Bookmarks : A Guide to Research and Writing

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-01-01
  • Publisher: Longman
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Written in a lively, conversational tone and amply illustrated, Bookmarks: A Guide to Research and Writing establishes a new benchmark for college research guides, serving as a bridge between old and new traditions for researchers who expect to work regularly in both print and electronic environments. Bookmarks: A Guide to Writing and Research, Second Edition, demystifies the writing process by engaging and guiding students through the entire research and writing process. the new edition includes an expanded focus on rhetorical issues, addressing audience, authorial stance, and balanced argumentation, encouraging writers to connect their projects to the wider community and to find a clear purpose for their research projects. the completely updated approach to research encourages students to use new technologies to find reliable information, using electronic library catalogs, online databases, and the WWW, encouraging them to use the technologies to locate the sources that are most appropriate for their topics and purposes. Bookmarks attends to all aspects of the research and writing process, guiding students through the strategies for selecting a topic, refining it, and developing it into a full-fledged research hypothesis; finding and positioning sources, using them in appropriate and responsible ways to further their projects, and documenting and completing their final projects for print or electronic publication. Renowned authors John Ruszkiewicz and Janice Walker prepare students for the ever-changing demands of conducting research in today's technology-driven society.

Table of Contents

Each chapter contains “Web Sites Worth Knowing, ” “Getting Involved,” and “Managing Your Projects.”


To the Writer.


1. Sizing Up Your Research Project.
1a Think of yourself as a researcher and writer.
1b Size up your assignment carefully.
1c Establish the hard points of your project.
1d Define the stages of your project.
1e Assess your strengths and weaknesses.
1f Create a schedule for your project.

2. Finding a Topic.
2a Find a topic in your world.
2b Connect your topic to a wider community.
2c Browse the library in your topic area.
2d Browse the Internet.

3. Establishing a Purpose.
3a Consider the topic as a question of fact.
3b Consider the topic as a question of definition.
3c Consider the topic as a question of value.
3d Consider the topic as a question of cause and effect.
3e Consider the topic as a question of consequence.

4. Focusing Your Project.
4a Pose questions.
4b Consider the acceptable level of generality.
4c Identify the information your project requires.
4d Determine where to locate the information your project requires.
4e Review the library catalog and Web directories.
4f Talk to other people.
4g Prepare a research proposal or prospectus.


5. Finding Information.
5a Learn about your library.
5b Use library catalogs efficiently.
5c Locate the reference room.
5d Locate suitable bibliographies.
5e Locate suitable periodical indexes or databases to search the periodical literature.
5f Consult bibliographical resources.
5g Consult guides to reference works.
5h Locate statistics.
5i Check news sources.
5j Check special collections.
5k Consult government documents.
5l Check book and film reviews.
5m Join in electronic conversations.
5n Write or email professional organizations.
5o Use search engines to check the World Wide Web.

6. Conducting Electronic Searches.
6a Understand how a simple keyword search works.
6b Truncate terms to extend your search.
6c Refine your search with Boolean operators.
6d Refine your search with exact phrases.
6e Use more than one search engine or database.
6f Evaluate your electronic search.
6g Keep a record of your search.

7. Conducting Field Research.
7a Conduct interviews.
7b Conduct surveys.
7c Make systematic observations.

8. Keeping Track of Information.
8a Classify the materials you might be gathering.
8b Prepare a working bibliography.
8c Prepare an annotated bibliography.
8d Make copies of important sources.
8e Take careful notes.
8f Back up your work frequently.


9. Understanding Academic Responsibility and Intellectual Property.
9a Understand the ethics of research.
9b Avoid plagiarism.
9c Understand the special nature of collaborative projects.
9d Understand intellectual property rights.
9e Understand the special nature of online resources.
9f Follow guidelines for the classroom.

10. Evaluating Sources.
10a Consider the relevance of your sources.
10b Consider the purpose of a source.
10c Consider the authority and reputation of a source.
10d Consider the credentials of experts, authors, or sponsoring agencies.
10e Consider the biases of a source.
10f Consider the timeliness and stability of a source.
10g Consider how well a source presents key information.
10h Consider commercial intrusions into a source.
10i Consult librarians and instructors.
10j Consider interviews and email.
10k Consider listserv and Usenet discussion groups.

11. Annotating Research Materials.
11a Highlight key information.
11b Use marginal comments to start a dialogue with your sources.

12. Reviewing and Positioning Sources.
12a Review data and resources critically.
12b Position your research materials.

13. Summarizing and Paraphrasing Sources.
13a Summarize or paraphrase a source.
13b Summarize sources to highlight key concepts.
13c Paraphrase sources to record important ideas.
13d Summarize and paraphrase carefully.
13e Acknowledge all borrowings.

14. Quoting Sources.
14a Select direct quotations strategically.
14b Introduce all direct and indirect borrowings.
14c Integrate graphical elements correctly.
14d Handle quotation marks correctly.
14e Tailor your quotations to fit your sentences.
14f Use ellipses to indicate omissions.
14g Use square brackets to add or change information.
14h Use sic to acknowledge errors in sources.
14i Present quotations correctly.
14j Document the source of all quotations.


15. Reflecting on What You Have.
15a Consider whether you need to do more research.
15b Consider whether you have a fair balance of sources and opinions.
15c Consider whether you need to revise your purpose.
15d Consider whether you need to refine your claim.

16. Refining Your Claim.
16a Be sure you have a point to make.
16b Grab your reader's attention.
16c Limit your claim.

17. Organizing Your Project.
17a Create a blueprint for your project.
17b Consider general patterns of organization.
17c Accommodate dissenting voices.
17d Follow professional templates.

18. Drafting and Revising Your Project.
18a Prepare a version of your project early.
18b Draft your project for an audience.
18c Present your material strategically.
18d Write a strong introduction and conclusion.
18e Make connections and use transitions.
18f Write stylishly.
18g Revise your draft.

19. Reviewing Documentation in Your Project.
19a Provide a source for every direct quotation.
19b Provide a source for all paraphrased material.
19c Document all ideas not from common knowledge.
19d Document information from field research.
19e Document all material that might be questioned.
19f Furnish source information for all graphics, audio files, or other borrowings.
19g Furnish dates and other useful information.
19h Use links to document electronic sources.


20. Choosing a Format for Your Project.
20a Consider the formats your project might take.
20b Review the structure of your project.
20c Determine the format for your project.

21. Completing a Print-Based Research Project.
21a Understand the principles of document design.
21b Apply design principles for print documents.
21c Include all the parts your project requires.
21d Submit your project professionally.
Sample MLA Paper.

22. Completing a Web-Based Research Project.
22a Understand the principles of Web design.
22b Apply design principles for electronic documents.
22c Create a Web page.
22d Submit your project professionally.
Sample Web Page.


23. COS Documentation.
23a How do you use COS documentation?
23b COS form directory-HUMANITIES.
23c Sample COS pages-HUMANITIES.
23d COS form directory-SCIENCES.
23e Sample COS pages-SCIENCES.

24. MLA Documentation.
24a How do you use MLA documentation?
24b MLA form directory.

25. APA Documentation.
25a How do you use APA documentation?
25b APA form directory.
25c Sample APA paper.

26. CMS Documentation.
26a CMS notes.
26b CMS bibliographies.
26c CMS form directory.
26d Sample CMS paper.

27. CBE Documentation.
27a Include in-text citations.
27b List sources used.



Glossary of Computer Terms.

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