Challenge of Third World Development

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2012-02-20
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Updated in its 7thedition, The Challenge of Third World Developmentexamines political, economic, and social change in countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. Exploring common issues and problems in these regions, this text helps readers grasp the structural dynamics and human stories behind development. Accessibly written for readers of any social science background, The Challenge of Third World Developmentimmerses readers in issues like democratization, global warming, and women's changing roles and encourages them to understand what drives these issues at an individual, national, and global level.

Author Biography

Howard Handelman is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Understanding Underdevelopmentp. 1
Third World Commonalities: The Nature of Underdevelopmentp. 4
Economic Underdevelopmentp. 4
Social Underdevelopmentp. 9
Political Underdevelopmentp. 13
Some Relationships between the Components of Developmentp. 15
The Causes of Underdevelopmentp. 17
Modernization Theory and the Importance of Cultural Valuesp. 18
Dependency Theory: The Core and the Peripheryp. 21
Modernization and Dependency Theories Comparedp. 24
Contemporary Perspectivesp. 25
How Much (or How Little) Progress Has Been Made?p. 28
The Explosion of Third World Democracyp. 32
Democracy Definedp. 39
Democratic Transition and Consolidationp. 40
Authoritarian Beginningsp. 42
Justifying Authoritarian Rulep. 42
The Third Wave and Its Effect on the Third Worldp. 44
International Causes and Consequences of the Third Wavep. 47
The Prerequisites of Democracy in Individual Countriesp. 48
Social and Economic Modernizationp. 49
Class Structurep. 50
Political Culturep. 52
The Curse of Oil Wealthp. 56
How Do Democracies Perform? Public Policy Comparedp. 58
Democratic Consolidationp. 60
Improving the Quality of Democracyp. 61
Conclusionp. 63
Religion and Politicsp. 68
The Meeting of Church and Statep. 70
Great Religions of the Third Worldp. 71
Religion, Modernity, and Secularizationp. 73
Structural and Theological Bases of Church-State Relationsp. 75
Islamp. 75
Catholicismp. 76
Hinduism and Buddhismp. 77
Religious Fundamentalism and Islamismp. 78
Defining and Explaining Fundamentalismp. 79
Fundamentalists: Radical and Conservativep. 80
The Iranian Revolution: Radical Islamism as a Reaction to Western-Style Modernizationp. 82
Al Qaeda and Militant Islamismp. 84
Islamist Terrorists in Western Europe: A New Frontierp. 89
Turkey and Moderate Islamismp. 91
The Strengthening of Moderate Islamp. 95
The Progressive Catholic Churchp. 95
The Future of Religion and Politics in the Developing Worldp. 98
Conclusion: Religion and Democracyp. 100
The Politics of Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Conflictp. 106
Defining Ethnicityp. 110
Ethnic and State Boundariesp. 112
Types of Ethnic and Cultural Divisionsp. 113
Nationalityp. 113
Tribep. 116
Racep. 117
Religionp. 119
Dependency, Modernization, and Ethnic Conflictp. 125
Levels of Interethnic Conflictp. 126
Minimal Conflictp. 126
Uneasy Balancep. 127
Enforced Hierarchy (Ethnic Dominance)p. 128
Systematic Violencep. 130
Outcomes and Resolutionsp. 130
Power Sharing: Federalism and Consociationalismp. 131
Secessionp. 132
Outside Interventionp. 134
Settlement through Exhaustionp. 137
Toward a Peaceful Resolution of Conflictp. 137
Conclusion: Ethnic Pluralism and Democracyp. 138
Women and Developmentp. 142
The Political and Socioeconomic Status of Third World Womenp. 145
Modernization and Women's Economic Statusp. 149
Women in the Economy: Rural and Urbanp. 149
Women and Politicsp. 152
Women's Political Activism at the Grassrootsp. 153
Women as National Political Leadersp. 156
Reserved Seats and Quotas: Female Representation in Parliamentp. 159
Women and Revolutionary Changep. 165
Women as Peacekeepersp. 168
The Status of Women: The Roles of Modernization, Globalization, and Regime Typep. 169
Conclusion: Democracy and the Role of Women in Societyp. 171
The Politics of the Rural and Urban Poorp. 176
The Rural Poor: Third World Peasantryp. 177
Rural Class Structuresp. 178
Peasant Politicsp. 180
The Politics of Agrarian Reformp. 183
Patterns of Land Concentrationp. 183
The Case for Agrarian Reformp. 184
The Decline of Agrarian Reformp. 186
Crop Pricing: Another Approach to Rural Povertyp. 188
The Future of the Rural Poorp. 190
Rapid Urbanization and the Politics of the Urban Poorp. 191
The Third World's Urban Explosionp. 191
The Political Consequences of Urban Growthp. 195
The Search for Employmentp. 195
The Urban Poor's Struggle for Housingp. 197
Public Housing and the Role of the Statep. 199
Spontaneous Housingp. 200
Sites-and-Services Programsp. 201
The Problem of Urban Crimep. 202
The Politics of the Urban Poor: Conflicting Imagesp. 204
Forms of Political Expression among the Urban Poorp. 207
Individual Political Behaviorp. 207
Collective Goals: Housing and Urban Servicesp. 208
Radical Political Behaviorp. 211
Conclusion: The Role of the Rural and Urban Poor in Democratic Changep. 212
Revolutionary Changep. 217
Defining Revolutionp. 220
Underlying Causes of Revolutionp. 222
Inexorable Historical Forcesp. 222
Regime Decayp. 223
Challenges from Belowp. 225
Causes of Revolution: A Summaryp. 229
Levels of Popular Supportp. 230
Peasants as Revolutionariesp. 233
Why Peasants Rebelp. 233
Which Peasants Rebelp. 234
Revolutionary Leadershipp. 235
Revolutionaries in Powerp. 237
Conclusion: Revolutionary Change and Democracyp. 241
Soldiers and Politicsp. 245
The Causes of Military Interventionp. 249
The Nature of the Armed Forcesp. 249
The Nature of Civil Societyp. 250
Progressive Soldiers and Military Conservativesp. 253
The Types and Goals of Military Regimesp. 256
Personalistic Regimesp. 256
Institutional Military Regimesp. 257
The Accomplishments and Failures of Military Regimesp. 262
Combating Corruptionp. 262
Defending Military Interestsp. 263
Patterns in Military Spendingp. 264
Establishing Stabilityp. 267
Improving the Economyp. 269
Military Withdrawal from Politicsp. 271
New Roles for the Armed Forcesp. 273
The Military as the Deciding Factor in the Arab Springp. 274
Improving Civil-Military Relationshipsp. 275
Conclusion: Democracy and the Militaryp. 276
The Political Economy of Third World Developmentp. 280
The Role of the Statep. 282
The Command Economyp. 283
Latin American Statismp. 286
East Asia's Developmental Statep. 290
The Neoclassical Idealp. 292
Finding a Proper Role for the Statep. 295
Industrialization Strategiesp. 295
Import-Substituting Industrializationp. 296
Export-Oriented Industrializationp. 298
Growth with Equityp. 299
Economic Development and the Environmentp. 301
The Costs of Growthp. 302
Environmental Decay as a Third World Problemp. 303
Third World Environmental Decay and Global Warming: A Global Problemp. 304
The Search for Sustainable Developmentp. 305
Some Signs of Progressp. 307
Finding the Right Mixp. 309
The Effects of Globalization on Developing Nationsp. 310
Conclusion: Democracy and Economic Developmentp. 315
Glossaryp. 319
Indexp. 328
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