9780495016540

Biology Today and Tomorrow with Physiology (with CengageNOW, Personal Tutor, InfoTrac 1-Semester, iLrn™ Printed Access Card)

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  • ISBN13:

    9780495016540

  • ISBN10:

    0495016543

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-02-22
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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Summary

There is nothing abstract about the Impacts, Issues essays that open each chapter in this book. The questions they raise about biology-related issues are likely to be relevant to you, your family and friends, and millions of other people around the world.

Table of Contents

Invitation to Biology
What Am I Doing Here?
1(1)
Life's Levels of Organization
2(2)
From Small to Smaller
2(1)
From Smaller to Vast
2(2)
Overview of Life's Unity
4(2)
DNA, The Basis of Inheritance
4(1)
Energy, The Basis of Metabolism
4(1)
Energy and Life's Organization
4(1)
Life's Responsiveness to Change
5(1)
If so Much Unity, Why so Many Species?
6(2)
An Evolutionary View of Diversity
8(1)
The Nature of Biological Inquiry
9(1)
Observations, Hypotheses, and Tests
9(1)
About the Word ``Theory''
9(1)
The Power of Experimental Tests
10(2)
An Assumption of Cause and Effect
10(1)
Example of an Experimental Design
10(1)
Example of a Field Experiment
10(1)
Bias in Reporting Results
11(1)
The Scope and Limits of Science
12(4)
Unit One 'Cells'
Molecules of Life
Science or Supernatural?
15(1)
Atoms and Their Interactions
16(2)
Atoms and Isotopes
16(1)
Electrons and Energy Levels
16(2)
Bonds in Biological Molecules
18(2)
Ion Formation and Ionic Bonding
18(1)
Covalent Bonding
18(1)
Hydrogen Bonding
19(1)
Water's Life-Giving Properties
20(2)
Polarity of the Water Molecule
20(1)
Water's Temperature-Stabilizing Effects
20(1)
Water's Solvent Properties
21(1)
Water's Cohesion
21(1)
Acids and Bases
22(1)
The pH Scale
22(1)
Salts and Water
22(1)
Buffers Against Shifts in pH
23(1)
Molecules of Life---from Structure to Function
23(3)
What Is an Organic Compound?
23(1)
It All Starts With Carbon's Bonding Behavior
23(1)
Functional Groups
24(1)
How Do Cells Build Organic Compounds?
25(1)
The Truly Abundant Carbohydrates
26(2)
The Simple Sugars
26(1)
Short-Chain Carbohydrates
26(1)
Complex Carbohydrates
26(2)
Greasy, Fatty---Must Be Lipids
28(2)
Fats and Fatty Acids
28(1)
Phospholipids
29(1)
Cholesterol and Other Sterols
29(1)
Waxes
29(1)
Proteins---Diversity in Structure and Function
30(2)
What Is an Amino Acid?
30(1)
Levels of Protein Structure
30(2)
Why is Protein Structure so Important?
32(2)
Just One Wrong Amino Acid
32(1)
Proteins Undone---Denaturation
32(2)
Nucleotides and the Nucleic Acids
34(5)
How Cells Are Put Together
Animalcules and Cells Fill'd With Juices
38(1)
What is ``A Cell''?
39(1)
Most Cells are Really Small
40(2)
Types of Microscopes
40(1)
Why Aren't All Cells Big?
41(1)
The Structure of Cell Membranes
42(2)
A Closer Look at Prokaryotic Cells
44(1)
A closer Look at Eukaryotic Cells
45(5)
The Nucleus
46(1)
The Endomembrane System
46(2)
Mitochondria
48(1)
Chloroplasts
48(1)
Summary of Major Organelles
48(2)
Where Did Organelles Come from?
50(2)
Origin of the Nucleus and ER
50(1)
Theory of Endosymbiosis
50(1)
Evidence of Endosymbiosis
51(1)
The Dynamic Cytoskeleton
52(2)
Moving Along With Motor Proteins
52(1)
Cilia, Flagella, and False Feet
53(1)
Cell Surface Specializations
54(5)
Eukaryotic Cell Walls
54(1)
Matrixes Between Animal Cells
55(1)
Cell Junctions
55(3)
How Cells Work
Beer, Enzymes, and Your Liver
58(1)
Inputs and Outputs of Energy
59(2)
The One-Way Flow of Energy
59(1)
ATP---The Cell's Energy Currency
59(1)
Up and Down the Energy Hills
60(1)
Inputs and Outputs of Substances
61(1)
What Are Metabolic Pathways?
