The Challenge of Third World Development

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-01-01
  • Publisher: Longman
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Prentice Hall's sister company, Pearson Custom Publishing, has entered a partnership with the Council on Foreign Relations, bringing together expertise in online book-building technology with academic excellence. The Council formed a special editorial team-which includes Foreign Affairs' Managing Editor, Gideon Rose-to select the most influential articles on International Relations from Foreign Affairs and other prominent publications in the discipline. Along with suggested tables of content for specific courses and Prentice Hall texts, the Editorial Board has provided optional pedagogical apparatus.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Understanding Underdevelopmentp. 1
Third World Commonalities: The Nature of Underdevelopmentp. 2
Economic Underdevelopmentp. 3
Social Underdevelopmentp. 5
Political Underdevelopmentp. 9
Some Relationships among the Components of Developmentp. 11
The Causes of Underdevelopmentp. 13
Modernization Theory and the Importance of Cultural Valuesp. 13
Dependency Theoryp. 17
Modernization and Dependency Theory Comparedp. 19
Contemporary Perspectivesp. 20
Discussion Questionsp. 22
Notesp. 23
Democratic Change and the Change to Democracyp. 27
Democracy Definedp. 29
Democratic Transition and Consolidationp. 30
Authoritarian Beginningsp. 31
Justifying Authoritarian Rulep. 32
The Third Wave and Its Effect on the Third Worldp. 34
International Causes and Consequences of the Third Wavep. 36
The Prerequisites of Democracy in Individual Countriesp. 38
Social and Economic Modernizationp. 38
Class Structurep. 40
Political Culturep. 41
How Do Democracies Perform? Public Policy Comparedp. 45
Democratic Consolidationp. 46
Improving the Quality of Democracyp. 48
Conclusionp. 49
Discussion Questionsp. 50
Notesp. 51
Religion and Politicsp. 55
The Meeting of Church and Statep. 56
Great Religions of the Third Worldp. 57
Religion, Modernity, and Secularizationp. 58
Structural and Theological Bases of Church-State Relationsp. 61
Islamp. 61
Catholicismp. 62
Hinduism and Buddhismp. 63
Religious Fundamentalism: Islam and Hinduismp. 64
Defining and Explaining Fundamentalismp. 65
Fundamentalists: Radical and Conservativep. 66
"Sacred Rage and the Iranian Revolution": Radical Islamism as a Reaction to Western-Style Modernizationp. 67
Al Qaeda and Militant Islamismp. 69
Turkey and Moderate Fundamentalism (Islamism)p. 74
Radical Hindu Fundamentalismp. 77
The Progressive Catholic Churchp. 79
Religion and Politics in the Developing World: Looking to the Futurep. 82
Conclusion: Religion and Democracyp. 83
Discussion Questionsp. 86
Notesp. 86
The Politics of Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Conflictp. 92
Defining Ethnicityp. 94
Ethnic and State Boundariesp. 96
Types of Ethnic-Cultural Divisionsp. 97
Nationalityp. 97
Tribep. 100
Racep. 102
Religionp. 105
Dependence, Modernization, and Ethnic Conflictp. 111
Levels of Interethnic Conflictp. 112
Relative Harmonyp. 113
Uneasy Balancep. 113
Enforced Hierarchy (Ethnic Dominance)p. 115
Systematic Violencep. 116
Outcomes and Resolutionsp. 117
Power Sharing: Federalism and Consociationalismp. 118
Secessionp. 120
Outside Interventionp. 121
Outside Intervention in Iraq: The Effect of the U.S. Occupation on Kurdish Autonomyp. 124
Settlement through Exhaustionp. 126
Toward a Peaceful Resolution of Conflictp. 126
Conclusion: Ethnic Pluralism and Democracyp. 127
Discussion Questionsp. 129
Notesp. 129
Women and Developmentp. 136
The Political and Socioeconomic Status of Third World Womenp. 138
Colonization, Westernization, Modernization, and the Economic Status of Womenp. 140
