The Challenge of Third World Development

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1999-08-01
  • Publisher: Pearson College Div
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For undergraduate-level courses in Third World, Comparative Politics, or Developing World courses in the department of Political Science. This text explores political, economic, and social issues common to diverse Third World countries. It examines the nature of underdevelopment and discusses explanatory theories of development. The book analyzes the major political and socio-economic cleavages that divide many of those nations, and the efforts being made to understand and address these challenges.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. X
Understanding Underdevelopmentp. 1
Third World Commonalities: The Nature of Underdevelopmentp. 3
Economic Underdevelopmentp. 3
Social Underdevelopmentp. 5
Political Underdevelopmentp. 8
Some Relationships among the Components of Developmentp. 10
The Causes of Underdevelopmentp. 12
Modernization Theory and the Importance of Cultural Valuesp. 12
Dependency Theoryp. 15
Modernization and Dependency Theory Comparedp. 17
Contemporary Perspectivesp. 18
Discussion Questionsp. 19
Notesp. 19
Religion and Politicsp. 23
The Meeting of Church and Statep. 24
Great Religions of the Third Worldp. 25
Religion, Modernity, and Secularizationp. 26
Structural and Theological Bases of Church-State Relationsp. 28
Islamp. 29
Catholicismp. 30
Hinduism and Buddhismp. 31
Religious Fundamentalism: Islam and Hinduismp. 32
Defining and Explaining Fundamentalismp. 32
Radical and Conservative Fundamentalistsp. 33
"Sacred Rage": Radical Fundamentalism and the Iranian Revolutionp. 34
Radical Hindu Fundamentalismp. 37
The Progressive Catholic Churchp. 39
Conclusionp. 42
Discussion Questionsp. 43
Notesp. 43
The Politics of Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Conflictp. 48
Defining Ethnicityp. 49
Ethnic and State Boundariesp. 50
Types of Ethnic-Cultural Divisionsp. 51
Nationalityp. 51
Tribep. 53
Racep. 55
Religionp. 58
Castep. 60
Independence, Modernization, and Ethnic Tensionp. 61
Levels of Interethnic Conflictp. 62
Relative Harmonyp. 62
Uneasy Balancep. 62
Enforced Hierarchy (Ethnic Repression)p. 63
Systematic Violencep. 65
Ethnic Pluralism and Democracyp. 65
Outcomes and Resolutionsp. 66
Power Sharing: Federalism and Consociationalismp. 66
Secessionp. 68
Outside Interventionp. 70
Settlement through Exhaustionp. 71
Toward a Peaceful Resolution of Conflictp. 71
Conclusionp. 72
Discussion Questionsp. 72
Notesp. 72
Women and Developmentp. 78
The Political and Socio-Economic Status of Third World Womenp. 79
Colonialism, Modernization, and the Economic Status of Womenp. 81
Women in the Countrysidep. 82
Urbanization and the Status of Womenp. 83
Women and Economic Crisisp. 85
Women and Politicsp. 86
Women at the Grass-roots Levelp. 88
Women as Political Leadersp. 91
Women and Revolutionary Changep. 93
Conclusionp. 96
Discussion Questionsp. 97
Notesp. 98
Agrarian Reform and the Politics of Rural Changep. 103
Rural Class Structuresp. 104
Peasant Politicsp. 106
The Politics of Agrarian Reformp. 109
Patterns of Land Concentrationp. 109
The Case for Agrarian Reformp. 110
Types of Agrarian Reformp. 114
The Limits of Agrarian Reformp. 119
Other Approaches and Issuesp. 121
Integrated Rural Developmentp. 121
Crop Pricingp. 123
Conclusionp. 124
Discussion Questionsp. 124
Notesp. 124
Rapid Urbanization and the Politics of the Urban Poorp. 130
The Political Consequences of Urban Growthp. 132
The Struggle for Employmentp. 133
The Struggle for Housing among the Urban Poorp. 137
Public Housing and the Role of the Statep. 138
Spontaneous Housingp. 139
Sites-and-Services Programsp. 140
The Politics of the Urban Poor: Conflicting Imagesp. 141
Forms of Political Expression Among the Urban Poorp. 144
Individual Political Behaviorp. 144
Collective Goals: Housing and Urban Servicesp. 145
Radical Political Behaviorp. 148
Conclusionp. 149
Discussion Questionsp. 150
Notesp. 150
Revolutionary Changep. 155
Defining Revolutionp. 156
Underlying Causes of Revolutionp. 158
Inexorable Historical Forcesp. 158
Regime Decayp. 159
Challenge from Belowp. 162
Conclusionp. 165
Levels of Popular Supportp. 166
Peasants as Revolutionariesp. 168
Why Peasants Rebelp. 169
Which Peasants Rebelp. 169
Revolutionary Leadershipp. 170
Revolutionaries in Powerp. 172
Conclusionp. 175
Discussion Questionsp. 177
Notesp. 177
Soldiers and Politicsp. 182
The Causes of Military Interventionp. 185
The Nature of the Armed Forcesp. 185
The Nature of Civil Societyp. 186
Progressive Soldiers and Military Conservativesp. 188
The Goals of Military Regimesp. 191
Personalist Regimesp. 191
Institutional Military Regimesp. 192
The Accomplishments and Failures of Military Regimesp. 197
Combating Corruptionp. 197
Defending Corporate Interestsp. 198
Establishing Stabilityp. 199
Economic Developmentp. 201
Military Withdrawal from Politicsp. 202
New Roles for the Armed Forcesp. 204
Conclusionp. 205
Discussion Questionsp. 206
Notesp. 206
The Political Economy of Third World Developmentp. 213
The Role of the Statep. 214
The Command Economyp. 215
Latin America Statismp. 218
East Asia's Developmental Statep. 221
The Neoclassical Idealp. 224
Conclusionsp. 226
Industrialization Strategiesp. 227
Import-Substituting Industrialization (ISI)p. 227
Export-Oriented Industrialization (EOI)p. 229
East and Southeast Asia's Economic Crisisp. 231
The Onset of the Crisisp. 231
Causes of the Asian Crisisp. 232
Consequences of the 1997 Crashp. 233
Implications for Asia's Growth Modelp. 233
Growth with Equityp. 234
Economic Development and the Environmentp. 238
The Costs of Growthp. 238
Environmental Decay as a Third World Problemp. 239
Environmental Decay in the LDCs as a Global Problemp. 240
The Search for Sustainable Developmentp. 240
Some Signs of Progressp. 242
Conclusionp. 243
Discussion Questionsp. 244
Notesp. 244
Democratic Change and the Change to Democracyp. 251
Democracy Definedp. 252
Democratic Transition and Consolidationp. 254
Authoritarian Beginningsp. 255
Justifying Authoritarian Rulep. 256
The Third Wave and Its Effect on the Third Worldp. 257
International Causes and Consequences of the Third Wavep. 259
The Prerequisites of Democracy in Individual Countriesp. 260
Social and Economic Modernizationp. 261
Class Structurep. 262
Political Culturep. 263
Conclusion: Democratic Consolidationp. 267
Discussion Questionsp. 269
Notesp. 269
Glossaryp. 273
Indexp. 281
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