Chemistry The Central Science, Books a la Carte Plus Mastering Chemistry with Pearson eText -- Access Card Package

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Author Biography

THEODORE L. BROWN received his Ph.D. from Michigan State University in 1956. Since then, he has been a member of the faculty of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, where he is now Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus. He served as Vice Chancellor for Research, and Dean of The Graduate College, from 1980 to 1986, and as Founding Director of the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology from 1987 to 1993. Professor Brown has been an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow and has been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 1972 he was awarded the American Chemical Society Award for Research in Inorganic Chemistry and received the American Chemical Society Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Inorganic Chemistry in 1993. He has been elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Chemical Society.


H. EUGENE LEMAY, JR., received his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Pacific Lutheran University (Washington) and his Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1966 from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He then joined the faculty of the University of Nevada, Reno, where he is currently Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus. He has enjoyed Visiting Professorships at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, at the University College of Wales in Great Britain, and at the University of California, Los Angeles. Professor LeMay is a popular and effective teacher, who has taught thousands of students during more than 40 years of university teaching. Known for the clarity of his lectures and his sense of humor, he has received several teaching awards, including the University Distinguished Teacher of the Year Award (1991) and the first Regents’ Teaching Award given by the State of Nevada Board of Regents (1997).


BRUCE E. BURSTEN received his Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1978. After two years as a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at Texas A&M University, he joined the faculty of The Ohio State University, where he rose to the rank of Distinguished University Professor. In 2005, he moved to the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, as Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. Professor Bursten has been a Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation Teacher-Scholar and an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow, and he is a Fellow of both the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Chemical Society. At Ohio State he has received the University Distinguished Teaching Award in 1982 and 1996, the Arts and Sciences Student Council Outstanding Teaching Award in 1984, and the University Distinguished Scholar Award in 1990. He received the Spiers Memorial Prize and Medal of the Royal Society of Chemistry in 2003, and the Morley Medal of the Cleveland Section of the American Chemical Society in 2005. He was President of the American Chemical Society for 2008. In addition to his teaching and service activities, Professor Bursten’s research program focuses on compounds of the transition-metal and actinide elements.


CATHERINE J. MURPHY received two B.S. degrees, one in Chemistry and one in Biochemistry, from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, in 1986. She received her Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1990. She was a National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health Postdoctoral Fellow at the California Institute of Technology from 1990 to 1993. In 1993, she joined the faculty of the University of South Carolina, Columbia, becoming the Guy F. Lipscomb Professor of Chemistry in 2003. In 2009 she moved to the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, as the Peter C. and Gretchen Miller Markunas Professor of Chemistry. Professor Murphy has been honored for both research and teaching as a Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar, an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow, a Cottrell Scholar of the Research Corporation, a National Science Foundation CAREER Award winner, and a subsequent NSF Award for Special Creativity. She has also received a USC Mortar Board Excellence in Teaching Award, the USC Golden Key Faculty Award for Creative Integration of Research and Undergraduate Teaching, the USC Michael J. Mungo Undergraduate Teaching Award, and the USC Outstanding Undergraduate Research Mentor Award. Since 2006, Professor Murphy has served as a Senior Editor for the Journal of Physical Chemistry. In 2008 she was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Professor Murphy’s research program focuses on the synthesis and optical properties of inorganic nanomaterials, and on the local structure and dynamics of the DNA double helix.


PATRICK M. WOODWARD received B.S. degrees in both Chemistry and Engineering from Idaho State University in 1991. He received a M.S. degree in Materials Science and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from Oregon State University in 1996. He spent two years as a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Physics at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In 1998, he joined the faculty of the Chemistry Department at The Ohio State University where he currently holds the rank of Professor. He has enjoyed visiting professorships at the University of Bordeaux in France and the University of Sydney in Australia. Professor Woodward has been an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow and a National Science Foundation CAREER Award winner. He currently serves as an Associate Editor to the Journal of Solid State Chemistry and as the director of the Ohio REEL program, an NSF-funded center that works to bring authentic research experiments into the laboratories of first- and second-year chemistry classes in 15 colleges and universities across the state of Ohio. Professor Woodward’s research program focuses on understanding the links between bonding, structure, and properties of solid-state inorganic functional materials.