61(1)
The Nature of Metabolic Reactions
61(1)
How Enzymes Make Substances React
62(3)
Lowering the Energy Hill
62(1)
Help From Cofactors
63(1)
How Is Enzyme Activity Controlled?
64(1)
Effects of Temperature, pH, and Salinity
64(1)
Diffusion and Metabolism
65(1)
What Is a Concentration Gradient?
65(1)
What Determines Diffusion Rates?
66(1)
Working With and Against Diffusion
66(2)
Passive Transport
66(1)
Active Transport
67(1)
Which Way will Water Move?
68(2)
Osmosis
68(1)
Effects of Tonicity
68(1)
Effects of Fluid Pressure
68(2)
Cell Burps and Gulps
70(4)
Where It Starts---Photosynthesis
Sunlight and Survival
73(1)
The Rainbow Catchers
74(2)
Light and Pigments
74(1)
Two Stages of Reactions
75(1)
Light-Dependent Reactions
76(2)
Light-Independent Reactions
78(2)
The Sugar Factory
78(1)
Different Plants, Different Pathways
79(1)
Pastures of the Seas
80(3)
How Cells Release Chemical Energy
When Mitochondria Spin Their Wheels
82(1)
Overview of Energy-Releasing Pathways
83(1)
Glycolysis---Glucose Breakdown Starts
84(2)
Second and Third Stages of Aerobic Respiration
86(2)
Acetyl-CoA Formation and the Krebs Cycle
86(1)
Electron Transfer Phosphorylation
87(1)
Anaerobic Energy-Releasing Pathways
88(1)
Alcoholic Fermentation
89(1)
Lactate Fermentation
89(1)
Alternative Energy Sources in the Body
89(2)
The Fate of Glucose at Mealtime and in Between Meals
89(2)
Energy From Fats
91(1)
Energy From Proteins
91(1)
Connections with Photosynthesis
91(4)
Unit Two Genetics
How Cells Reproduce
Henrietta's Immortal Cells
94(1)
Overview of Cell Division Mechanisms
95(1)
Mitosis and Meiosis
95(1)
Key Points About Chromosome Structure
95(1)
Introducing the Cell Cycle
96(1)
Mitosis Maintains the Chromosome Number
97(3)
Prophase: Mitosis Begins
98(1)
Transition to Metaphase
98(1)
From Anaphase Through Telophase
98(2)
Division of the Cytoplasm
100(1)
Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
101(3)
Asexual Versus Sexual Reproduction
101(1)
Two Divisions, Not One
102(2)
How Meiosis Puts Variation in Traits
104(2)
Crossing Over in Prophase I
104(1)
Metaphase I Alignments
105(1)
From Gametes to Offspring
106(2)
Gamete Formation in Plants
106(1)
Gamete Formation in Animals
106(1)
More Shufflings at Fertilization
106(2)
The Cell Cycle and Cancer
108(5)
The Cell Cycle Revisited
108(1)
Characteristics of Cancer
109(3)
Observing Patterns in Inherited Traits
Menacing Mucus
112(1)
Tracking Traits With Hybrid Crosses
113(4)
Terms Used in Modern Genetics
113(1)
Mendel's Experimental Approach
113(1)
Mendel's Theory of Segregation
114(2)
Mendel's Theory of Independent Assortment
116(1)
Not-So-Straightforward Phenotypes
117(3)
ABO Blood Types---A Case of Codominance
117(1)
Incomplete Dominance
118(1)
When Products of Two or More Gene Pairs Interact
118(1)
Single Genes With a Wide Reach
119(1)
Complex Variations In Traits
120(3)
Regarding the Unexpected Phenotype
120(1)
Continuous Variation in Populations
120(1)
Environmental Effects on Phenotype
121(2)
The Chromosomal Basis Of Inheritance
123(2)
A Rest Stop on Our Conceptual Road
123(1)
Karyotyping
123(1)
Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes
123(2)
Impact of Crossing Over On Inheritance
125(1)
Human Genetic Analysis
126(1)
Examples of Human Inheritance Patterns
127(3)
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
127(1)
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
128(1)
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
128(2)
Structural Changes In Chromosomes
130(1)
Major Categories of Structural Change
130(1)
Does Chromosome Structure Evolve?