Women in the Economy: Rural and Urbanp. 142
Women and Politicsp. 145
Women's Political Activism at the Grass Rootsp. 146
Women as National Political Leadersp. 149
Reserved Seats and Quotas: Female Representation in Parliament and the Cabinetp. 152
Women and Revolutionary Changep. 158
The Status of Women: The Roles of Modernization, Globalization, and Regime Typep. 161
Conclusion: Democracy and the Role of Women in Societyp. 163
Discussion Questionsp. 166
Notesp. 167
Agrarian Reform and the Politics of Rural Changep. 172
Rural Class Structuresp. 173
Peasant Politicsp. 174
The Politics of Agrarian Reformp. 177
Patterns of Land Concentrationp. 178
The Case for Agrarian Reformp. 179
Types of Agrarian Reformp. 181
Externally Imposed Reformp. 181
Revolutionary Transformationp. 183
Moderate Reformismp. 185
The Limits of Agrarian Reformp. 187
Other Approaches and Issuesp. 189
Crop Pricingp. 190
Conclusion: Democracy and Rural Reformp. 191
Discussion Questionsp. 192
Notesp. 192
Rapid Urbanization and the Politics of the Urban Poorp. 196
The Political Consequences of Urban Growthp. 199
The Struggle for Employmentp. 200
The Struggle for Housing Among the Urban Poorp. 203
Public Housing and the Role of the Statep. 204
Spontaneous Housingp. 206
Sites-and-Services Programsp. 207
The Struggle Against Urban Crimep. 208
The Politics of the Urban Poor: Conflicting Imagesp. 210
Forms of Political Expression Among the Urban Poorp. 214
Individual Political Behaviorp. 214
Collective Goals: Housing and Urban Servicesp. 215
Radical Political Behaviorp. 218
Conclusion: Future Urban Growth and Democratic Politicsp. 220
Discussion Questionsp. 220
Notesp. 221
Revolutionary Changep. 225
Defining Revolutionp. 226
Underlying Causes of Revolutionp. 228
Inexorable Historical Forcesp. 228
Regime Decayp. 229
Challenges from Belowp. 231
Causes of Revolution: A Summaryp. 234
Levels of Popular Supportp. 235
Peasants as Revolutionariesp. 238
Why Peasants Rebelp. 238
Which Peasants Rebelp. 239
Revolutionary Leadershipp. 240
Revolutionaries in Powerp. 241
Conclusion: Revolutionary Change and Democracyp. 244
Discussion Questionsp. 246
Notesp. 247
Soldiers and Politicsp. 250
The Causes of Military Interventionp. 252
The Nature of the Armed Forcesp. 252
The Nature of Civil Societyp. 254
Progressive Soldiers and Military Conservativesp. 257
The Goals of Military Regimesp. 259
Personalistic Regimesp. 259
Institutional Military Regimesp. 261
The Accomplishments and Failures of Military Regimesp. 265
Combating Corruptionp. 265
Defending Corporate Interestsp. 266
Patterns in Military Spendingp. 267
Establishing Stabilityp. 271
Economic Developmentp. 272
Military Withdrawal from Politicsp. 275
New Roles for the Armed Forcesp. 276
Conclusion: Democracy and the Militaryp. 277
Discussion Questionsp. 278
Notesp. 279
The Political Economy of Third World Developmentp. 284
The Role of the Statep. 284
The Command Economyp. 286
Latin American Statismp. 288
East Asia's Developmental Statep. 292
The Neoclassical Idealp. 295
Finding a Proper Role for the Statep. 297
Industrialization Strategiesp. 297
Import-Substituting Industrializationp. 298
Export-Oriented Industrializationp. 300
Growth with Equityp. 301
Economic Development and the Environmentp. 304
The Costs of Growthp. 305
Environmental Decay as a Third World Problemp. 305
Environmental Decay in the LDCs as a Global Problemp. 306
The Search for Sustainable Developmentp. 307
Some Signs of Progressp. 308
Finding the Right Mixp. 309
The Effects of Globalization on Developing Nationsp. 310
Conclusion: Democracy and Economic Developmentp. 314
Discussion Questionsp. 315
Notesp. 315
Glossaryp. 320
Indexp. 329
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