9780534556860

Building Family Practice Skills Methods, Strategies, and Tools

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780534556860

  • ISBN10:

    0534556868

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-08-19
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This book presents a transtheoretical 'response system framework' for understanding family practice. This framework organizes theoretical information, assessment protocols, skills, and intervention strategies into a learning structure that helps students understand myriad client situations and the intervention strategies that would be most appropriate for those specific situations. Using this over-arching structure, and focusing on two systems of response--action systems (how family members behave and interrelate) and processing systems (how family members interpret/feel)--Ragg guides readers through the five parts of the book with the goal of building holistic family intervention skills. These five parts are comprised of: 'Family thinking', or knowledge of family systems; 'Assessing families'; 'Building the Working Alliance'; 'Change-Focused Intervention'; and 'Working with Multi-Problem and High-Risk Families.'

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction: Toward Skills-Focused Learning xvii
SECTION I Thinking Family
1(88)
Thinking Family: Theories and Frameworks
3(34)
Theoretical Grounding
3(1)
Toward Thinking at the Family Level
4(2)
Using Family Theory
6(1)
Understanding Families From the Developmental Perspective
7(3)
Developmental Premises
7(2)
Developmental Problems and Resolutions
9(1)
Developmental Applications to Family
10(10)
Formation of the Adult Relationship
10(7)
Family System Development
17(3)
Using Systemic Premises to Understand Families
20(14)
Systemic Concepts
21(1)
Energy and Energy Management
21(2)
Boundaries and Boundary Management
23(3)
Intermember Exchanges and Control
26(3)
Family Interaction Patterns
29(1)
System-Subsystem Functions
30(3)
Exercise 1.1: Identifying Theoretical Assumptions
33(1)
Organizing Theoretical Understandings Into Practice Frameworks
34(2)
Summary
36(1)
Critical Content
36(1)
Suggested Readings
36(1)
The Four Parenting Functions
37(32)
Theoretical Grounding
37(2)
Parental Outcomes
39(2)
Outcome 1: Promoting Positive Mental Health (Loveable)
39(1)
Outcome 2: Instilling Child Limits (Limitable)
40(1)
The Four Parental Functions
41(1)
The Discipline Function
42(9)
The Foundation for Limits
42(1)
The Strategies of Discipline
43(8)
The Guidance Function
51(7)
Expanding Perspectives
51(2)
Dealing With Differences, Tension, and Problem Solving
53(2)
Developing Boundaries
55(1)
Developing Social Roles
56(1)
Internalizing Limits
57(1)
The Nurturing Function
58(4)
Physical Contact
59(1)
Caregiving Acts
60(1)
Verbalizations
61(1)
The Access Function
62(5)
Providing Support
63(1)
Managing Boundaries
64(1)
Exercise 2.1: Evaluating Parental Functioning
65(2)
Summary
67(1)
Critical Content
68(1)
Suggested Readings
68(1)
Cultural Influences on Family Functions
69(20)
Theoretical Grounding
69(2)
Parenting Functions: The Foundation for Cultural Transmission
71(1)
The Culture Ring: Dimensions of Culture and Impact on Parenting
72(1)
Cultural Influences on Discipline Functions
73(1)
Abstract Mindedness
73(1)
Systems of Sanctioning
74(1)
Cultural Influences on Guidance Functions
74(3)
Experience of Difference
75(1)
Values and Religion
76(1)
Cultural Influences on Nurturing Functions
77(2)
Collectivism Versus Individualism