130(1)
Change In The Number of Chromosomes
131(2)
An Autosomal Change and Down Syndrome
131(1)
Changes in the Sex Chromosome Number
132(1)
Some Prospects In Human Genetics
133(5)
Bioethical Questions
133(1)
Choices Available
133(4)
DNA Structure and Function
Here, Kitty, Kitty, Kitty, Kitty, Kitty
137(1)
The Hunt for Fame, Fortune, and DNA
138(2)
Early and Puzzling Clues
138(1)
Confirmation of DNA Function
138(1)
Enter Watson and Crick
139(1)
DNA Structure and Function
140(2)
DNA's Building Blocks
140(1)
Fame and Glory
140(2)
Patterns of Base Pairing
142(1)
DNA Replication and Repair
142(1)
How is a DNA Molecule Duplicated?
142(1)
Monitoring and Fixing DNA
142(1)
Using DNA To Clone Mammals
143(4)
Gene Expression and Control
Ricin and Your Ribosomes
146(1)
Making and Controlling the Cell's Proteins
147(1)
How is RNA Transcribed from DNA?
147(3)
Three Classes of RNA
147(1)
The Nature of Transcription
147(1)
Finishing Up RNA Transcripts
148(2)
Deciphering mRNA
150(2)
From mRNA To Protein
152(2)
Mutated Genes and Their Protein Products
154(2)
Common Mutations
154(1)
How Do Mutations Arise?
154(1)
The Proof Is in the Protein
155(1)
Controls Over Gene Expression
156(7)
Common Controls
156(1)
Bacterial Control of the Lactose Operon
156(1)
Eukaryotic Gene Controls
157(5)
Studying and Manipulating Genomes
Golden Rice or Frankenfood?
162(1)
A Molecular Toolkit
163(2)
The Scissors: Restriction Enzymes
163(1)
Cloning Vectors
163(1)
cDNA Cloning
164(1)
Haystacks To Needles
165(2)
Isolating Genes
165(1)
PCR
165(2)
DNA Sequencing
167(1)
First Just Fingerprints, Now DNA Fingerprints
168(1)
Tinkering With The Molecules of Life
169(2)
Emergence of Molecular Biology
169(1)
The Human Genome Project
169(1)
Genomics
170(1)
Practical Genetics
171(2)
Designer Plants
171(1)
Genetically Engineered Bacteria
172(1)
Barnyard Biotech
172(1)
Weighing the Benefits and Risks
173(4)
Knockout Cells and Organ Factories
174(1)
Regarding ``Frankenfood''
174(2)
Unit Three Evolution and Diversity
Processes of Evolution
Rise of the Super Rats
176(1)
Early Beliefs, Confounding Discoveries
177(4)
Questions From Biogeography
177(1)
Questions From Comparative Morphology
177(1)
Questions About Fossils
178(1)
Squeezing New Evidence Into Old Beliefs
178(1)
Voyage of the Beagle
178(1)
Old Bones and Armadillos
179(1)
A Key Insight---Variation in Traits
179(2)
The Nature of Adaptation
181(1)
Salt-Tolerant Tomatoes
181(1)
Adaptation to What?
181(1)
Individuals Don't Evolve, Populations Do
182(2)
Variation in Populations
182(1)
The ``Gene Pool''
182(1)
Stability and Change in Allele Frequencies
183(1)
Mutations Revisited
183(1)
When Is A Population Not Evolving?
184(1)
Natural Selection Revisited
185(3)
Directional Selection
185(1)
Selection Against or in Favor of Extreme Phenotypes
186(2)
Maintaining Variation In A Population
188(2)
Sexual Selection
188(1)
Sickle-Cell Anemia---Lesser of Two Evils?
189(1)
Genetic Drift---The Chance Changes
190(1)
Chance Events and Population Size
190(1)
Bottlenecks and the Founder Effect
191(1)
Genetic Drift and Inbred Populations
191(1)
Gene Flow---Keeping Populations Alike
191(4)
Evolutionary Patterns, Rates, and Trends
Measuring Time
194(1)
Fossils---Evidence of Ancient Life
195(1)
How Do Fossils Form?
