Chemically Modified Electrodes

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-08-10
  • Publisher: Vch Pub

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With contributions from an international group of expert authors, this book includes the latest trends in tailoring interfacial properties electrochemically. The chapters cover various organic and inorganic compounds, with applications ranging from electrochemistry to nanotechnology and biology. Of interest to physical, surface and electrochemists, materials scientists and physicists.

Author Biography

Richard C. Alkire, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA

Dieter M. Kolb, Department of Electrochemistry, University of Ulm, Germany

Jacek Lipkowski, Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Canada

Philip N. Ross, Materials Science Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
List of Contributorsp. xi
Nanostructured Electrodes with Unique Properties for Biological and Other Applicationsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
High Surface Area Electrodesp. 2
Attachment of Nanoparticles onto Electrodesp. 3
Templating using Membranesp. 12
Templating using Lyotropic Liquid Crystalsp. 19
Colloidal Templatesp. 22
Catalytic Propertiesp. 23
Exploiting Nanoscale Control to Interface Electrodes with Biomoleculesp. 27
Plugging Nanomaterials into Proteins-Nanoparticlesp. 27
Plugging Nanomaterials into Proteins-Carbon Nanotubesp. 29
Plugging Nanomaterials into Proteins-Molecular Wiresp. 31
Nanostructuring Electrodes to Achieve Intimate Connectivity with Biomoleculesp. 32
Nanostructuring Electrodes using Rigid Moleculesp. 32
The use of Molecular Wires in Electrochemistry such that Long-Distance Electron Transfer can be Exploited for a Variety of Applicationsp. 35
Switchable Surfacesp. 39
Switching Properties of Monolayer Systemsp. 39
Control and Enhancement of Electrochemical Reactions using Magnetic Nanostructures on Electrodesp. 43
Conclusionsp. 50
Referencesp. 50
Electrochemically Active Polyelectrolyte-Modified Electrodesp. 57
Introductionp. 57
Chemically Modified Electrodesp. 58
Redox Hydrogelsp. 59
Redox Polyelectrolyte Monolayersp. 60
Redox Polymer Brushes and Grafted DNAp. 61
Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Multilayersp. 62
Structurep. 64
Polyelectrolye Interpenetrationp. 66
Compensation of Polyelectrolyte Chargesp. 66
Film Inner Structurep. 66
Effect of the Assembly pHp. 67
Theoretical Descriptionp. 68
Electrochemical Responsep. 72
Ideal Responsep. 72
Peak Position and Donnan Potentialp. 73
Coupling Between the Acid-Base and Redox Equilibriap. 78
Peak Widthp. 79
Nonreversible Electrochemistry: Charge Transportp. 81
Dynamics of Solvent and Ion Exchangep. 84
Ion Exchangep. 84
Solvent Exchangep. 86
Specific Ionic Effectsp. 86
Break-Inp. 88
Molecular Description of Redox Polyelectrolyte-Modified Electrodesp. 89
Formulation of the Molecular Theoryp. 89
Comparison with Phenomenological Models, Advantages and Limitationsp. 96
Applicationsp. 97
Amperometric Enzymatic Electrodesp. 97
Electrochromic Devicesp. 105
Conclusionsp. 106
Referencesp. 109
Electrochemistry on Carbon-Nanotube-Modified Surfacesp. 117
Introductionp. 117
Structure and Properties of Carbon Nanotubesp. 118
Structure and Electronic Propertiesp. 118
Chemical Propertiesp. 121
Electrochemical Propertiesp. 123
Towards the Design of CNT-Modified Electrodesp. 128
Synthesis of CNTsp. 128
CNT Purification Methodsp. 129
Chemical and Biochemical Functionalizationp. 130
Covalent Modificationp. 131
Noncovalent Modificationp. 133
Chemical Modification for CNT Sortingp. 133
Chemical Doping, Intercalation and Artificial Defectsp. 135
CNT Deposition oh Electrode Surfacesp. 135
Randomly Dispersed CNTsp. 135
Oriented CNT Electrodesp. 141
Individual CNT Electrodesp. 144
CNT-Modified Electrode Pretreatmentsp. 146
Electrochemical Applications of CNT Electrodesp. 147
Biosensorsp. 147
Enzymatic and Redox Protein Biosensorsp. 148
CNT/DNA and Genosensorsp. 151
Immunosensorsp. 156
Electrochemical Actuatorsp. 157
Electrochemical Energy-Harvesting Devicesp. 157
Conclusions and Future Prospectsp. 160
Referencesp. 262
Electrochemistry of Electroactive Surface-Immobilized Nanoparticlesp. 169
Introductionp. 169
Synthetic Approaches and Characterizationp. 171
Immobilization Schemesp. 174
Metal Oxidesp. 178
TiOxp. 178
MnOxp. 180
FeOxp. 184
NiOx and CoOxp. 185
Other Metal Oxides and Metal Sulfidesp. 186
Prussian Blue and Its Derivativesp. 287
Concluding Remarksp. 192
Referencesp. 193
Structure, Electrochemistry and Applications of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Thiolsp. 197
Introductionp. 297
Structural Aspects of Thiol-Like SAMsp. 200
Reductive Desorption of SAMsp. 209
Metal Deposition on SAM-Modified Electrodesp. 228
General Remarksp. 218
On-Top Depositionp. 220
Underpotential Depositionp. 228
Bulk-Metal Depositionp. 239
Summary and Outlookp. 245
Referencesp. 247
Indexp. 257
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