MATTHEW W. STOLTZFUS received his B.S. degree in Chemistry from Millersville University in 2002 and his Ph. D. in Chemistry in 2007 from The Ohio State University. He spent two years as a teaching postdoctoral assistant for the Ohio REEL program, an NSF-funded center that works to bring authentic research experiments into the general chemistry lab curriculum in 15 colleges and universities across the state of Ohio. In 2009, he joined the faculty of Ohio State where he currently holds the position of Chemistry Lecturer. In addition to lecturing general chemistry, Stoltzfus accepted the Faculty Fellow position for the Digital First Initiative, inspiring instructors to offer engaging digital learning content to students through emerging technology. Through this initiative, he developed an iTunes U general chemistry course, which has attracted over 120,000 students from all over the world. Stoltzfus has received several teaching awards, including the inaugural Ohio State University 2013 Provost’s Award for Distinguished Teaching by a Lecturer and he is recognized as an Apple Distinguished Educator.

Table of Contents


1.     Introduction: Matter, Energy, and Measurement

2.     Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

3.     Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry

4.     Reactions in Aqueous Solution

5.     Thermochemistry 

6.     Electronic Structure of Atoms     

7.     Periodic Properties of the Elements

8.     Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding        

9.     Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories 

10.   Gases

11.   Liquids and Intermolecular Forces             

12.   Solids and Modern Materials 

13.   Properties of Solutions

14.   Chemical Kinetics 

15.   Chemical Equilibrium

16.   Acid—Base Equilibria        

17.   Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria 

18.   Chemistry of the Environment     

19.   Chemical Thermodynamics

20.   Electrochemistry             

21.   Nuclear Chemistry

22.   Chemistry of the Nonmetals

23.   Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

24.   The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry       


Mathematical Operations

Properties of Water

Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K ( 25 °C )             

Aqueous Equilibrium Constants      

Standard Reduction Potentials at  25 °C

Answers to Selected Exercises

Answers to Give It Some Thought

Answers to Go Figure


1 Introduction: Matter, Energy, and Measurement

1.1   The Study of Chemistry

The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry

Why Study Chemistry?

1.2   Classifications of Matter

States of Matter

Pure Substances




1.3   Properties of Matter

Physical and Chemical Changes         

Separation of Mixtures          

1.4   The Nature of Energy 

Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy   

1.5   Units of Measurement

SI Units  

Length and Mass  


Derived SI Units    



Units of Energy

1.6   Uncertainty in Measurement  

Precision and Accuracy  

Significant Figures 

Significant Figures in Calculations 

1.7   Dimensional Analysis 

Conversion Factors

Using Two or More Conversion Factors 

Conversions Involving Volume

Chemistry Put To Work Chemistry and the Chemical Industry         

A Closer Look The Scientific Method 

Chemistry Put To Work Chemistry in the News

Strategies For Success Estimating Answers   

Strategies For Success The Importance of Practice  

Strategies For Success The Features of This Book 


2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

2.1   The Atomic Theory of Matter  

2.2   The Discovery of Atomic Structure

Cathode Rays and Electrons


The Nuclear Model of the Atom        

2.3   The Modern View of Atomic Structure 

Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Isotopes 

2.4   Atomic Weights 

The Atomic Mass Scale  

Atomic Weight 

2.5   The Periodic Table 

2.6   Molecules and Molecular Compounds 

Molecules and Chemical Formulas

Molecular and Empirical Formulas 

Picturing Molecules

2.7   Ions and Ionic Compounds

Predicting Ionic Charges

Ionic Compounds  

2.8   Naming Inorganic Compounds 

Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds  

Names and Formulas of Acids 

Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds

2.9   Some Simple Organic Compounds    


Some Derivatives of Alkanes

A Closer Look Basic Forces

A Closer Look The Mass Spectrometer

A Closer Look What Are Coins Made Of?  