195(1)
Fossils in Sedimentary Rock Layers
196(1)
Interpreting the Fossil Record
196(1)
Dating Pieces Of The Puzzle
196(3)
Radiometric Dating
196(1)
Placing Fossils in Geologic Time
197(2)
Evidence From Biogeography
199(2)
An Outrageous Hypothesis
199(1)
A Big Connection
200(1)
More Evidence From Comparative Morphology
201(2)
Morphological Divergence
201(1)
Morphological Convergence
202(1)
Evidence From Patterns Of Development
203(1)
Evidence From DNA, RNA, and Proteins
204(1)
Protein Comparisons
204(1)
Nucleic Acid Comparisons
204(1)
Molecular Clocks
205(1)
Reproductive Isolation, Maybe New Species
205(3)
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms
206(2)
Interpreting the Evidence: Models for Speciation
208(3)
Geographic Isolation
208(1)
The Inviting Archipelagos
208(2)
Sympatric Speciation
210(1)
Parapatric Speciation
211(1)
Patterns of Speciation and Extinctions
211(2)
Branching and Unbranched Evolution
211(1)
Evolutionary Trees and Rates of Change
211(1)
Adaptive Radiations
212(1)
Extinctions---End of the Line
212(1)
Organizing Information About Species
213(6)
Naming, Identifying, and Classifying Species
213(1)
What's in a Name? A Cladistic View
214(4)
Early Life
Looking for Life in All the Odd Places
218(1)
Origin of the First Living Cells
219(5)
Conditions On the Early Earth
219(1)
Origin of Agents of Metabolism
220(1)
Origin of Self-Replicating Systems
220(1)
Origin of Cell Membranes
221(1)
The First Cells and Beyond
222(2)
What are Existing Prokaryotes Like?
224(4)
General Characteristics
224(1)
Growth and Reproduction
225(1)
Prokaryotic Classification
225(1)
Examples of Archaean Diversity
226(1)
Examples of Bacterial Diversity
226(2)
Bacterial Behavior
228(1)
The Curiously Classified Protists
228(6)
Flagellated Protozoans and Euglenoids
228(1)
Radiolarians and Foraminiferans
229(1)
The Ciliates
230(1)
Dinoflagellates
230(1)
Apicomplexans and Malaria
230(1)
Diatoms, Brown Algae, and Relatives
231(1)
Red Algae
232(1)
Green Algae
232(2)
Amoebozoans
234(1)
The Fabulous Fungi
234(5)
Characteristics of Fungi
234(1)
Fungal Diversity
234(1)
The Club Fungi
235(1)
Spores and More Spores
236(1)
Fungal Symbionts
237(1)
The Unloved Few
238(1)
Viruses, Viroids, and Prions
239(2)
Characteristics of Viruses
239(1)
Viral Multiplication Cycles
240(1)
Viroids and Prions
240(1)
Evolution and Infectious Diseases
241(4)
Plant Evolution
Beginnings, and Endings
244(1)
Pioneers in a New World
245(2)
Roots, Stems, and Leaves
245(1)
From Haploid to Diploid Dominance
245(1)
Seeds and Pollen Grains
246(1)
The Bryophytes---No Vascular Tissues
247(1)
Seedless Vascular Plants
248(3)
Club Mosses
249(1)
Horsetails
249(1)
Ferns
250(1)
The Rise of Seed-Bearing Plants
251(1)
Gymnosperms---Plants With ``Naked'' Seeds
252(2)
Angiosperms---the Flowering Plants
254(2)
Deforestation in the Tropics
256(4)
Animal Evolution
Interpreting and Misinterpreting the Past
259(1)
Overview of the Animal Kingdom
260(2)
Animal Origins
260(1)
A Look at Body Plans
260(2)
Getting Along Well Without Organs
262(1)
Sponges
262(1)
Cnidarians
262(1)
Flatworms---Introducing Organ Systems
263(1)
Annelids---Segments Galore
264(2)
The Evolutionarily Pliable Mollusks
266(1)
Hiding Out, Or Not
266(1)
On the Cephalopod Need for Speed
266(1)
Amazingly Abundant Roundworms
267(1)
Arthropods---the Most Successful Animals
268(4)
Keys to Success
268(1)
Spiders and Their Relatives
269(1)
Crustaceans
269(1)
A Look at Insect Diversity
270(2)
The Puzzling Echinoderms
272(1)
Evolutionary Trends Among Vertebrates
273(2)
Early Craniates
273(1)
The Key Innovations
274(1)
Major Groups of Jawed Fishes
275(1)
Early Amphibious Tetrapods
276(2)
The Rise of Amniotes
278(3)
The ``Reptiles''
278(1)
Birds
279(1)
Mammals
280(1)
From Early Primates to Humans
281(9)
Origins and Early Divergences
282(1)
The First Hominids
283(1)
Emergence of Early Humans
284(1)
Emergence of Modern Humans
284(2)
Where Did Modern Humans Originate?