77(2)
Roles and Expectations
79(1)
Cultural Influences on Accessibility Functions
79(4)
Systems of Support
80(1)
Social and Economic Resources
81(1)
Working With Invisible Cultures
81(2)
Managing Culture With Issues of Family Violence
83(4)
Exercise 3.1: Cultural Influences
85(2)
Summary
87(1)
Critical Content
87(1)
Suggested Readings
87(2)
SECTION II ASSESSING FAMILIES: AN INTRODUCTION
89(114)
Exploration and Data Collection With Families
91(38)
Theoretical Grounding
92(1)
Exploring Situations With the Family
93(13)
Targeting the Question
94(2)
Setting Up the Question
96(1)
Posing the Question
97(5)
Follow-Up
102(1)
Exercise 4.1: Transitional Tracking
103(3)
Data Gathering Through Observation
106(15)
Observing Family Processing
107(5)
Observing Family Actions and Interactions
112(6)
Exercise 4.2: Observing Family Processing
118(3)
Using Projective Techniques to Gather Data
121(2)
Draw a Family
122(1)
Family Sculpting
122(1)
Family Dances
123(1)
Family Metaphors
123(1)
Using Standardized or Structured Questionnaires
123(3)
Reliability
124(1)
Validity
124(1)
Test Types
125(1)
Using Data Collection and Exploration Skills
126(1)
Summary
127(1)
Critical Content
128(1)
Suggested Readings
128(1)
Structuring the Family Exploration
129(44)
Theoretical Grounding
129(1)
Assessment Frameworks
130(1)
The Family Genogram
130(7)
Exercise 5.1: Developing a Genogram
134(3)
The Four-Cell Assessment of Inherited Family Models
137(10)
Cell 1: Genetic and Biological Influences
138(1)
Cell 2: Environmental Influences
138(2)
Cell 3: Beliefs and Cognitive Influences
140(2)
Cell 4: Behavior and Interactions
142(1)
Using the Four-Cell Model: Finding ``Rubs'' and ``Gaps''
142(3)
Exercise 5.2: Assessing a Romantic Relationship
145(2)
The Parenting Functions Framework
147(12)
Assessing the Discipline Function
147(3)
Assessing the Guidance Function
150(2)
Assessing the Nurturing Function
152(3)
Assessing the Access Function
155(3)
Making the Assessment
158(1)
The Risk Assessment Framework
159(12)
Actuarial Approaches to Risk Assessment
160(1)
Psychometric Methods of Risk Assessment
161(1)
Clinical Approaches to Risk Assessment
162(2)
Indicators of High Immediacy
164(2)
Indicators of Potential Dangerousness
166(2)
Assessing the Emergence of Risk
168(1)
Exercise 5.3: Risk Assessment
169(2)
Summary
171(1)
Critical Content
172(1)
Suggested Readings
172(1)
Moving From Assessment to Treatment
173(30)
Theoretical Grounding
173(1)
Toward Formalizing the Assessment
174(1)
Identifying Critical Data Themes
174(2)
Attributing Meaning to the Array of Themes
176(2)
Organizing the Information
176(1)
Generalizing the Meaning
177(1)
Inferring Potential Solutions
178(1)
Elements of the Assessment Report
179(13)
Sample Family Assessment
181(10)
Exercise 6.1: Formal Assessment Elements
191(1)
Developing Treatment Goals
192(9)
Formulating Goal Statements
193(1)
Establishing Objectives
194(1)
Additional Contracted Elements
195(1)
Sample Plan of Care
196(3)
Exercise 6.2: Goal Setting
199(2)
Summary
201(1)
Critical Content
201(1)
Suggested Readings
201(2)
SECTION III Building the Working Alliance
203(92)
Preliminary Engagement With Family Members
205(28)
Theoretical Grounding
206(1)
The Challenges of Engagement
206(2)
Level 1: Tentative Engagement
208(6)
Getting People to the Session
208(2)
Facilitating Initial Interest
210(2)
Exercise 7.1: Tuning in and Pitching Treatment
212(2)
Level 2: Building Investment in the Working Alliance
214(9)
Affirming Individuals to Build Family Focus
