9780865427785

Biogeography : An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780865427785

  • ISBN10:

    086542778X

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2000-01-01
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

The science of biogeography asks, and seeks to answer, many varied questions. Why are there so many different kinds of animals and plants? Why are some common and some rare? Why are some widely dispersed and others confined to very limited areas? Why are some habitats and parts of the world so much richer in species than others? How have these patterns of distribution and species richness evolved?The answers to these questions, in as far as they are known, are as diverse and varied as the questions themselves. To approach them it is necessary to understand global patterns of climate, as well as the physical barriers to dispersal presented by oceans, mountain chains and deserts. We need to know how species respond to the presence of competitors, predators and parasites, and how they react when their physical environment alters as climate changes and as continents break up and are set adrift. Most important of all, we need to appreciate the impact of our own species upon all others, placing new demands upon the adaptability of the living world.The questions asked by biogeography themselves evolve over time, and this new edition of a long-established text raises new questions concerned with such topics as global biodiversity, the roles of species in ecosystems, and the degree to which traditional biogeographical concepts can be applied to the extensive, but neglected, realms of the world's oceans. Marine biogeography is a new, but fast developing discipline, and is included here for the first time.The book is intended as the principal text for students taking courses in biogeography, as well as wider degree programmes in which the study of biogeography is important, such as geography, ecology, palaeobiology and evolution.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements ix
Introduction to biogeography
1(9)
References
9(1)
Biodiversity
10(24)
How many species are there?
10(4)
Gradients of diversity
14(10)
Biodiversity hotspots
24(2)
Diversity in time
26(5)
Marine biodiversity
31(1)
Summary
32(1)
Further reading
32(1)
References
32(2)
Patterns of distribution
34(38)
Limits of distribution
34(2)
Overcoming the barriers
36(2)
A successful family: the daisies (Asteraceae)
38(3)
Patterns of dragonflies
41(3)
Magnolias: evolutionary relicts
44(1)
Climatic relicts
45(4)
Endemic organisms
49(2)
Physical limitations
51(1)
Environmental gradients
52(4)
Interaction of factors
56(3)
Species interaction
59(4)
Reducing competition
63(4)
Predators and prey
67(3)
Summary
70(1)
Further reading
70(1)
References
70(2)
Communities and ecosystems
72(23)
The community
72(3)
The ecosystem
75(2)
Ecosystems and biodiversity
77(3)
Biotic assemblages on a global scale
80(4)
Patterns of climate
84(4)
Climate diagrams
88(1)
Modelling biomes and climate
88(4)
Biomes in a changing world
92(1)
Summary
93(1)
Further reading
93(1)
References
93(2)
The source of novelty
95(17)
Natural selection
95(1)
Darwin's theory and Darwin's finches
96(4)
The controlling force within the organism
100(1)
From populations to species
101(2)
Barriers to interbreeding
103(1)
Polyploids
104(1)
Clines and `rules'
105(1)
Competition for life
106(1)
Controversies and evolutionary theory
107(2)
Evolution and the human race(s)
109(1)
Summary
110(1)
Further reading
110(1)
References
110(2)
Patterns in the past
112(24)
Plate tectonics
113(2)
The evidence for past geographies
115(3)
Changing patterns of continents
118(1)
Early land life on the moving continents
119(1)
One world---for a while
120(4)
The early spread of mammals
124(1)
The great Cretaceous extinction event
125(2)
The rise of the flowering plants
127(1)
Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic climate changes
128(3)
Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic floral changes
131(2)
Summary
133(1)
Further reading
134(1)
References
134(2)
Patterns of life today
136(25)
Mammals: the final patterns
137(3)
The distribution of flowering plants today
140(2)
Mammalian vs. flowering plant geography: comparisons and contrasts
142(2)
Floral patterns in the Southern Hemisphere
144(1)
The Old World tropics: Africa, India and South-East Asia
144(4)
Madagascar
148(1)
The Cape flora
148(1)
Australia
149(2)
Wallacea
151(1)
New Zealand
152(1)
South America
152(3)
The Northern Hemisphere: Holarctic mammals and Boreal plants
155(3)
Summary
158(1)
Further reading
159(1)
References
159(2)
Interpreting the past
161(14)
Phylogenetic biogeography
162(1)
Cladistic biogeography
163(1)
Panbiogeography
164(3)
Phyletic tracks and patterns
167(2)
Endemicity and history
169(1)
Pleistocene problems
170(2)
Centres of dispersal
172(1)
Fossils and historical biogeography
172(1)
Palaeobiogeography
173(1)
Summary
173(1)
Further reading
174(1)
References
174(1)
Ice and change
175(22)
Climatic wiggles
176(1)
Interglacials and interstadials
177(5)
Biological changes in the Pleistocene
182(1)
The last glacial
183(9)
Causes of glaciation
192(3)
Summary
195(1)
Further reading
195(1)
References
195(2)
The making of today
197(27)
The current interglacial: a false start
197(3)
Forests on the move
200(3)
The emergence of humans
203(3)
Modern humans and the megafaunal extinctions
206(1)
Domestication and agriculture
207(7)
The dry lands
214(1)
Changing sea levels
215(2)
Time of warmth
217(1)
Climatic deterioration
218(2)
The environmental impact of early human cultures
220(1)
Recorded history
221(1)
Summary
221(1)
Further reading
222(1)
References
222(2)
Projecting into the future
224(14)
The changing climate
224(3)
Nitrogen and sulphur overload
227(2)
Biogeographical consequences of global change
229(5)
Changing communities and biomes
234(2)
Summary
236(1)
Further reading
236(1)
References
236(2)
Drawing lines in the water
238(24)
Introduction
238(1)
Zones in the ocean and upon the sea floor
239(2)
The basic biogeography of the seas
241(1)
The open-sea realm
241(10)
The history of the ocean basins
241(2)
The dynamics of the ocean basins
243(8)
The biogeography of hydrothermal vent faunas
251(1)
The shallow-sea realm
251(8)
Faunal breaks within the shelf faunas
252(1)
Trans-oceanic links and barriers between shelf faunas
253(1)
Latitudinal patterns in the shelf faunas
254(1)
Coral reefs
255(4)
Summary
259(1)
Further reading
259(1)
References
260(2)
Life (and death) on islands
262(29)
Types of island
262(1)
Getting there: problems of access
263(3)
Dying there: problems of survival
266(1)
Integrating the data: The Theory of Island Biogeography
267(2)
Second thoughts about the theory
269(2)
The Theory of Island Biogeography and the design of nature reserves
271(2)
Starting afresh: the story of Rakata
273(6)
Evolving there: opportunities for adaptive radiation
279(1)
The Hawiian Islands
280(8)
Summary
288(1)
Further reading
288(1)
References
288(3)
Index 291

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