Chemicals from Microalgae

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-05-27
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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The production of chemicals from microalgae is becoming a significant area of biological research. This work seeks to cover the various aspects that relate to the use of microalgae as a source of chemicals. The chapters discuss the occurrence and physiological role of these chemicals and concentrates on the methods aimed at enhancing their content, as well as large-scale algal biomass production and down-stream processing. It describes the major algal chemicals of interest, namely pigments and lipids.

Author Biography

Zvi Cohen is an Associate Professor at the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research at Ben-Gurion University, Israel.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Forewordp. xiii
Contributorsp. xiv
Porphyridium cruentump. 1
Fatty acid compositionp. 1
Triacylglycerolsp. 2
Biosynthesis of AA and EPAp. 3
Feeding with fatty acid precursorsp. 4
Radiolabelling studiesp. 5
Selection of mutants deficient in EPA biosynthesisp. 9
Environmental factors affecting PUFA contentp. 11
Temperaturep. 11
Light intensity and biomass concentrationp. 14
Nitrogen starvationp. 15
Strainsp. 16
Outdoor cultivationp. 17
EPA overproductionp. 18
EPA purificationp. 20
Feeding with external fatty acidsp. 20
Referencesp. 21
Monodus subterraneusp. 25
Fatty acid composition of individual lipidsp. 25
Effects of nutritional and environmental conditionsp. 25
Outdoor cultivationp. 28
Evaluation of EPA-producing speciesp. 30
Production of high purity EPAp. 32
Biosynthesisp. 35
Future directionsp. 38
Referencesp. 39
Production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the marine eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsisp. 41
Introductionp. 41
Nannochloropsis and other eustigmatophytesp. 42
Chemical compositionp. 43
Biosynthesis of lipids and polyunsaturated fatty acidsp. 45
Modulation of fatty acid compositionp. 47
Mass productionp. 49
Commercial applications and feeding experimentsp. 51
Acknowledgementsp. 53
Referencesp. 53
Production of EPA from Phaeodactylum tricornutump. 57
Introductionp. 57
Criteria for selecting Phaeodactylum tricornutum UTEX 640 as a potential source of EPAp. 58
Phaeodactylum tricornutum UTEX 640 biomass production in horizontal tubular air-lift photobioreactorsp. 62
EPA production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum UTEX 640p. 78
Concluding remarksp. 85
Acknowledgementsp. 86
Nomenclaturep. 86
Referencesp. 87
Genetic improvement of EPA content in microalgaep. 93
Introductionp. 93
The genetic approach to strain improvementp. 94
Genetic improvement of EPA content in microalgaep. 96
Conclusionsp. 102
Acknowledgementsp. 103
Referencesp. 103
Recovery of algal PUFAsp. 108
Introductionp. 108
A general overview of lipid and fatty acid extractionp. 113
PUFA concentration and purification techniquesp. 120
Integrated process for obtaining highly pure PUFA from algaep. 128
Concluding remarksp. 138
Acknowledgementsp. 138
Referencesp. 140
Microalgal carotenoidsp. 145
Introductionp. 145
Structures of microalgal carotenoidsp. 145
Distribution of microalgal carotenoidsp. 149
Isolation, identification and structure elucidationp. 161
Biological aspectsp. 165
Summaryp. 168
Referencesp. 168
Production of astaxanthin by Haematococcusp. 173
Introductionp. 173
Astaxanthin-producing microalgaep. 174
Cell cycle of Haematococcusp. 174
Pathway of astaxanthin synthesisp. 177
Regulation of biosynthesis of carotenoids leading to astaxanthinp. 179
Location of astaxanthin in Haematococcus cellsp. 181
Factors affecting astaxanthin accumulation and cell growthp. 181
Function of secondary carotenoids including astaxanthinp. 185
Improvement of cell growth and astaxanthin synthesisp. 187
Molecular biology of Haematococcusp. 188
Commercial production and application of astaxanthin from Haematococcusp. 188
Conclusion and future workp. 189
Referencesp. 190
Production of [beta]-carotene from Dunaliellap. 196
Biology and halotolerancep. 196
[beta]-carotene and productionp. 197
Biotechnology of [beta]-carotene production by Dunaliellap. 199
Natural versus synthetic [beta]-carotenep. 201
Commercial producersp. 203
Referencesp. 203
Chemicals of Botryococcus brauniip. 205
Introductionp. 205
Isolation and methodology for the study of chemicals from B. brauniip. 210
Hydrocarbonsp. 211
Usual lipidsp. 223
Non-classical lipidsp. 225
Macromolecular lipids and algaenansp. 243
Polysaccharidesp. 248
Biotechnological studiesp. 248
Concluding remarksp. 252
Referencesp. 253
Phycobiliproteinsp. 261
Introductionp. 261
Phycobiliproteins from cyanobacteria or red algaep. 262
Cryptomonad phycobiliproteinsp. 267
Applications of the phycobiliproteinsp. 269
Referencesp. 276
Polysaccharides of red microalgaep. 282
Introductionp. 282
Red microalgaep. 282
Cell-wall polysaccharides of the red microalgaep. 283
Cell wall formationp. 285
Production of new polysaccharides by protoplast fusionp. 286
Applications of red microalgal polysaccharidesp. 286
Referencesp. 287
Polyhydroxyalkanoatesp. 292
Introductionp. 292
Properties of PHAs relevant to their usep. 293
Biosynthesis of PHAsp. 297
Occurrence of PHAs in cyanobacteriap. 298
Functions of PHAs in cyanobacteriap. 304
Future prospectsp. 306
Acknowledgementsp. 307
Referencesp. 307
Pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals from microalgaep. 313
Introductionp. 313
Antibioticsp. 314
Antiviral activityp. 320
Cytotoxic, antitumour and antineoplastic metabolitesp. 320
Toxinsp. 328
Other pharmacologically active compoundsp. 330
Other activitiesp. 334
Vitamins, carotenoids and fatty acidsp. 334
Production of biologically active substances by algal culturep. 335
Culture versus 'wild'p. 337
Conclusionp. 338
Referencesp. 338
Physiological principles and modes of cultivation in mass production of photoautotrophic microalgaep. 353
Introductionp. 353
Microalgal nutritionp. 354
Temperature and light: the major growth limitations outdoorsp. 357
Reactors for mass production of microalgaep. 365
Maintenance of mass culturesp. 378
Acknowledgementsp. 382
Referencesp. 383
Economic evaluation of microalgal processes and productsp. 387
Introductionp. 387
The algae and algal productsp. 387
Economic modellingp. 393
The cost of algal production--case studiesp. 401
Conclusionsp. 406
Referencesp. 406
Indexp. 410
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