214(1)
Establishing an Atmosphere for Work
215(6)
Exercise 7.2: Toward the Working Relationship: Identifying Areas for Exploration
221(2)
Developing a Sense of Purpose
223(8)
Building on Perspective Overlaps
223(3)
Framing the Situation to Promote Collaboration
226(3)
Exercise 7.3: Toward Building a Sense of Purpose
229(2)
Summary
231(1)
Critical Content
232(1)
Suggested Readings
232(1)
Interactive Engagement With Family Members
233(26)
Working With Family Energy During Interactive Engagement
233(2)
Blocking Automatic Patterns of Reacting
235(6)
Interrupting Automatic Responses
236(1)
Internalizing the Focus
237(1)
Shifting From Action to Processing Systems
237(1)
Validating Experiences and Perspectives
238(3)
Neutralizing Negative Energy
241(5)
Positive Illumination
241(1)
Continued Validation
241(1)
Identifying Overlapping Themes
242(1)
Cycling Back to Neutral Territory
242(2)
Exercise 8.1: Blocking Automatic Reactions and Neutralizing Energy
244(2)
Building Common Ground
246(3)
Closing Gaps Between Family Members
246(3)
Developing a Foundation for Change
249(6)
Highlighting Shared Needs and Desires
249(1)
Developing a Shared Problem Definition
249(1)
Identifying Direction for Change
250(3)
Exercise 8.2: Building Common Ground
253(2)
Summary
255(1)
Critical Content
256(1)
Suggested Readings
257(2)
Positioning Families for Change
259(36)
Theoretical Grounding
259(1)
Toward Positioning for Change
260(1)
Understanding Homeostasis
261(1)
Working With Motivating Affect
261(4)
Feelings That Motivate Change
262(1)
Recognizing Feelings and Emotions
263(1)
Exercise 9.1: Positioning Family Members for Change
263(2)
Developing Two Visions: Change Versus Nonchange
265(5)
Identifying the Visions
265(1)
Assessing the Balance
266(2)
Exercise 9.2: Change and Counterchange Forces
268(2)
Positioning Family Members for Change
270(4)
Allying With Motivating Feelings
270(2)
Communicating the Dual Visions
272(1)
Juxtaposing Visions
273(1)
Strategies of Positioning
274(19)
Punctuated Positioning
274(11)
Exercise 9.3: Using the Two Visions
285(2)
Interactive Positioning
287(4)
Exercise 9.4: Interactive Positioning
291(2)
Summary
293(1)
Critical Content
294(1)
Suggested Readings
294(1)
SECTION IV Change-Focused Intervention
295(96)
Direct Change Strategies for Influencing Family Action Systems
297(30)
Theoretical Grounding
297(2)
Changing Action Systems
299(1)
Actor-Model Strategies
299(3)
Modeling Interventions
300(1)
Role-Playing Interventions
301(1)
Exercise 10.1: Actor-Model Strategies
301(1)
Educator-Coach Strategies
302(11)
Maintaining Family Empowerment Through ``CARE''
302(1)
Using Educator-Coach Strategies
303(8)
Exercise 10.2: Educator-Coach Strategies
311(2)
Behavior Interruption Strategies
313(4)
Time-Out Strategies
313(1)
Cuing Strategies
314(1)
Scheduling Strategies
315(1)
Pattern Interruption Strategies
316(1)
Weight-Shifting Strategies
317(7)
Contingency Contracting
317(2)
Establishing Ordeals
319(1)
Pairing Stimuli
320(1)
Behavioral Contracting
320(1)
Reinforcing Behavior
321(1)
Exercise 10.3: Using Behavior Interruption and Weight-Shifting Strategies
321(3)
Summary
324(1)
Critical Content
324(1)
Suggested Readings
325(2)
Direct Change Strategies for Influencing Family Processing Systems
327(38)
Theoretical Grounding
327(2)
Identifying Processing Themes and Patterns
329(6)
Shifts in Focus
330(1)
Repeated Themes
330(1)
Reaction Intensity
331(1)
Cognitive Distortion
331(1)
Exercise 11.1: Identifying Underlying Processing Elements
