# Business Statistics: A First Course

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• ISBN10:

## 0131536893

• Edition: 4th
• Format: Paperback
• Publisher: Pearson College Div
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Preface xxiii
 Introduction and Data Collection
1(20)
 Using Statistics: Good Tunes
2(1)
 Basic Concepts of Statistics
2(2)
 The Growth of Statistics and Information Technology
4(1)
 How This Text Is Organized
5(2)
 Collecting Data
7(1)
 Identifying Sources of Data
7(1)
 Types of Data
8(13)
 Summary
9(1)
 Key Terms
10(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
10(1)
 Introduction to the Web Cases
11(1)
 Introduction to Using Statistical Programs
12(1)
 Using Windows
13(2)
 Introduction to Microsoft Excel
15(2)
 Introduction to Minitab
17(4)
 (CD-ROM Topic) Introduction to SPSS
 Presenting Data in Tables and Charts
21(50)
 Using Statistics: Comparing the Performance of Mutual Funds
22(1)
 Tables and Charts for Categorical Data
22(7)
 The Summary Table
22(1)
 The Bar Chart
23(1)
 The Pie Chart
24(1)
 The Pareto Diagram
25(4)
 Organizing Numerical Data
29(3)
 The Ordered Array
30(1)
 The Stem-and-Leaf Display
30(2)
 Tables and Charts for Numerical Data
32(11)
 The Frequency Distribution
32(2)
 The Relative Frequency Distribution and the Percentage Distribution
34(1)
 The Cumulative Distribution
35(2)
 The Histogram
37(1)
 The Polygon
38(2)
 The Cumulative Percentage Polygon (Ogive)
40(3)
 Cross Tabulations
43(4)
 The Contingency Table
43(2)
 The Side-by-Side Bar Chart
45(2)
 Scatter Diagrams and Time-Series Plots
47(4)
 The Scatter Diagram
47(1)
 The Time-Series Plot
48(3)
 Misusing Graphs and Ethical Issues
51(20)
 Summary
54(1)
 Key Terms
55(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
55(7)
 Managing the Springville Herald
62(1)
 Web Case
62(1)
 Using Software for Tables and Charts
63(1)
 Microsoft Excel
63(3)
 Minitab
66(5)
 (CD-ROM Topic) SPSS
 Numerical Descriptive Measures
71(50)
 Using Statistics: Evaluating the Performance of Mutual Funds
72(1)
 Measures of Central Tendency, Variation, and Shape
72(22)
 The Mean
73(2)
 The Median
75(1)
 The Mode
76(1)
 Quartiles
77(2)
 The Geometric Mean
79(1)
 The Range
80(1)
 The Interquartile Range
81(1)
 The Variance and the Standard Deviation
82(3)
 The Coefficient of Variation
85(1)
 Z Scores
86(2)
 Shape
88(1)
 Microsoft Excel Descriptive Statistics Output
88(1)
 Visual Explorations: Exploring Descriptive Statistics
89(1)
 Minitab Descriptive Statistics Output
89(5)
 Numerical Descriptive Measures for a Population
94(5)
 The Population Mean
94(1)
 The Population Variance and Standard Deviation
95(1)
 The Empirical Rule
96(1)
 The Chebyshev Rule
97(2)
 Exploratory Data Analysis
99(4)
 The Five-Number Summary
99(1)
 The Box-and-Whisker Plot
100(3)
 The Covariance and the Coefficient of Correlation
103(6)
 The Covariance
103(2)
 The Coefficient of Correlation
105(4)
 Pitfalls in Numerical Descriptive Measures and Ethical Issues
109(12)
 Ethical Issues
110(1)
 Summary
110(1)
 Key Formulas
111(1)
 Key Terms
111(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
112(6)
 Managing the Springville Herald
118(1)
 Web Case
118(1)
 Using Software for Descriptive Statistics
118(1)
 Microsoft Excel
118(1)
 Minitab
119(2)
 (CD-ROM Topic) SPSS
 Basic Probability
121(32)
 Using Statistics: The Consumer Electronics Company
122(1)
 Basic Probability Concepts
122(9)
 Events and Sample Spaces
124(1)
 Contingency Tables and Venn Diagrams
125(1)
 Simple (Marginal) Probability
125(2)
 Joint Probability
127(1)
128(3)
 Conditional Probability
131(8)
 Computing Conditional Probabilities
131(2)
 Decision Trees