Chemistry and Life Elements Required by Living Organisms  

Strategies For Success How to Take a Test  


3 Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry

3.1   Chemical Equations   

Balancing Equations

A Step-by-Step Example of Balancing a Chemical Equation               

Indicating the States of Reactants and Products

3.2   Simple Patterns of Chemical Reactivity

Combination and Decomposition Reactions 

Combustion Reactions           

3.3   Formula Weights

Formula and Molecular Weights       

Percentage Composition from Chemical Formulas

3.4   Avogadro’s Number and the Mole 

Molar Mass    

Interconverting Masses and Moles

Interconverting Masses and Numbers of Particles

3.5   Empirical Formulas from Analyses

Molecular Formulas from Empirical Formulas

Combustion Analysis

3.6   Quantitative Information from Balanced Equations      

3.7   Limiting Reactants 

Theoretical and Percent Yields

Strategies For Success Problem Solving  

Chemistry and Life Glucose Monitoring

Strategies For Success Design an Experiment  


4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution 

4.1   General Properties of Aqueous Solutions 

Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes      

How Compounds Dissolve in Water    

Strong and Weak Electrolytes 

4.2   Precipitation Reactions 

Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds   

Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions 

Ionic Equations and Spectator Ions

4.3   Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions  



Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

Identifying Strong and Weak Electrolytes

Neutralization Reactions and Salts

Neutralization Reactions with Gas Formation

4.4   Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation and Reduction

Oxidation Numbers

Oxidation of Metals by Acids and Salts

The Activity Series 

4.5   Concentrations of Solutions   


Expressing the Concentration of an Electrolyte  

Interconverting Molarity, Moles, and Volume 


4.6   Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis


Chemistry Put To Work Antacids

Strategies For Success Analyzing Chemical Reactions  


5 Thermochemistry  

5.1   The Nature of Chemical Energy

5.2   The First Law of Thermodynamics

System and Surroundings    

Internal Energy

Relating E to Heat and Work

Endothermic and Exothermic Processes

State Functions

5.3   Enthalpy

Pressure—Volume Work  

Enthalpy Change  

5.4   Enthalpies of Reaction 

5.5   Calorimetry

Heat Capacity and Specific Heat        

Constant-Pressure Calorimetry         

Bomb Calorimetry (Constant-Volume Calorimetry)

