Chemical Principles

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-12-03
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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Known for helping students develop the qualitative, conceptual foundation that gets them thinking like chemists, this market-leading text is designed for students with solid mathematical preparation and prior exposure to chemistry. The unique organization of the text supports this qualitative-to-quantitative approach. A strong emphasis on models and everyday applications of chemistry combines with a thoughtful, step-by-step problem solving approach to build conceptual understanding.

Table of Contents

Chemists and Chemistry
Thinking Like a Chemist
A Real-World Chemistry Problem
The Scientific Method
Industrial Chemistry
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Real-World Chemistry
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
The Early History of Chemistry
Fundamental Chemical Laws
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Cannizzaro's Interpretation
Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom
The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction
Molecules and Ions
An Introduction to the Periodic Table
Naming Simple Compounds
Atomic Masses
The Mole
Molar Mass
Percent Composition of Compounds
Determining the Formula of a Compound
Chemical Equations
Balancing Chemical Equations
Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products
Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant
Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
Water, the Common Solvent
The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes
The Composition of Solutions
Types of Chemical Reactions
Precipitation Reactions
Describing Reactions in Solution
Selective Precipitation
Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions
Acid-Base Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations
Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations
Early Experiments
The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro
The Ideal Gas Law
Gas Stoichiometry
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
Effusion and Diffusion
Collisions of Gas Particles with the Container Walls
Intermolecular Collisions
Real Gases
Characteristics of Several Real Gases
Chemistry in the Atmosphere
Chemical Equilibrium
The Equilibrium Condition
The Equilibrium Constant
Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures
The Concept of Activity
Heterogeneous Equilibria
Applications of the Equilibrium Constant
Solving Equilibrium Problems
Le Ch?telier's Principle
Equilibria Involving Real Gases
Acids and Bases
The Nature of Acids and Bases
Acid Strength
The pH Scale
Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions
Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions
Polyprotic Acids
Acid-Base Properties of Salts
Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration
Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration
Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary
Applications of Aqueous Equilibria
Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion
Buffered Solutions
Exact Treatment of Buffered Solutions
Buffer Capacity
Titrations and pH Curves
Acid-Base Indicators
Titration of Polyprotic Acids
Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product
Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis
Complex Ion Equilibria
Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry
The Nature of Energy
Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases
Hess's Law
Standard Enthalpies of Formation
Present Sources of Energy
New Energy Sources
Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy
Spontaneous Processes and Entropy
The Isothermal Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas
The Definition of Entropy
Entropy and Physical Changes
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity
Free Energy
Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions
Free Energy and Chemical Reactions
The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure
Free Energy and Equilibrium
Free Energy and Work
Reversible and Irreversible Processes: A Summary
Adiabatic Processes
Galvanic Cells
Standard Reduction Potentials
Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy
Dependence of the Cell Potential on Concentration
Commercial Electrolytic Processes
Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory
Electromagnetic Radiation
The Nature of Matter
The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen
The Bohr Model
The Quantum Mechanical Description of the Atom
The Particle in a Box
The Wave Equation for the Hydrogen Atom
The Physical Meaning of a Wave Function
The Characteristics of Hydrogen Orbitals
Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle
Polyelectronic Atoms
The History of the Periodic Table
The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table
Further Development of the Polyelectronic Model
Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties
The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals
Bonding: General Concepts
Types of Chemical Bonds
Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments
Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes
Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds
Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds
The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model
Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions
The Localized Electron Bonding Model
Lewis Structure
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model
Covalent Bonding: Orbitals
Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model
The Molecular Orbital Model
Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models
Orbitals: Human Inventions
Molecular Spectroscopy: An Introduction
Electronic Spectroscopy
Vibrational Spectroscopy
Rotational Spectroscopy
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Chemical Kinetics
Reaction Rates
Rate Laws: An Introduction
Determining the Form of the Rate Law
The Integrated Rate Law
Rate Laws: A Summary
Reaction Mechanisms
The Steady-State Approximation
A Model for Chemical Kinetics
Liquids and Solids
Intermolecular Forces
The Liquid State
An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids
Structure and Bonding in Metals
Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids
Molecular Solids
Ionic Solids
Structures of Actual Ionic Solids
Lattice Defects
Vapor Pressure and Changes of State
Phase Diagrams
Properties of Solutions
Solution Composition
The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation
Factors Affecting Solubility
The Vapor Pressures of Solutions
Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression
Osmotic Pressure
Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions
The Representative Elements
A Survey of the Representative Elements
The Group 1A Elements
The Chemistry of Hydrogen
The Group 2A Elements
The Group 3A Elements
The Group 4A Elements
The Group 5A Elements
The Chemistry of Nitrogen
The Chemistry of Phosphorus
The Group 6A Elements
The Chemistry of Oxygen
The Chemistry of Sulfur
The Group 7A Elements
The Group 8A Elements
Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
The Transition Metals: A Survey
The First-Row Transition Metals
Coordination Compounds
Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model
The Crystal Field Model
The Molecular Orbital Model
The Biological Importance of Coordination Complexes
The Nucleus: A Chemist's View
Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay
The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay
Nuclear Transformations
Detection and Uses of Radioactivity
Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus
Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion
Effects of Radiation
Organic and Biochemical Molecules
Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
Alkenes and Alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbon Derivatives
Natural Polymers Appendix
Mathematical Procedures
Exponential Notation
Graphing Functions
Solving Quadratic Equations
Uncertainties in Measurements
Significant Figures Appendix
Units of Measurement and Conversions Among Units
Unit Conversions Appendix
Spectral Analysis Appendix
Selected Thermodynamic Data Appendix
Equilibrium Constants and Reduction Potentials
Answers to Selected Exercises
Photo Credits
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