332(3)
Highlighting Processing Themes and Patterns
335(7)
Critical Skills for Highlighting
336(1)
Critical Description Skills
336(4)
Critical Reflecting Skills
340(1)
Exercise 11.2: Highlighting Family Processing
341(1)
Challenging Current Systems of Processing
342(6)
Reconstructing Beliefs
343(1)
Overgeneralizing Beliefs
344(1)
Amplifying Beliefs
345(1)
Cognitive Restructuring
346(1)
Direct Challenges
347(1)
Altering the Experience of Events
348(14)
Influencing Internal and External Dimensions
350(6)
Influencing Positive and Negative Dimensions
356(4)
Exercise 11.3: Challenging Beliefs
360(2)
Summary
362(1)
Critical Content
363(1)
Suggested Readings
363(2)
Influencing Family Members Through Indirect Strategies of Change
365(26)
Theoretical Grounding
365(1)
Using Indirect Methods of Influence
366(1)
Indirect Resource Activation
366(13)
Meaning Attribution Exercises
367(1)
Visualization and Guided Imagery
368(2)
Analogies and Metaphors
370(3)
Storytelling Techniques
373(2)
Symbolic Expressive Interventions
375(3)
Exercise 12.1: Internal Resource Activation
378(1)
Working Through Others in the Family Environment
379(10)
Changing Responding Systems
380(2)
Engaging Supports
382(2)
Negotiating Room for Change
384(1)
Exercise 12.2: Indirect Intervention Through the Environment
385(4)
Summary
389(1)
Critical Content
390(1)
Suggested Readings
390(1)
SECTION V Working With Multiproblem and High-Risk Families
391(76)
Challenges and Promise
393(22)
Theoretical Grounding
393(2)
Toward Helping Multiproblem and High-Risk Families
395(1)
Challenges to Family Resources
395(2)
Educational Achievement and Marketable Skills
395(1)
Financial Resources
396(1)
Available Supports
397(1)
Challenges of Adaptation
397(12)
Intergenerational Family Violence
398(1)
Domestic Violence
399(3)
Ineffective Parenting and Socialization
402(1)
Mental Illness and/or Disability
403(1)
Parental Substance Abuse
404(3)
Exercise 13.1: Understanding Multiple Stressors
407(2)
Challenges to Traditional Treatment Approaches
409(2)
Promising Approaches to Treatment
411(2)
Group Treatment
411(1)
In-Home Support
412(1)
Multisystemic Treatment
412(1)
Summary
413(1)
Critical Content
413(1)
Suggested Readings
414(1)
Multiagency Work
415(32)
Theoretical Grounding
415(1)
Understanding Systemic Family Stresses
416(3)
Formal Support Services
419(4)
The Level of Autonomy
420(1)
The Level of Fit
420(3)
Collaborative Support Functions With Multiple Helping Systems
423(11)
Collaborative Support With Other Professionals
423(2)
Collaborative Support With Family Members
425(7)
Exercise 14.1: Support Functions
432(2)
Case Advocacy
434(4)
Exercise 14.2: Case Advocacy
437(1)
Class Advocacy
438(7)
Exercise 14.3: Class Advocacy
443(2)
Summary
445(1)
Critical Content
445(1)
Suggested Readings
446(1)
Support-Focused Intervention
447(20)
Theoretical Grounding
447(1)
Support-Based Interventions
448(1)
Principles for Intervention
448(2)
Maintaining a Family Focus
449(1)
Maximizing Support and Mutual Aid
449(1)
Avoiding Traditional Responses
450(1)
Using Group Work Methods
450(9)
Developing the Group Structure
452(3)
Establishing Interpersonal Processes
455(2)
Exercise 15.1: Group Intervention
457(2)
In-Home Work With Families
459(3)
Community-Based Family Interventions
462(3)
Working Through Host Settings
463(1)
Working Through Community-Based Partners
464(1)
Summary
465(1)
Critical Content
465(1)
Suggested Readings
466(1)
References 467(29)
Index 496

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