5.6   Hess’s Law

5.7   Enthalpies of Formation

Using Enthalpies of Formation to Calculate Enthalpies of Reaction  

5.8   Bond Enthalpies

Bond Enthalpies and the Enthalpies of Reactions 

5.9   Foods and Fuels



Other Energy Sources

A Closer Look Energy, Enthalpy, and P-V Work

A Closer Look Using Enthalpy as a Guide 

Chemistry and Life The Regulation of Body Temperature   

Chemistry Put To Work The Scientific and Political Challenges of Biofuels 


6 Electronic Structure of Atoms       

6.1   The Wave Nature of Light 

6.2   Quantized Energy and Photons

Hot Objects and the Quantization of Energy 

The Photoelectric Effect and Photons  

6.3   Line Spectra and the Bohr Model 

Line Spectra   

Bohr’s Model 

The Energy States of the Hydrogen Atom     

Limitations of the Bohr Model

6.4   The Wave Behavior of Matter 

The Uncertainty Principle

6.5   Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals 

Orbitals and Quantum Numbers       

6.6   Representations of Orbitals    

The s Orbitals  

The  Orbitals  

The  and  Orbitals  

6.7   Many-Electron Atoms 

Orbitals and Their Energies  

Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle  

6.8   Electron Configurations

Hund’s Rule    

Condensed Electron Configurations    

Transition Metals   

The Lanthanides and Actinides

6.9   Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table            

Anomalous Electron Configurations    

A Closer Look Measurement and the Uncertainty Principle

A Closer Look Thought Experiments and Schrödinger’s Cat

A Closer Look Probability Density and Radial Probability Functions   

Chemistry and Life Nuclear Spin and Magnetic Resonance Imaging           


7 Periodic Properties of the Elements 

7.1   Development of the Periodic Table

7.2   Effective Nuclear Charge  

7.3   Sizes of Atoms and Ions

Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii         

Periodic Trends in Ionic Radii

7.4   Ionization Energy

Variations in Successive Ionization Energies

Periodic Trends in First Ionization Energies  

Electron Configurations of Ions

7.5   Electron Affinity 

Periodic Trends in Electron Affinity 

7.6   Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids




7.7   Trends for Group 1A and Group 2A Metals    

Group 1A: The Alkali Metals 

Group 2A: The Alkaline Earth Metals   

7.8   Trends for Selected Nonmetals


Group 6A: The Oxygen Group 

Group 7A: The Halogens

Group 8A: The Noble Gases 

A Closer Look Effective Nuclear Charge        

Chemistry Put To Work Ionic Size and Lithium-Ion Batteries  

Chemistry and Life The Improbable Development of Lithium Drugs 


8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

8.1   Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule

The Octet Rule

8.2   Ionic Bonding  

Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation

Electron Configurations of Ions of the s- and p-Block Elements  

Transition Metal Ions

8.3   Covalent Bonding  

Lewis Structures   

Multiple Bonds 

8.4   Bond Polarity and Electronegativity   


Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

Dipole Moments    

Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonding 

8.5   Drawing Lewis Structures 

Formal Charge and Alternative Lewis Structures

8.6   Resonance Structures

Resonance in Benzene  

8.7   Exceptions to the Octet Rule  

Odd Number of Electrons

Less Than an Octet of Valence Electrons       

More Than an Octet of Valence Electrons    

8.8   Strengths and Lengths of Covalent Bonds

A Closer Look Calculation of Lattice Energies: The Born—Haber Cycle

A Closer Look Oxidation Numbers, Formal Charges, and Actual Partial Charges  


9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories  

9.1  Molecular Shapes  

Applying the VSEPR Model to Determine Molecular Shapes

Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles

Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells     

Shapes of Larger Molecules 

9.2  The VSEPR Model

Applying the VSEPR Model to Determine Molecular Shapes

Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles

Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells     

Shapes of Larger Molecules

9.3  Molecular Shape and Molecular Polarity  

9.4  Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap

9.5  Hybrid Orbitals

sp Hybrid Orbitals  

sp2 and sp3 Hybrid Orbitals   

Hypervalent Molecules          

Hybrid Orbital Summary 

9.6  Multiple Bonds

Resonance Structures, Delocalization, and p Bonding   

General Conclusions about s and p 

9.7  Molecular Orbitals 

Molecular Orbitals of the Hydrogen Molecule

Bond Order    

9.8  Bonding in Period 2 Diatomic Molecules  