133(1)
 Statistical Independence
134(2)
 Multiplication Rules
136(1)
 Marginal Probability Using the General Multiplication Rule
137(2)
 Bayes' Theorem
139(4)
 Counting Rules
143(3)
 Ethical Issues and Probability
146(7)
 Summary
147(1)
 Key Formulas
147(1)
 Key Terms
148(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
148(2)
 Web Case
150(1)
 Using Software for Basic Probability
151(1)
 Microsoft Excel
151(2)
 Some Important Discrete Probability Distributions
153(24)
 Using Statistics: The Accounting Information System of the Saxon Home Improvement Company
154(1)
 The Probability Distribution for a Discrete Random Variable
154(4)
 Expected Value of a Discrete Random Variable
155(1)
 Variance and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variable
156(2)
 Binomial Distribution
158(8)
 Poisson Distribution
166(11)
 Summary
171(1)
 Key Formulas
171(1)
 Key Terms
171(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
172(2)
 Managing the Springville Herald
174(1)
 Using Software for Discrete Probability Distributions
175(1)
 Microsoft Excel
175(1)
 Minitab
176(1)
 The Normal Distribution
177(28)
 Using Statistics: Download Time for a Web Site Homepage
178(1)
 Continuous Probability Distributions
178(1)
 The Normal Distribution
179(15)
 Visual Explorations: Exploring the Normal Distribution
188(6)
 Evaluating Normality
194(11)
 Evaluating the Properties
194(1)
 Constructing the Normal Probability Plot
195(4)
 Summary
199(1)
 Key Formulas
199(1)
 Key Terms
199(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
199(2)
 Managing the Springville Herald
201(1)
 Web Case
202(1)
 Using Software with the Normal Distribution
202(1)
 Microsoft Excel
202(1)
 Minitab
202(3)
 (CD-ROM Topic) SPSS
 Sampling Distributions
205(32)
 Using Statistics: Cereal-Fill Packaging Process
206(1)
 Sampling Distributions
206(1)
 Sampling Distribution of the Mean
207(10)
 The Unbiased Property of the Sample Mean
207(1)
 Standard Error of the Mean
208(2)
 Sampling from Normally Distributed Populations
210(3)
 Sampling from Nonnormally Distributed Populations---The Central Limit Theorem
213(2)
 Visual Explorations: Exploring Sampling Distributions
215(2)
 Sampling Distribution of the Proportion
217(3)
 Types of Survey Sampling Methods
220(6)
 Simple Random Sample
221(2)
 Systematic Sample
223(1)
 Stratified Sample
224(1)
 Cluster Sample
224(2)
 Evaluating Survey Worthiness
226(11)
 Survey Errors
226(2)
 Ethical Issues
228(1)
 Summary
229(1)
 Key Formulas
229(1)
 Key Terms
230(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
230(3)
 Managing the Springville Herald
233(1)
 Web Case
233(1)
 Using Software for Sampling Distributions
234(1)
 Microsoft Excel
234(1)
 Minitab
234(3)
 Confidence Interval Estimation
237(34)
 Using Statistics: Auditing Sales Invoices at the Saxon Home Improvement Company
238(1)
 Confidence Interval Estimation for the Mean (σ Known)
239(4)
 Confidence Interval Estimation for the Mean (σ Unknown)
243(7)
 Student's t Distribution
243(1)
 Properties of the t Distribution
244(1)
 The Concept of Degrees of Freedom
245(1)
 The Confidence Interval Statement
246(4)
 Confidence Interval Estimation for the Proportion
250(4)
 Determining Sample Size
254(6)
 Sample Size Determination for the Mean
254(2)
 Sample Size Determination for the Proportion
256(4)
 Confidence Interval Estimation and Ethical Issues
260(11)
 Summary
260(1)
 Key Formulas
260(1)
 Key Terms
261(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
261(4)
 Managing the Springville Herald
265(1)
 Web Case
266(1)
 Using Software for Confidence Intervals and Sample Size Determination
267(1)
 Microsoft Excel