286(3)
Plants and Animals: Common Challenges
Too Hot To Handle
289(1)
Levels of Structural Organization
290(2)
From Cells to Multicelled Organisms
290(1)
Growth Versus Development
290(1)
Structural Organization Has a History
290(1)
The Body's Internal Environment
291(1)
How Do Parts Contribute to the Whole?
291(1)
Recurring Challenges to Survival
292(1)
Requirements for Gas Exchange
292(1)
Requirements for Internal Transport
292(1)
Maintaining a Solute-Water Balance
293(1)
Requirements for Integration and Control
293(1)
On Variations in Resources and Threats
293(1)
Homeostasis in Animals
293(2)
Negative Feedback
294(1)
Positive Feedback
295(1)
Does Homeostasis Occur In Plants?
295(2)
Resisting Pathogens
295(1)
Sand, Wind, and the Yellow Bush Lupine
296(1)
About Rhythmic Leaf Folding
296(1)
How Cells Receive and Respond to Signals
297(4)
Unit Four How Plants Work
Plant Form and Function
Drought Versus Civilization
300(1)
Overview of the Plant Body
301(3)
Three Plant Tissue Systems
301(1)
Simple Tissues
301(1)
Complex Tissues
302(1)
Eudicots and Monocots---Same Tissues, Different Features
303(1)
Primary Structure of Shoots
304(2)
Inside the Stem
304(1)
Leaf Structure
305(1)
How Do Stems and Leaves Form?
306(1)
Primary Structure of Roots
306(2)
Secondary Growth---the Woody Plants
308(2)
Plant Nutrients and Availability In Soil
310(2)
Properties of Soil
310(1)
Leaching and Erosion
311(1)
How Do Roots Absorb Water and Mineral Ions?
312(2)
Specialized Absorptive Structures
312(1)
How Roots Control Water Uptake
313(1)
Water Transport Through Plants
314(2)
Transpiration Defined
314(1)
Cohesion---Tension Theory
314(2)
How Do Stems and Leaves Conserve Water?
316(1)
The Water-Conserving Cuticle
316(1)
Controlled Water Loss at Stomata
316(1)
How Organic Compounds Move Through Plants
317(5)
Plant Reproduction and Development
Imperiled Sexual Partners
321(1)
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
322(3)
Regarding the Flowers
322(1)
Regarding the Pollinators
323(1)
From Spores to Zygotes
324(1)
From Zygotes to Seeds Packaged in Fruit
325(2)
Asexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants
327(1)
Asexual Reproduction in Nature
327(1)
Induced Propagation
327(1)
Patterns of Early Growth and Development
328(2)
How Do Seeds Germinate?
328(1)
Genetic Programs, Environmental Cues
328(2)
Cell Communication in Plant Development
330(2)
Major Types of Plant Hormones
330(2)
Adjusting Rates and Directions of Growth
332(2)
Responses to Gravity
332(1)
Responses to Light
332(1)
Responses to Contact
333(1)
Responses to Mechanical Stress
333(1)
Meanwhile, Back At the Flower
334(1)
How Do Plants Know When to Flower?
334(1)
Life Cycles End, and Turn Again
335(1)
Regarding the World's Most Nutritious Plant
336(4)
Unit Five How Animals Work
Animal Tissues and Organ Systems
It's All About Potential
339(1)
Organization and Control in Animal Bodies
340(1)
Four Basic Types of Tissues
340(5)
Epithelial Tissues
340(1)
Connective Tissues
341(2)
Muscle Tissues
343(1)
Nervous Tissue
343(2)
Organ Systems Made From Tissues
345(1)
Overview of Major Organ Systems
345(1)
Tissue and Organ Formation
345(1)
Skin---Example Of An Organ System
346(4)
How Animals Move
Pumping Up Muscles
349(1)
So What Is A Skeleton?
350(3)
Types of Skeletons
350(1)
Evolution of Vertebrate Skeletons
350(2)
Bone Structure and Function
352(1)
Where Bones Meet---Skeletal Joints
352(1)
How Do Bones And Muscles Interact?
353(1)
How Does Skeletal Muscle Contract?
354(2)
Sliding-Filament Model for Contraction
355(1)
Getting Energy for Contraction
355(1)
Properties Of Whole Muscles
356(5)
Muscle Tension
356(1)
A Bad Case of Tetanic Contraction
357(1)
What Is Muscle Fatigue?
357(1)
What Are Muscular Dystrophies?