Molecular Orbitals for  Li2 and Be2

Molecular Orbitals from 2p Atomic Orbitals 

Electron Configurations for B2 through Ne2  

Electron Configurations and Molecular Properties 

Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules

Chemistry and Life The Chemistry of Vision    

A Closer Look Phases in Atomic and Molecular Orbitals     

Chemistry Put To Work Orbitals and Energy   


10 Gases

10.1  Characteristics of Gases

10.2  Pressure

Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer    

10.3  The Gas Laws

The Pressure—Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law

The Temperature—Volume Relationship: Charles’s Law

The Quantity—Volume Relationship: Avogadro’s Law  

10.4  The Ideal-Gas Equation

Relating the Ideal-Gas Equation and the Gas Laws   

 10.5  Further Applications of the Ideal-Gas Equation          

Gas Densities and Molar Mass

Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions      

 10.6  Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures  

Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions  

 10.7  The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases           

Distributions of Molecular Speed      

Application of Kinetic-Molecular Theory to the Gas Laws      

10.8  Molecular Effusion and Diffusion         

Graham’s Law of Effusion    

Diffusion and Mean Free Path 

10.9  Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior 

The van der Waals Equation 

Strategies for Success Calculations Involving Many Variables

A Closer Look The Ideal-Gas Equation

Chemistry Put To Work Gas Separations  

11 Liquids and Intermolecular Forces

11.1   A Molecular Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids 

11.2   Intermolecular Forces 

Dispersion Forces 

Dipole—Dipole Interactions   

Hydrogen Bonding 

Ion—Dipole Forces 

Comparing Intermolecular Forces 

11.3   Select Properties of Liquids   


Surface Tension    

Capillary Action

11.4   Phase Changes

Energy Changes Accompany Phase Changes   

Heating Curves

Critical Temperature and Pressure

11.5   Vapor Pressure 

Volatility, Vapor Pressure, and Temperature 

Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point  

11.6   Phase Diagrams           

The Phase Diagrams of  and 

11.7   Liquid Crystals

Types of Liquid Crystals 

Chemistry Put To Work Ionic Liquids

A Closer Look The Clausius—Clapeyron Equation      


12 Solids and Modern Materials

12.1   Classification of Solids 

12.2   Structures of Solids

Crystalline and Amorphous Solids 

Unit Cells and Crystal Lattices 

Filling the Unit Cell 

12.3   Metallic Solids 

The Structures of Metallic Solids       

Close Packing 


12.4   Metallic Bonding          

Electron-Sea Model 

Molecular Orbital Model 

12.5   Ionic Solids

Structures of Ionic Solids

12.6   Molecular Solids          

12.7   Covalent-Network Solids         


Semiconductor Doping          

12.8   Polymers          

Making Polymers  

Structure and Physical Properties of Polymers   

12.9   Nanomaterials

Semiconductors on the Nanoscale

Metals on the Nanoscale

Carbon on the Nanoscale

A Closer Look X-ray Diffraction         

Chemistry Put To Work Alloys of Gold

Chemistry Put To Work Solid-State Lighting   

Chemistry Put To Work Modern Materials in the Automobile  

Chemistry Put To Work Microporous and Mesoporous Materials  


13 Properties of Solutions

13.1   The Solution Process 

The Natural Tendency toward Mixing  

The Effect of Intermolecular Forces on Solution Formation    

Energetics of Solution Formation  

Solution Formation and Chemical Reactions

13.2   Saturated Solutions and Solubility

13.3   Factors Affecting Solubility

Solute—Solvent Interactions  

Pressure Effects    

Temperature Effects 

13.4   Expressing Solution Concentration    

Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb  

Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality   

Converting Concentration Units        

13.5   Colligative Properties 

Vapor—Pressure Lowering    

Boiling-Point Elevation          

Freezing-Point Depression   


Determination of Molar Mass from Colligative Properties  

13.6   Colloids 

Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids 

Colloidal Motion in Liquids   

Chemistry and Life Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins  

Chemistry and Life Blood Gases and Deep-Sea Diving      

A Closer Look Ideal Solutions with Two or More Volatile Components       

A Closer Look The van’t Hoff Factor  

Chemistry and Life Sickle-Cell Anemia


14 Chemical Kinetics  

14.1   Factors That Affect Reaction Rates   

14.2   Reaction Rates 

Change of Rate with Time    

Instantaneous Rate

Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry 

14.3   Concentration and Rate Laws

Reaction Orders: The Exponents in the Rate Law 

Magnitudes and Units of Rate Constants

Using Initial Rates to Determine Rate Laws  

14.4   The Change of Concentration with Time         

First-Order Reactions

Second-Order Reactions

Zero-Order Reactions


14.5   Temperature and Rate

The Collision Model 

The Orientation Factor          

Activation Energy  

The Arrhenius Equation  

Determining the Activation Energy 

14.6   Reaction Mechanisms

Elementary Reactions            

Multistep Mechanisms          

Rate Laws for Elementary Reactions  

The Rate-Determining Step for a Multistep Mechanism

Mechanisms with a Slow Initial Step   

Mechanisms with a Fast Initial Step

14.7   Catalysis           

Homogeneous Catalysis 

Heterogeneous Catalysis


A Closer Look Using Spectroscopic Methods to Measure Reaction Rates: Beer’s Law

Chemistry Put To Work Methyl Bromide in the Atmosphere          

Chemistry Put To Work Catalytic Converters  

Chemistry and Life Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogenase   


15 Chemical Equilibrium       

15.1   The Concept of Equilibrium    

15.2   The Equilibrium Constant  

Evaluating Kc    

Equilibrium Constants in Terms of Pressure, Kp

Equilibrium Constants and Units       

15.3   Understanding and Working with Equilibrium Constants  

The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants

The Direction of the Chemical Equation and K   

Relating Chemical Equation Stoichiometry and Equilibrium Constants

15.4   Heterogeneous Equilibria  

15.5   Calculating Equilibrium Constants

15.6   Applications of Equilibrium Constants

Predicting the Direction of Reaction

Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations

15.7   Le Châtelier’s Principle

Change in Reactant or Product Concentration   

Effects of Volume and Pressure Changes      

Effect of Temperature Changes         

The Effect of Catalysts

Chemistry Put To Work The Haber Process    

A Closer Look Temperature Changes and Le Châtelier’s Principle

Chemistry Put To Work Controlling Nitric Oxide Emissions

16 Acid—Base Equilibria        

16.1   Arrhenius Acids and Bases

16.2   Brønsted—Lowry Acids and Bases

The H+ Ion in Water

Proton-Transfer Reactions   

Conjugate Acid—Base Pairs  

Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases

16.3   The Autoionization of Water   

The Ion Product of Water

16.4   The pH Scale  

pOH and Other “p” Scales    

Measuring pH 

16.5   Strong Acids and Bases            

Strong Acids   

Strong Bases  

16.6   Weak Acids

Calculating Ka from pH          

Percent Ionization  

Using Ka to Calculate pH

Polyprotic Acids

16.7   Weak Bases   

Types of Weak Bases

16.8   Relationship Between Ka and Kb           

16.9   Acid—Base Properties of Salt Solutions            

An Anion’s Ability to React with Water  

A Cation’s Ability to React with Water  

Combined Effect of Cation and Anion in Solution

16.10 Acid—Base Behavior and Chemical Structure

Factors That Affect Acid Strength  

Binary Acids   


Carboxylic Acids   

16.11 Lewis Acids and Bases 

A Closer Look Polyprotic Acids          

Chemistry Put To Work Amines and Amine Hydrochlorides 

Chemistry and Life The Amphiprotic Behavior of Amino Acids 


17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria  

17.1   The Common-Ion Effect           

17.2   Buffers

Composition and Action of Buffers 

Calculating the pH of a Buffer 

Buffer Capacity and pH Range

Addition of Strong Acids or Bases to Buffers 

17.3   Acid—Base Titrations   

Strong Acid—Strong Base Titrations

Weak Acid—Strong Base Titrations 

Titrating with an Acid—Base Indicator   

Titrations of Polyprotic Acids 

17.4   Solubility Equilibria

The Solubility-Product Constant, Ksp

Solubility and Ksp

17.5   Factors That Affect Solubility  

The Common-Ion Effect 

Solubility and pH   

Formation of Complex Ions  


17.6   Precipitation and Separation of Ions  

Selective Precipitation of Ions 

17.7   Qualitative Analysis for Metallic Elements

Chemistry and Life Blood as a Buffered Solution

A Closer Look Limitations of Solubility Products 

Chemistry and Life Tooth Decay and Fluoridation   

A Closer Look Lead Contamination in Drinking Water


18 Chemistry of the Environment    

18.1   Earth’s Atmosphere

Composition of the Atmosphere

Photochemical Reactions in the Atmosphere

Ozone in the Stratosphere

18.2   Human Activities and Earth’s Atmosphere

The Ozone Layer and Its Depletion

Sulfur Compounds and Acid Rain

Nitrogen Oxides and Photochemical Smog

Greenhouse Gases: Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, and Climate

