9780674076082

The Black Book of Communism

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780674076082

  • ISBN10:

    0674076087

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-10-15
  • Publisher: Harvard Univ Pr
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Summary

Already famous throughout Europe, this international bestseller plumbs recently opened archives in the former Soviet bloc to reveal the actual, practical accomplishments of Communism around the world: terror, torture, famine, mass deportations, and massacres. Astonishing in the sheer detail it amasses, the book is the first comprehensive attempt to catalogue and analyze the crimes of Communism over seventy years. "Revolutions, like trees, must be judged by their fruit," Ignazio Silone wrote, and this is the standard the authors apply to the Communist experience--in the China of "the Great Helmsman," Kim Il Sung's Korea, Vietnam under "Uncle Ho" and Cuba under Castro, Ethiopia under Mengistu, Angola under Neto, and Afghanistan under Najibullah. The authors, all distinguished scholars based in Europe, document Communist crimes against humanity, but also crimes against national and universal culture, from Stalin's destruction of hundreds of churches in Moscow to Ceausescu's leveling of the historic heart of Bucharest to the widescale devastation visited on Chinese culture by Mao's Red Guards. As the death toll mounts--as many as 25 million in the former Soviet Union, 65 million in China, 1.7 million in Cambodia, and on and on--the authors systematically show how and why, wherever the millenarian ideology of Communism was established, it quickly led to crime, terror, and repression. An extraordinary accounting, this book amply documents the unparalleled position and significance of Communism in the hierarchy of violence that is the history of the twentieth century.

Table of Contents

Foreword: The Uses of Atrocity ix
Martin Malia
Introduction: The Crimes of Communism 1(32)
Stephane Courtois
Part I A State against Its People: Violence, Repression, and Terror in the Soviet Union 33(236)
Nicolas Werth
Paradoxes and Misunderstandings Surrounding the October Revolution
39(14)
The Iron Fist of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat
53(18)
The Red Terror
71(10)
The Dirty War
81(27)
From Tambov to the Great Famine
108(24)
From the Truce to the Great Turning Point
132(14)
Forced Collectivization and Dekulakization
146(13)
The Great Famine
159(10)
Socially Foreign Elements and the Cycles of Repression
169(15)
The Great Terror (1936--1938)
184(19)
The Empire of the Camps
203(13)
The Other Side of Victory
216(16)
Apogee and Crisis in the Gulag System
232(10)
The Last Conspiracy
242(8)
The Exit from Stalinism
250(19)
Conclusion
261(8)
Part II Word Revolution, Civil War, and Terror 269(92)
Stephane Courtois
Jean-Louis Panne
Remi Kauffer
The Comintern in Action
271(62)
Stephane Courtois
Jean-Louis Panne
The Shadow of the NKVD in Spain
333(20)
Stephane Courtois
Jean-Louis Panne
Communism and Terrorism
353(8)
Remi Kauffer
Part III The Other Europe: Victim of Communism 361(96)
Andrzej Paczkowski
Karel Bartosek
Poland, the ``Enemy Nation''
363(31)
Andrzej Paczkowski
Central and Southeastern Europe
394(63)
Karel Bartosek
Part IV Communism in Asia: Between Reeducation and Massacre 457(188)
Jean-Louis Margolin
Pierre Rigoulot
Introduction
459(4)
China: A Long March into Night
463(84)
Jean-Louis Margolin
Crimes, Terror, and Secrecy in North Korea
547(18)
Pierre Rigoulot
Vietnam and Laos: The Impasse of War Communism
565(12)
Jean-Louis Margolin
Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting Crimes
577(68)
Jean-Louis Margolin
Conclusion
636(6)
Select Bibliography for Asia
642(3)
Part V The Third World 645(114)
Pascal Fontaine
Yves Santamaria
Sylvain Boulouque
Communism in Latin America
647(36)
Pascal Fontaine
Afrocommunism: Ethiopia, Angola, and Mozambique
683(22)
Yves Santamaria
Communism in Afghanistan
705(54)
Sylvain Boulouque
Conclusion: Why?
727(32)
Stephane Courtois
Notes 759(64)
Index 823(34)
About the Authors 857

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