Bureaucracy and Democracy

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-01-19
  • Publisher: Cq Pr
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Given the influence and impact of public bureaucracies in policy implementation, and the accountability they owe to the American public, their performance must be assessed in a systematic manner. With this new edition, Gormley and Balla revisit their four key perspectives-bounded rationality, principal-agent theory, interest group mobilization, and network theory-to help students develop an analytic framework for comprehensively evaluating bureaucratic performance.

Author Biography

William T. Gormley Jr. is university professor and professor of government and public policy of Georgetown University. He is also a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration and a past president of the Public Policy Section of the American Political Science Association. Steven J. Balla is associate professor of political science, public policy and public administration, and international affairs at george Washington University. He is also a research associate at the George Washington Institute of Public Policy and a senior scholar at the Regulatory Studies Center.

Table of Contents

Tables and Figuresp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Bureaucracies as Policymaking Organizationsp. 1
The Contours of Public Bureaucracyp. 6
Accountability and Performance in Public Bureaucraciesp. 7
Accountability and its Many Facesp. 12
The Evolution of Accountabilityp. 14
The Limits of Accountabilityp. 15
The Push for Performancep. 16
The Government Performance and Results Actp. 19
The Program Assessment Rating Toolp. 21
Agency Reputations in the Real Worldp. 23
Accountability and Performance: Theories and Applicationsp. 25
Bureaucratic Reasoningp. 34
The Bounded Rationality Modelp. 37
Simplified Problem Solvingp. 40
Problem Disaggregationp. 41
Standard Operating Proceduresp. 42
Sunk Costsp. 46
Simulations and Testsp. 47
Evidence-Based Researchp. 48
Implications for Policy Analysisp. 49
Motivationp. 51
Empathy and Commitmentp. 51
Representative Bureaucracyp. 53
Money as a Motivatorp. 54
Attitudes toward Riskp. 55
Organizational Advancementp. 56
Promoting Organizational Cohesionp. 58
Consequences of Bounded Rationalityp. 60
A Narrow Searchp. 60
Problem Disaggregationp. 61
Approximationsp. 63
Standard Operating Proceduresp. 63
Conclusionp. 65
The Bureaucracy's Bossesp. 71
Delegation, Adverse Selection, and Moral Hazardp. 73
Why Bureaucracy?p. 76
Why Delegation Variesp. 78
Implementing Child Care Legislationp. 81
Managing Delegationp. 83
Presidential Powerp. 84
Congressional Control of the Bureaucracyp. 95
Judicial Reviewp. 103
Principal-Agent Theory and the Bureaucracy's Clientsp. 108
Principals and Principlesp. 109
The Bureaucracy's Clientsp. 117
The Benefits, Costs, and Politics of Public Policyp. 119
The Rise and Fall of Iron Trianglesp. 122
The Venues of Client Participationp. 127
The Notice and Comment Processp. 127
Advisory Committees and Other Venues of Collaborationp. 130
Political Interventionp. 133
Client Participation and the Internetp. 134
Client Influence on Bureaucratic Policymakingp. 139
Business Organizationsp. 141
Public Interest Groupsp. 143
State and Local Governmentsp. 145
Clients and the Institutions of Governmentp. 148
Client Participation: Three Lessons and Beyondp. 149
Who Participates Variesp. 149
Venues Varyp. 150
Influence Variesp. 150
Bureaucratic Networksp. 158
Networks versus Hierarchiesp. 161
Network Theoryp. 162
The Tools Approachp. 165
Types of Bureaucratic Networksp. 167
Intergovernmental Relationshipsp. 167
Environmental Protectionp. 168
Health Policyp. 172
Race to the Top in Educationp. 176
Welfare Reformp. 177
Public-Private Partnershipsp. 177
Contracting Outp. 178
Partnerships without Contractsp. 181
Interagency Networksp. 183
The Cabinetp. 184
Office of Management and Budgetp. 185
Interagency Coordinationp. 186
Czarsp. 189
Network Effectivenessp. 194
The Effectiveness of Policy Toolsp. 195
Grants-in-Aidp. 195
Regulationp. 198
Informationp. 199
Networks and Public Bureaucracyp. 201
The Politics of Disaster Managementp. 212
The Gulf of Mexico: Two Crises with Precedentp. 214
Hurricane Katrinap. 214
FEMA's Evolutionp. 215
Katrina Strikesp. 218
Applying the Theoriesp. 220
The Coast Guard and Other Success Storiesp. 224
The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spillp. 226
Bounded Rationality on the Deepwater Horizonp. 227
Networks and Oil Explorationp. 228
The Minerals Management Service: A Problematic Principalp. 230
Of Booms, Berms, and Client Politicsp. 232
September 11, 2001: A Crisis without Precedentp. 236
The First Responsep. 237
Bureaucracy after 9/11p. 239
The Iraq War and the Intelligence Communityp. 242
Bureaucratic Theories and the Politics of Homeland Securityp. 244
Avian Influenza: A Crisis in the Making?p. 248
National Strategy for Pandemic Influenzap. 250
Using the Theories to Forecastp. 252
Evaluating Bureaucracy in Light of the Theoriesp. 256
Why are Some Bureaucracies Better than Others?p. 267
Rating the Performance of Agenciesp. 268
Explaining Variations in Performancep. 269
Tasksp. 270
Relationshipsp. 275
Political Supportp. 277
Leadershipp. 281
Alternative Rating Systemsp. 285
Bureaucracy in the Twenty-First Centuryp. 287
Web Resourcesp. 295
Indexp. 299
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