18.3   Earth’s Water

The Global Water Cycle

Salt Water: Earth’s Oceans and Seas

Freshwater and Groundwater

18.4   Human Activities and Water Quality

Dissolved Oxygen and Water Quality

Water Purification: Desalination

Water Purification: Municipal Treatment

18.5   Green Chemistry

Supercritical Solvents

Greener Reagents and Processes

A Closer Look Other Greenhouse Gases  

A Closer Look The Ogallala Aquifer–A Shrinking Resource

A Closer Look Fracking and Water Quality

Chemistry and Life Ocean Acidification


19 Chemical Thermodynamics

19.1   Spontaneous Processes

Seeking a Criterion for Spontaneity

Reversible and Irreversible Processes 

19.2   Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics        

The Relationship between Entropy and Heat

S for Phase Changes  

The Second Law of Thermodynamics  

19.3   The Molecular Interpretation of Entropy and the Third Law of Thermodynamics

Expansion of a Gas at the Molecular Level  

Boltzmann’s Equation and Microstates

Molecular Motions and Energy                                                                                  

Making Qualitative Predictions about S     

The Third Law of Thermodynamics

19.4   Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions 

Temperature Variation of Entropy  

Standard Molar Entropies

Calculating the Standard Entropy Change for a Reaction      Entropy Changes in the Surroundings 

19.5   Gibbs Free Energy

Standard Free Energy of Formation    

19.6   Free Energy and Temperature 

19.7   Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant    

Free Energy under Nonstandard Conditions 

Relationship between and

A Closer Look The Entropy Change When a Gas Expands Isothermally

Chemistry and Life Entropy and Human Society

A Closer Look What’s “Free” About Free Energy?    

Chemistry and Life Driving Nonspontaneous Reactions: Coupling Reactions


20 Electrochemistry  

20.1   Oxidation States and Oxidation—Reduction Reactions  

20.2   Balancing Redox Equations   


Balancing Equations by the Method of Half-Reactions 

Balancing Equations for Reactions Occurring in Basic Solution  

20.3   Voltaic Cells

20.4   Cell Potentials Under Standard Conditions   

Standard Reduction Potentials

Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

20.5   Free Energy and Redox Reactions    

Emf, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant 

20.6   Cell Potentials Under Nonstandard Conditions

The Nernst Equation

Concentration Cells

20.7   Batteries and Fuel Cells           

Lead—Acid Battery 

Alkaline Battery

Nickel—Cadmium and Nickel—Metal Hydride Batteries 

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Hydrogen Fuel Cells 

20.8   Corrosion         

Corrosion of Iron (Rusting)   

Preventing Corrosion of Iron 

20.9   Electrolysis

Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis

A Closer Look Electrical Work           

Chemistry and Life Heartbeats and Electrocardiography

Chemistry Put To Work Batteries for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Chemistry Put To Work Electrometallurgy of Aluminum  