267(1)
 Minitab
268(3)
 (CD-ROM Topic) SPSS
 Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing: One-Sample Tests
271(40)
 Using Statistics: The Oxford Cereal Company Revisited
272(1)
 Hypothesis-Testing Methodology
272(6)
 The Null and Alternative Hypotheses
272(2)
 The Critical Value of the Test Statistic
274(1)
 Regions of Rejection and Nonrejection
274(1)
 Risks in Decision Making Using Hypothesis-Testing Methodology
275(3)
 Z Test of Hypothesis for the Mean (σ Known)
278(8)
 The Critical Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing
278(3)
 The p-Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing
281(3)
 A Connection between Confidence Interval Estimation and Hypothesis Testing
284(2)
 One-Tail Tests
286(4)
 The Critical Value Approach
286(1)
 The p-Value Approach
287(3)
 t Test of Hypothesis for the Mean (σ Unknown)
290(7)
 The Critical Value Approach
291(2)
 The p-Value Approach
293(1)
 Checking Assumptions
293(4)
 Z Test of Hypothesis for the Proportion
297(4)
 The Critical Value Approach
298(1)
 The p-Value Approach
299(2)
 Potential Hypothesis-Testing Pitfalls and Ethical Issues
301(10)
 Summary
304(1)
 Key Formulas
305(1)
 Key Terms
305(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
305(3)
 Managing the Springville Herald
308(1)
 Web Case
308(1)
 Using Software for One-Sample Tests of Hypothesis
309(1)
 Microsoft Excel
309(1)
 Minitab
309(2)
 (CD-ROM Topic) SPSS
 Two-Sample Tests and One-Way Anova
311(66)
 Using Statistics: Comparing Sales from End-Aisle Displays and Normal Displays
312(1)
 Comparing the Means of Two Independent Populations
312(10)
 Z Test for the Difference Between Two Means
312(1)
 Pooled-Variance t Test for the Difference Between Two Means
313(5)
 Confidence Interval Estimate for the Difference Between the Means of Two Independent Populations
318(1)
 Separate-Variance t Test for the Difference Between Two Means
318(4)
 Comparing the Means of Two Related Populations
322(10)
 Paired t Test
324(5)
 Confidence Interval Estimate for the Mean Difference
329(3)
 Comparing Two Population Proportions
332(6)
 Z Test for the Difference Between Two Proportions
332(4)
 Confidence Interval Estimate for the Difference Between Two Proportions
336(2)
 F Test for the Difference Between Two Variances
338(8)
 Finding Lower-Tail Critical Values
340(6)
 Using Statistics: The Perfect Parachute Company
346(1)
 One-Way ANOVA
346(31)
 F Test for Differences Among More Than Two Means
346(7)
 Multiple Comparisons: The Tukey-Kramer Procedure
353(2)
 ANOVA Assumptions
355(1)
 Levene's Test for Homogeneity of Variance
356(5)
 Summary
361(1)
 Key Formulas
362(1)
 Key Terms
363(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
363(6)
 Managing the Springville Herald
369(1)
 Web Case
370(1)
 Using Software for Two-Sample Tests and One-Way ANOVA
371(1)
 Microsoft Excel
371(2)
 Minitab
373(4)
 (CD-ROM Topic) SPSS
 Chi-Square Tests
377(32)
 Using Statistics: Guest Satisfaction at T.C. Resort Properties
378(1)
 Chi-Square Test for the Difference Between Two Proportions (Independent Samples)
378(8)
 Chi-Square Test for Differences Among More Than Two Proportions
386(7)
 The Marascuilo Procedure
389(4)
 Chi-Square Test of Independence
393(16)
 Summary
399(1)
 Key Formulas
400(1)
 Key Terms
401(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
401(4)
 Managing the Springville Herald
405(1)
 Web Case
406(1)
 Using Software for Chi-Square Tests
407(1)
 Microsoft Excel
407(1)
 Minitab
407(2)
 (CD-ROM Topic) SPSS
 Simple Linear Regression
409(56)
 Using Statistics: Forecasting Sales for a Clothing Store
410(1)
 Types of Regression Models
410(2)