357(1)
Muscles, Exercise, and Aging
358(2)
Circulation and Respiration
Up In Smoke
360(1)
The Nature Of Blood Circulation
361(1)
The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems of Vertebrates Evolved Together
361(1)
Links With the Lymphatic System
362(1)
Characteristics Of Human Blood
362(2)
Human Cardiovascular System
364(3)
One Big Circuit and a Special Circuit to the Lungs
364(1)
The Heart Is a Lonely Pumper
364(2)
How Does Cardiac Muscle Contract?
366(1)
Structure And Function Of Blood Vessels
367(3)
Rapid Transport in Arteries
367(1)
Adjusting Resistance at Arterioles
367(1)
Measuring Blood Pressure
368(1)
From Capillaries Back to the Heart
368(1)
Venous Pressure
369(1)
Cardiovascular Disorders
370(1)
Good Clot, Bad Clot
370(1)
The Silent Killer
370(1)
Atherosclerosis
370(1)
Risk Factors
371(1)
The Nature Of Respiration
371(3)
The Basis of Gas Exchange
371(1)
Which Factors Influence Gas Exchange?
372(1)
Gills of Fishes and Amphibians
372(1)
Evolution of Paired Lungs
373(1)
Human Respiratory System
374(2)
The System's Many Functions
374(1)
From Airways Into the Lungs
375(1)
Moving Air And Transporting Gases
376(2)
The Respiratory Cycle
376(1)
Exchanges at the Respiratory Membrane
376(1)
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport
376(2)
Balancing Air and Blood Flow Rates
378(1)
When The Lungs Break Down
378(5)
Bronchitis and Emphysema
378(1)
Smoking's Impact
379(3)
Immunity
The Face of AIDS
382(1)
Integrated Responses To Threats
383(2)
Evolution of the Body's Defenses
383(1)
Three Lines of Defense
383(1)
Introducing the Defenders
384(1)
Surface Barriers
385(2)
Intact Skin
385(1)
Linings of Tubes and Cavities
385(1)
An Uneasy Balance
386(1)
The Innate Immune Response
387(2)
Tailoring Responses To Specific Antigens
389(3)
Features of Adaptive Immunity
389(1)
First Step---The Antigen Alert
389(1)
Two Arms of Adaptive Immunity
390(1)
So Where Is Antigen Intercepted?
390(2)
Antibodies And Other Antigen Receptors
392(2)
B Cell Weapons---The Antibodies
392(1)
The Making of Antigen Receptors
393(1)
Antibody-Mediated Immune Response
394(1)
The Cell-Mediated Immune Response
395(2)
Defenses Enhanced Or Compromised
397(1)
Immunization
397(1)
Allergies
397(1)
Autoimmune Disorders
397(1)
Deficient Immune Responses
397(1)
Aids: Immunity Lost
398(5)
HIV Infection---A Titanic Struggle Begins
398(1)
How Is HIV Transmitted?
399(1)
What About Drugs and Vaccines?
399(3)
Digestion, Nutrition, and Excretion
Hips and Hunger
402(1)
The Nature Of Digestive Systems
403(1)
Incomplete and Complete Systems
403(1)
Correlations With Feeding Behavior
403(1)
Human Digestive System
404(6)
Into the Mouth, Down the Tube
404(2)
The Stomach
406(1)
The Small Intestine
406(1)
How Nutrients Are Absorbed
407(1)
Controls Over Digestion
408(1)
The Large Intestine
409(1)
Human Nutritional Requirements
410(3)
Carbohydrates
410(1)
Good Fat, Bad Fat
410(1)
Body-Building Proteins
411(1)
Dietary Recommendation
411(1)
Vitamins and Minerals
412(1)
Weighty Questions, Tantalizing Answers
413(2)
Urinary System Of Mammals
415(1)
Shifts in Water and Solutes
415(1)
Components of the Human Urinary System
415(1)
How The Kidneys Make Urine
416(3)
Nephrons---Functional Units of Kidneys
416(1)
Filtration, Reabsorption, and Secretion
416(1)
Adjusting Urine Concentration
417(2)
When Kidneys Break Down
419(4)
Neural Control and the Senses
In Pursuit of Ecstasy
422(1)
Neurons---The Great Communicators
423(3)
Neurons and Their Functional Zones
423(1)
Resting Membrane Potential
423(1)
The Action Potential
424(2)
How Messages Flow From Cell To Cell
426(2)
Chemical Synapses
426(1)
Synaptic Integration
427(1)
A Sampling of Signals
427(1)
The Paths Of Information Flow