21 Nuclear Chemistry 

21.1   Radioactivity and Nuclear Equations 

Nuclear Equations 

Types of Radioactive Decay 

21.2   Patterns of Nuclear Stability   

Neutron-to-Proton Ratio 

Radioactive Decay Chains   

Further Observations

21.3   Nuclear Transmutations          

Accelerating Charged Particles          

Reactions Involving Neutrons

Transuranium Elements 

21.4   Rates of Radioactive Decay   

Radiometric Dating

Calculations Based on Half-Life         

21.5   Detection of Radioactivity  


21.6   Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions

Nuclear Binding Energies

21.7   Nuclear Power: Fission

Nuclear Reactors  

Nuclear Waste 

21.8   Nuclear Power: Fusion 

21.9   Radiation in the Environment and Living Systems

Radiation Doses   

Chemistry and Life Medical Applications of Radiotracers    

A Closer Look The Dawning of the Nuclear Age

A Closer Look Nuclear Synthesis of the Elements     

Chemistry and Life Radiation Therapy


22 Chemistry of the Nonmetals

22.1   Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactions 

Chemical Reactions 

22.2   Hydrogen         

Isotopes of Hydrogen

Properties of Hydrogen  

Production of Hydrogen  

Uses of Hydrogen  

Binary Hydrogen Compounds 

22.3   Group 8A: The Noble Gases  

Noble-Gas Compounds  

22.4   Group 7A: The Halogens          

Properties and Production of the Halogens  

Uses of the Halogens

The Hydrogen Halides

Interhalogen Compounds

Oxyacids and Oxyanions

22.5   Oxygen 

Properties of Oxygen

Production of Oxygen            

Uses of Oxygen



Peroxides and Superoxides  

22.6   The Other Group 6A Elements: S, Se, Te, and Po

Occurrence and Production of S, Se, and Te

Properties and Uses of Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium


Oxides, Oxyacids, and Oxyanions of Sulfur  

22.7   Nitrogen

Properties of Nitrogen           

Production and Uses of Nitrogen  

Hydrogen Compounds of Nitrogen

Oxides and Oxyacids of Nitrogen  

22.8   The Other Group 5A Elements: P, As, Sb, and Bi 

Occurrence, Isolation, and Properties of Phosphorus  

Phosphorus Halides 

Oxy Compounds of Phosphorus        

22.9   Carbon

Elemental Forms of Carbon  

Oxides of Carbon  

Carbonic Acid and Carbonates


22.10 The Other Group 4A Elements: Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb      

General Characteristics of the Group A Elements

Occurrence and Preparation of Silicon 




22.11 Boron  

A Closer Look The Hydrogen Economy         

Chemistry and Life Nitroglycerin, Nitric Oxide, and Heart Disease

Chemistry and Life Arsenic in Drinking Water

Chemistry Put To Work Carbon Fibers and Composites             


23 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

23.1   The Transition Metals

Physical Properties

Electron Configurations and Oxidation States


23.2   Transition-Metal Complexes

The Development of Coordination Chemistry: Werner’s Theory

The Metal—Ligand Bond

Charges, Coordination Numbers, and Geometries

23.3   Common Ligands in Coordination Chemistry

Metals and Chelates in Living Systems

23.4   Nomenclature and Isomerism in Coordination Chemistry


Structural Isomerism


23.5   Color and Magnetism in Coordination Chemistry


Magnetism of Coordination Compounds

23.6   Crystal-field Theory

Electron Configurations in Octahedral Complexes

Tetrahedral and Square-Planar Complexes

Design an Experiment 

A Closer Look Entropy and the Chelate Effect

Chemistry and Life The Battle for Iron in Living Systems

A Closer Look Charge-Transfer Color


24  The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry

24.1   General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

The Structures of Organic Molecules  

The Stability of Organic Compounds   

Solubility and Acid—Base Properties of Organic Compounds

24.2   Introduction to Hydrocarbons 

Structures of Alkanes

Structural Isomers 

Nomenclature of Alkanes


Reactions of Alkanes

24.3   Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Hydrocarbons           



Addition Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes  

Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Stabilization of p Electrons by Delocalization

Substitution Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons 

24.4   Organic Functional Groups



Aldehydes and Ketones 

Carboxylic Acids and Esters 

Amines and Amides 

24.5   Chirality in Organic Chemistry

24.6   Introduction to Biochemistry   

24.7   Proteins 

Amino Acids   

Polypeptides and Proteins   

Protein Structure   

24.8   Carbohydrates



24.9   Lipids  



24.10 Nucleic Acids  

Design an Experiment 

Chemistry Put To Work Gasoline

A Closer Look Mechanism of Addition Reactions




Mathematical Operations

Properties of Water

Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25 °C)             

Aqueous Equilibrium Constants      

Standard Reduction Potentials at 25 °C

Answers to Selected Exercises

Answers to Give It Some Thought

Answers to Go Figure

Answer to Selected Practice Exercises


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