 Determining the Simple Linear Regression Equation
412(9)
 The Least-Squares Method
413(3)
 Visual Explorations: Exploring Simple Linear Regression Coefficients
416(1)
 Predictions in Regression Analysis: Interpolation versus Extrapolation
417(1)
 Computing the Y Intercept b0 and the Slope b1
417(4)
 Measures of Variation
421(7)
 Computing the Sum of Squares
421(3)
 The Coefficient of Determination
424(2)
 Standard Error of the Estimate
426(2)
 Assumptions
428(1)
 Residual Analysis
428(5)
 Evaluating the Assumptions
428(5)
 Measuring Autocorrelation: The Durbin-Watson Statistic
433(5)
 Residual Plots to Detect Autocorrelation
433(2)
 The Durbin-Watson Statistic
435(3)
 Inferences About the Slope and Correlation Coefficient
438(7)
 t Test for the Slope
438(2)
 F Test for the Slope
440(1)
 Confidence Interval Estimate of the Slope (β1)
441(1)
 t Test for a Correlation Coefficient
442(3)
 Estimation of Mean Values and Prediction of Individual Values
445(5)
 The Confidence Interval Estimate
445(2)
 The Prediction Interval
447(3)
 Pitfalls in Regression and Ethical Issues
450(15)
 Summary
453(1)
 Key Formulas
454(1)
 Key Terms
455(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
455(5)
 Managing the Springville Herald
460(1)
 Web Case
461(1)
 Using Software for Simple Linear Regression
462(1)
 Microsoft Excel
462(2)
 Minitab
464(1)
 (CD-ROM Topic) SPSS
 Multiple Regression
465(40)
 Using Statistics: Predicting OmniPower Sales
466(1)
 Developing the Multiple Regression Model
466(6)
 Interpreting the Regression Coefficients
467(3)
 Predicting the Dependent Variable Y
470(2)
 r2, Adjusted r2, and the Overall F Test
472(4)
 Coefficient of Multiple Determination
472(1)
 Test for the Significance of the Overall Multiple Regression Model
473(3)
 Residual Analysis for the Multiple Regression Model
476(2)
 Inferences Concerning the Population Regression Coefficients
478(4)
 Tests of Hypothesis
478(2)
 Confidence Interval Estimation
480(2)
 Using Dummy Variables and Interaction Terms in Regression Models
482(6)
 Interactions
484(4)
 The Quadratic Regression Model
488(17)
 Finding the Regression Coefficients and Predicting Y
489(3)
 Testing for the Significance of the Quadratic Model
492(1)
 Testing the Quadratic Effect
492(4)
 Summary
496(1)
 Key Formulas
496(2)
 Key Terms
498(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
498(3)
 Managing the Springville Herald
501(1)
 Web Case
501(1)
 Using Software for Multiple Regression
502(1)
 Microsoft Excel
502(1)
 Minitab
503(2)
 (CD-ROM Topic) SPSS
 Statistical Applications in Quality and Productivity Management
505(32)
 Using Statistics: Service Quality at the Beachcomber Hotel
506(1)
 Total Quality Management
506(3)
 Six Sigma Management
509(1)
 The Theory of Control Charts
509(3)
 Control Chart for the Proportion of Nonconforming Items---The p Chart
512(6)
 The Red Bead Experiment: Understanding Process Variability
518(2)
 Control Charts for the Range and the Mean
520(17)
 The R Chart
521(2)
 The X Chart
523(4)
 Summary
527(1)
 Key Formulas
527(1)
 Key Terms
528(1)
 Chapter Review Problems
528(3)
 The Harnswell Sewing Machine Company Case
531(2)
 Managing the Springville Herald
533(2)
 Using Software for Control Charts
535(1)
 Microsoft Excel
535(1)
 Minitab
535(2)
 (CD-ROM Topic) SPSS
 Appendices
537(52)
 A. Review of Arithmetic, Algebra, and Logarithms
538(2)
 B. Summation Notation
540(3)
 C. Statistical Symbols and Greek Alphabet
543(1)
 D. CD-ROM Contents
544(5)
 E. Tables
549(25)
 F. Using Microsoft Excel with This Text
574(2)
 G. PHStat2 User's Guide
576(13)
Self-Test Solutions and Answers to Selected Even-Numbered Problems 589(26)
Index 615