 158
Lubricityp. 159
Outlookp. 159
Referencesp. 160
Processing of Vegetable Oils as Biodiesel and Engine Performancep. 165
Introductionp. 165
Processing of Vegetable Oils to Biodieselp. 169
Degumming of vegetable oilsp. 169
Transesterification of vegetable oils by acid or alkalip. 177
Enzymatic transesterification of vegetable oilsp. 181
Engine performance with esters of vegetable oilp. 183
Engine Performance with Esters of Tallow and Frying Oilp. 186
Referencesp. 187
Ethanol and Methanol as Fuels in Internal Combustion Enginesp. 191
Introductionp. 191
Alcohols as Substitute Fuels for IC Enginesp. 193
Ethanol as an alternative fuelp. 193
Production of ethanolp. 194
Distillation of Alcoholp. 198
Properties of Ethanol and Methanolp. 198
Use of Blendsp. 200
Performance of Engine Using Ethanolp. 202
Alcohols in CI Enginep. 204
Alcohol-diesel fuel solutionp. 206
Alcohol-diesel fuel emulsionsp. 207
Spark ignitionp. 207
Ignition improversp. 207
Methanol as an Alternate Fuelp. 208
Production of methanolp. 209
Emissionp. 211
Fuel system and cold startingp. 211
Corrosionp. 212
Toxicity of methanolp. 212
Formaldehyde emissionp. 213
Comparison of Ethanol and Methanolp. 217
Ecosystem Impacts Using Alcohol Fuelsp. 218
Aquatic system impactsp. 218
Terrestrial system impactsp. 218
Occupational health impactsp. 218
Occupational safety impactsp. 218
Socioeconomic impactsp. 219
Transportation and infrastructure impactsp. 219
Referencesp. 219
Cracking of Lipids for Fuels and Chemicalsp. 221
Introductionp. 221
Thermal Degradation Processp. 222
Catalytic cracking (CC)p. 224
Vegetable Oil Fuels/Hydrocarbon Blendsp. 225
Refitting enginesp. 227
Tailored conversion productsp. 227
Feed component in FCCp. 237
Other Metal Oxide Catalystsp. 239
Cracking by In Situ Catalystsp. 241
Conclusionp. 246
Referencesp. 246
Fuel Cellsp. 251
Introductionp. 251
Fuel Cell Basicsp. 252
Types of Fuel Cellsp. 255
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs)p. 255
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs)p. 263
Alkaline-electrolyte fuel cells (AFCs)p. 264
Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs)p. 267
Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs)p. 271
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)p. 274
Biofuel cellsp. 279
Fuel Cell Systemp. 284
Fuel processorp. 284
Air managementp. 287
Water managementp. 287
Thermal managementp. 287
Power-conditioning systemp. 288
Fuel Cell Applicationsp. 288
Conclusionp. 291
Referencesp. 292
Appendixp. 295
Indexp. 297
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