428(2)
Blocks and Cables of Neurons
428(1)
Reflex Arcs
429(1)
Types Of Nervous Systems
430(2)
Regarding the Nerve Net
430(1)
On the Importance of Having a Head
430(1)
Evolution of the Spinal Cord and Brain
430(2)
The Peripheral Nervous System
432(1)
Somatic and Autonomic Divisions
432(1)
Subdivisions of the Autonomic System
432(1)
The Central Nervous System
433(3)
The Spinal Cord
433(1)
Regions of the Brain
434(1)
The Blood-Brain Barrier
435(1)
Focus on the Cerebral Cortex
435(1)
Connections With the Limbic System
435(1)
Drugging The Brain
436(2)
Effects of Some Psychoactive Drugs
436(2)
Overview Of Sensory Systems
438(1)
Somatic Sensations
439(1)
The Special Senses
440(9)
Senses of Smell and Taste
440(1)
The Sense of Vision
441(3)
The Sense of Hearing
444(1)
The Sense of Balance
445(3)
Endocrine Controls
Hormones in the Balance
448(1)
Hormones And Other Signaling Molecules
449(3)
Categories of Signaling Molecules
449(1)
How Hormones Exert Their Effects
450(1)
Variations in Hormone Action
450(2)
The Hypothalamus And Pituitary Gland
452(1)
Posterior Pituitary Secretions
452(1)
Anterior Pituitary Secretions
452(1)
Abnormal Pituitary Outputs
453(1)
Thymus, Thyroid, And Parathyroid Glands
453(2)
Feedback Control of Thyroid Secretion
453(1)
Parathyroid Glands and Calcium
454(1)
Adrenal Glands And Stress Responses
455(1)
The Pancreas And Glucose Homeostasis
456(1)
Diabetes Mellitus
457(1)
Hormones And Reproductive Behavior
457(5)
The Gonads
457(1)
The Pineal Gland
458(3)
Reproduction and Development
Mind-Boggling Births
461(1)
Methods Of Reproduction
462(2)
Sexual Versus Asexual Reproduction
462(1)
Costs of Sexual Reproduction
462(2)
Processes Of Animal Development
464(3)
How Tissues and Organs Form
464(2)
Embryonic Induction
466(1)
A Theory of Pattern Formation
466(1)
Reproductive System Of Human Males
467(2)
A Sperm's Journey
467(1)
Cancers of the Prostate and Testes
468(1)
How Sperm Form
468(1)
Reproductive System Of Human Females
469(3)
Overview of the Menstrual Cycle
469(1)
Cyclic Changes in the Ovary
470(1)
Cyclic Changes in the Uterus
471(1)
How Pregnancy Happens
472(2)
Sexual Intercourse
472(1)
Fertilization
472(1)
Preventing Pregnancy
473(1)
Seeking or Ending Pregnancy
474(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
474(2)
Consequences of Infection
474(1)
Major Agents of STDs
475(1)
Human Prenatal Development
476(7)
Cleavage and Implantation
477(1)
Extraembryonic Membranes
477(1)
The Role of the Placenta
478(1)
Emergence of the Vertebrate Body Plan
479(1)
Emergence of Distinctly Human Features
480(2)
Mother as Provider, Protector, Potential Threat
482(1)
From Birth Onward
483(6)
The Process of Birth
483(1)
Nourishing the Newborn
484(1)
Postembryonic Development
484(1)
Why Do We Age and Die?
484(4)
Unit Six Ecology
Population Ecology
The Human Touch
488(1)
Characteristics Of Populations
489(2)
Overview of the Demographics
489(490)
Elusive Heads To Count
490(1)
Population Size And Exponential Growth
491(1)
From Zero to Exponential Growth
491(1)
What Is the Biotic Potential?
492(1)
Limits On The Growth Of Populations
492(3)
What Are the Limiting Factors?
492(1)
Carrying Capacity and Logistic Growth
493(1)
Density-Dependent Controls
494(1)
Density-Independent Factors
494(1)
Life History Patterns
495(3)
Life Tables
495(1)
Patterns of Survival and Reproduction
495(1)
Evolution of Life History Traits
496(2)
Human Population Growth
498(6)
Why Have Human Populations Soared?
498(1)
Fertility Rates and Family Planning
499(1)
Economics and Population Growth
500(1)
Environmental Impacts of Populations
501(2)
Community Structure and Biodiversity
Fire Ants in the Pants
503(1)
Which Factors Shape Community Structure?
