Peace: A History of Movements and Ideas

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-06-02
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

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Veteran scholar and peace activist David Cortright offers a definitive history of the human striving for peace and an analysis of its religious and intellectual roots. This authoritative, balanced, and highly readable volume traces the rise of peace advocacy and internationalism from their origins in earlier centuries through the mass movements of recent decades: the pacifist campaigns of the 1930s, the Vietnam antiwar movement, and the waves of disarmament activism that peaked in the 1980s. Also explored are the underlying principles of peace - nonviolence, democracy, social justice, and human rights - all placed within a framework of 'realistic pacifism'. Building Peace brings the story up-to-date by examining opposition to the Iraq War and responses to the so-called 'war on terror'. This is history with a modern twist, set in the context of current debates about 'the responsibility to protect', nuclear proliferation, Darfur, and conflict transformation.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. ix
List of abbreviationsp. xi
What is peace?p. 1
Idealism and realismp. 2
New warsp. 4
Defining termsp. 6
What's in a word?p. 8
"Pacifist" Japan?p. 11
Latin American and African traditionsp. 12
Pacifism and "just war"p. 14
An outline of peace historyp. 16
An overview of peacemaking ideasp. 18
Movementsp. 23
The first peace societiesp. 25
Stirringsp. 26
Social origins and political agendasp. 29
Elihu Burritt: the learned blacksmithp. 32
The first peace congressesp. 34
The right of self-determinationp. 35
Universalizing peacep. 38
The Hague Peace Conferencep. 40
Not enoughp. 43
Toward internationalismp. 45
Concepts and trendsp. 46
The arbitration revolutionp. 49
A League of Nationsp. 52
Wilson's visionp. 54
The challenge of supporting the Leaguep. 58
Outlawing warp. 62
Facing fascismp. 67
Peace movement rebornp. 69
Pledging war resistancep. 71
Revolutionary antimilitarismp. 75
The Peace Ballotp. 76
Against appeasementp. 79
Imperial failurep. 81
The neutrality debatep. 84
The emergency peace campaignp. 85
Losing Spainp. 87
The end of "pacifism"p. 88
Debating disarmamentp. 93
Early reluctancep. 95
Disarmament to the forep. 96
Challenging the "merchants of death"p. 98
The naval disarmament treatiesp. 100
World disarmament conferencep. 103
The collapse of disarmamentp. 105
Disarmament at fault?p. 106
Confronting the cold warp. 109
Creating the United Nationsp. 111
The rise of world federalismp. 115
Cold war collapsep. 117
Militarization and resistance in Japanp. 120
The leviathanp. 122
Speaking truth to powerp. 123
Banning the bombp. 126
The shock of discoveryp. 126
Scientists organizep. 128
The Baruch planp. 131
For nuclear sanityp. 133
The beginning of arms controlp. 136
Nuclear pacifism in Japanp. 138
The rise of the nuclear freezep. 139
God against the bombp. 142
A prairie firep. 145
Ferment in Europep. 146
Who won?p. 149
Lessons from the end of the cold warp. 151
Refusing warp. 155
Vietnam: a triangular movementp. 157
Challenging presidents, constraining escalationp. 159
Social disruption and political costsp. 162
Resistance in the militaryp. 164
The rise of conscientious objectionp. 167
The movement against war in Iraqp. 170
Winning while losingp. 174
Countering the "war on terror"p. 176
Themesp. 181
Religionp. 183
Eastern traditionsp. 185
Study war no morep. 188
Salaam and jihadp. 190
Christianityp. 193
Anabaptists and Quakersp. 195
Tolstoy's anarchist pacifismp. 197
Social Christianityp. 199
Catholic peacemakingp. 200
Niebuhr's challengep. 203
Beyond perfectionismp. 206
The nonviolent alternativep. 208
A force more powerfulp. 211
Religious rootsp. 213
Action for changep. 216
Coercion and nonviolencep. 218
The power of lovep. 220
Spirit and methodp. 222
Two handsp. 224
A tool against tyrannyp. 227
Courage and strengthp. 229
Democracyp. 233
Early voicesp. 234
Democracy against militarismp. 236
Cobden: peace through free tradep. 237
Kant: the philosopher of peacep. 240
Human naturep. 243
For democratic controlp. 246
The Kantian triadp. 249
The insights of feminismp. 255
Empowering womenp. 257
Social justicep. 260
Socialism and pacifism: early differencesp. 262
Convergencep. 264
The Leninist critiquep. 266
Scientific pacifismp. 269
Peace through economic justicep. 270
The development-peace nexusp. 273
Development for whom?p. 275
Responsibility to protectp. 279
Bridging the cold war dividep. 280
War for democracy?p. 283
Opposing war, advancing freedomp. 286
Human rights and securityp. 287
Debating Kosovop. 289
The responsibility to protectp. 292
Peace operationsp. 296
The challenge in Darfurp. 299
A moral equivalentp. 302
The belligerence of the massesp. 304
Peace and its discontents: the Einstein-Freud dialoguep. 306
Nonmilitary servicep. 307
Nonviolent warriorsp. 310
Transforming conflictp. 313
Human security servicep. 315
Patriotic pacifismp. 317
Realizing disarmamentp. 321
From nonproliferation to disarmamentp. 323
The Canberra Commissionp. 325
Sparking the debatep. 328
"Weapons of terror"p. 329
What is zero?p. 331
Realistic pacifismp. 334
Theoryp. 335
Practicep. 336
Actionp. 337
Bibliographyp. 340
Indexp. 355
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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