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9781119591146

Chemistry Essentials for Dummies

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781119591146

  • ISBN10:

    1119591147

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2019-05-14
  • Publisher: For Dummies

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Summary

Chemistry Essentials For Dummies (9781119591146) was previously published as Chemistry Essentials For Dummies (9780470618363). While this version features a new Dummies cover and design, the content is the same as the prior release and should not be considered a new or updated product.

Whether studying chemistry as part of a degree requirement or as part of a core curriculum, students will find Chemistry Essentials For Dummies to be an invaluable quick reference guide to the fundamentals of this often challenging course. Chemistry Essentials For Dummies contains content focused on key topics only, with discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in a typical two-semester high school chemistry class or a college level Chemistry I course, from bonds and reactions to acids, bases, and the mole. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical chemistry concepts as they help high school students with homework assignments, as well as for adult learners headed back into the classroom who just need to a refresher of the core concepts.

The Essentials For Dummies Series
Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.

Author Biography

John T. Moore, EdD, is Regents Professor of Chemistry Emeritus and Coordinator of STEM Activities at Stephen F. Austin State University. He is the author of Chemistry For Dummies and coauthor of Biochemistry For Dummies.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

About This Book 1

Conventions Used in This Book 2

Foolish Assumptions 2

Icons Used in This Book 3

Where to Go from Here 3

Chapter 1: Matter and Energy: Exploring the Stuff of Chemistry 5

Knowing the States of Matter and Their Changes 6

Solids, liquids, and gases 6

Condensing and freezing 7

Melting and boiling 8

Skipping liquids: Sublimation 9

Pure Substances and Mixtures 9

Pure substances 10

Throwing mixtures into the mix 11

Measuring Matter 12

Nice Properties You’ve Got There 13

Energy Types 14

Kinetic energy 14

Potential energy 15

Temperature and Heat 15

Chapter 2: What’s in an Atom? 17

Subatomic Particles 17

Centering on the Nucleus 19

Locating Those Electrons 21

The quantum mechanical model 21

Energy level diagrams 26

Isotopes and Ions 30

Isotopes: Varying neutrons 31

Ions: Varying electrons 32

Chapter 3: The Periodic Table 35

Repeating Patterns: The Modern Periodic Table 35

Arranging Elements in the Periodic Table 38

Grouping metals, nonmetals, and metalloids 38

Arranging elements by families and periods 41

Chapter 4: Nuclear Chemistry 43

Seeing How the Atom’s Put Together 43

Dealing with a Nuclear Breakup: Balancing Reactions 44

Understanding Types of Natural Radioactive Decay 46

Alpha emission 47

Beta emission 48

Gamma emission 48

Positron emission 48

Electron capture 49

Half-Lives and Radioactive Dating 49

Calculating remaining radioactivity 50

Radioactive dating 51

Breaking Elements Apart with Nuclear Fission 51

Mass defect: Where does all that energy come from? 52

Chain reactions and critical mass 52

Coming Together with Nuclear Fusion 53

Chapter 5: Ionic Bonding 55

Forming Ions: Making Satisfying Electron Trades 55

Gaining and losing electrons 56

Looking at charges on single-atom ions 58

Grouping atoms to form polyatomic ions 61

Creating Ionic Compounds 63

Making the bond: Sodium metal + chlorine gas = sodium chloride 63

Figuring out the formulas of ionic compounds 64

Naming ionic compounds 66

Bonding Clues: Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 68

Chapter 6: Covalent Bonding 69

Covalent Bond Basics 69

Sharing electrons: A hydrogen example 69

Comparing covalent bonds with other bonds 71

Dealing with multiple bonds 72

Naming Covalent Compounds Made of Two Elements 73

Writing Covalent Compound Formulas 74

Empirical formulas 74

Molecular or true formulas 75

Structural formulas: Dots and dashes 75

Electronegativities: Which Atoms Have More Pull? 81

Predicting the type of bond 81

Polar covalent bonding: Creating partial charges 83

Attracting other molecules: Intermolecular forces 84

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions 87

Reactants and Products: Reading Chemical Equations 87

Collision Theory: How Reactions Occur 88

Hitting the right spot 89

Adding, releasing, and absorbing energy 90

Types of Reactions 92

Combination reactions: Coming together 92

Decomposition reactions: Breaking down 93

Single displacement reactions: Kicking out another element 93

Double displacement reactions: Trading places 95

Combustion reactions: Burning 97

Redox reactions: Exchanging electrons 97

Balancing Chemical Equations 97

Balancing the Haber process 98

Balancing the burning of butane 99

Knowing Chemical Equilibrium Backward and Forward 100

Matching rates of change in the Haber process 101

Constants: Comparing amounts of products and reactants 102

Le Chatelier’s Principle: Getting More (or Less) Product 103

Changing the concentration 103

Changing the temperature 104

Changing the pressure 104

Chemical Kinetics: Changing Reaction Speeds 105

Seeing How Catalysts Speed Up Reactions 107

Heterogeneous catalysis: Giving reactants a better target 108

Homogeneous catalysis: Offering an easier path 108

Chapter 8: Electrochemistry: Using Electrons 111

Transferring Electrons with Redox Reactions 111

Oxidation 112

Reduction 113

One’s loss is the other’s gain 114

Oxidation numbers 115

Balancing Redox Equations 116

Exploring Electrochemical Cells 120

Galvanic cells: Getting electricity from chemical reactions 121

Electrolytic cells: Getting chemical reactions from electricity 122

Having it both ways with rechargeable batteries 123

Chapter 9: Measuring Substances with the Mole 125

Counting by Weighing 125

Moles: Putting Avogadro’s Number to Good Use 127

Defining the mole 127

Calculating weight, particles, and moles 128

Finding formulas of compounds 129

Chemical Reactions and Moles 130

Reaction stoichiometry 131

Percent yield 132

Limiting reactants 133

Chapter 10: A Salute to Solutions 135

Mixing Things Up with Solutes, Solvents, and Solutions 135

How dissolving happens 136

Concentration limits 136

Saturated facts 137

Understanding Solution Concentration Units 138

Percent composition 138

Molarity: Comparing solute to solution 140

Molality: Comparing solute to solvent 143

Parts per million 143

Chapter 11: Acids and Bases 145

Observing Properties of Acids and Bases 145

The Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory 146

Understanding Strong and Weak Acids and Bases 147

Strong: Ionizing all the way 147

Weak: Ionizing partially 149

Acid-Base Reactions: Using the Brønsted-Lowry System 151

Acting as either an acid or base: Amphoteric water 152

Showing True Colors with Acid-Base Indicators 153

Doing a quick color test with litmus paper 153

Phenolphthalein: Finding concentration with titration 154

Phun with the pH Scale 155

Chapter 12: Clearing the Air on Gases 159

The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Assuming Things about Gases 159

Relating Physical Properties with Gas Laws 162

Boyle’s Law: Pressure and volume 163

Charles’s Law: Volume and temperature 164

Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure and temperature 165

The combined gas law: Pressure, volume, and temp 166

Avogadro’s Law: The amount of gas 167

The ideal gas equation: Putting it all together 168

Chapter 13: Ten Serendipitous Discoveries in Chemistry 171

Archimedes: Streaking Around 171

Vulcanization of Rubber 172

Molecular Geometry 172

Mauve Dye 172

Kekulé: The Beautiful Dreamer 173

Discovering Radioactivity 173

Finding Really Slick Stuff: Teflon 173

Stick ’Em Up! Sticky Notes 174

Growing Hair 174

Sweeter than Sugar 174

Index 175

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