504(1)
The Niche
504(1)
Categories of Species Interactions
504(1)
Mutually Beneficial Interactions
505(1)
Competitive Interactions
506(2)
Competitive Exclusion
506(1)
Coexisting Competitors
507(1)
Predator-Prey Interactions
508(3)
Models for Predator-Prey Interactions
508(1)
The Canadian Lynx and Snowshoe Hare
508(1)
An Evolutionary Arms Race
509(2)
Parasites And Parasitoids
511(2)
Biological Control Agents
512(1)
Changes In Community Structure Over Time
513(2)
Ecological Succession
513(1)
Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
513(1)
Species Interactions in Succession
514(1)
Forces Contributing To Community Instability
515(3)
The Role of Keystone Species
515(1)
How Species Introductions Tip the Balance
516(2)
Patterns Of Species Diversity
518(1)
Mainland and Marine Patterns
518(1)
Island Patterns
518(1)
Conservation Biology
519(8)
About the Newly Endangered Species
520(1)
The Major Threats
520(1)
Emergence of Conservation Biology
521(5)
Ecosystems
Bye-Bye Bayou
526(1)
The Nature Of Ecosystems
527(3)
Overview of the Participants
527(1)
Trophic Interactions
528(1)
Food Webs
528(2)
Biological Magnification In Food Webs
530(1)
Studying Energy Flow Through Ecosystems
531(1)
Ecological Pyramids
531(1)
Primary Productivity
531(1)
Global Cycling Of Water And Nutrients
532(2)
Hydrologic Cycle
532(1)
The Water Crisis
533(1)
Carbon Cycle
534(2)
Greenhouse Gases, Global Warming
536(2)
Greenhouse Effect
536(1)
Global Warming and Climate Change
536(2)
Nitrogen Cycle
538(2)
Human Impact on the Nitrogen Cycle
539(1)
Phosphorus Cycle
540(4)
The Biosphere
Surfers, Seals, and the Sea
543(1)
Air Circulation And Climates
544(4)
Global Air Circulation Patterns
544(1)
A Fence of Wind and Ozone Thinning
545(1)
No Wind, Lots of Pollutants, and Smog
546(1)
Winds and Acid Rain
546(1)
Harnessing Solar and Wind Energy
547(1)
The Ocean, Landforms, And Climates
548(2)
Ocean Currents and Their Effects
548(1)
Rain Shadows and Monsoons
549(1)
Realms Of Biodiversity
550(7)
Deserts, Natural and Man-Made
552(1)
Dry Shrublands, Dry Woodlands, and Grasslands
552(2)
Broadleaf Forests
554(1)
Coniferous Forests
554(2)
Arctic and Alpine Tundra
556(1)
The Water Provinces
557(5)
Lake Ecosystems
557(1)
Estuaries and Mangrove Wetlands
558(1)
Rocky and Sandy Coastlines
559(1)
Coral Reefs
559(1)
The Open Ocean
560(1)
Hydrothermal Vents
560(1)
Upwelling Along Coasts
561(1)
Applying Knowledge Of The Biosphere
562(5)
Behavioral Ecology
My Pheromones Made Me Do It
566(1)
So Where Does Behavior Start?
567(5)
Genes and Behavior
567(1)
Hormones and Behavior
567(1)
Regarding Instinct and Learning
568(2)
The Adaptive Value of Behavior
570(2)
Communication Signals
572(2)
The Nature of Communication Signals
572(1)
Examples of Communication Displays
572(1)
Illegitimate Signalers and Receivers
573(1)
Mates, Offspring, And Reproductive Success
574(2)
Sexual Selection and Mating Behavior
574(1)
Parental Care
575(1)
Costs And Benefits Of Social Groups
576(2)
Cooperative Predator Avoidance
576(1)
The Selfish Herd
576(1)
Cooperative Hunting
576(1)
Dominance Hierarchies
577(1)
Regarding the Costs
577(1)
Why Sacrifice Yourself?
578(2)
Social Insects
578(1)
Social Mole-Rats
578(1)
Indirect Selection Theory
579(1)
A Look At Primate Social Behavior
580(1)
Human Social Behavior
581(1)
Human Pheromones
581(1)
Hormones and Bonding Behavior
581(1)
Evolutionary Questions
581
Epilogue Biological Principles and the Human Imperative
Appendix I Answers to Self-Quizzes
Appendix II Answers to Genetics Problems
Appendix III Annotations to A Journal Article
Appendix IV A Plain English Map of the Human Chromosomes

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