Chemistry in the Laboratory

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Copyright: 2016-10-17
  • Publisher: W. H. Freeman

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Supplemental Materials

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Author Biography

Dr. James Postma is a physical chemist at California State University, Chico.  He received his Ph.D. from UC Davis in 1982, studying electrochemistry with Dr. Peter Rock to evaluate the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation.  He joined the faculty at CSU, Chico in 1982 and teaches courses in physical and analytical chemistry as well as general chemistry courses.  He is the co-author of General Chemistry in the Laboratory, 7th edition, a widely-used laboratory textbook in freshman chemistry classes.  He is the chair-elect of the California Section of the American Chemical Society and is currently the Chair of the Academic Senate of the California State University system.  He has been a member of the California Science Project Advisory Board since 1995 and has chaired the Board since 2000.

Table of Contents


First-Day Instructions
Welcome to the Chemistry Lab

Experiment 1
Scientific Measurements

Experiment 2
Mass and Volume Relationships

Experiment 3
Forensic Chemistry:  Crime Scene Investigation

Experiment 4
Observing the Reactions of Household Chemicals
Deductive Chemical Reasoning

Experiment 5
A Cycle of Copper Reactions

Experiment 6
Synthesis of a Chemical Compound:  Making Alum from Aluminum

Experiment 7
The Chemistry of Oxygen:  Basic and Acidic Oxides and the Periodic Table

Experiment 8
Determination of a Chemical Formula
The Reaction of Iodine with Zinc

Experiment 9
Determination of a Chemical Formula by Titration
The Reaction of Calcium with Water

Study Assignment A
The Language of Chemistry:  Chemical Nomenclature

The Estimation of Avogadro’s Number

Experiment 11
The Molar Volume of Dioxygen and Other Gases

Experiment 12
The Molar Mass of a Gas
A Reduced Scale Method

Experiment 13
The Reactivity of Metals with Hydrochloric Acid

Experiment 14
The Heat Capacity of Metals

Enthalpy Changes in Chemical Reactions
Hess’s Law

Experiment 16
The Enthalpy of Combustion of a Vegetable Oil

Emission Spectra and the Electronic Structure of Atoms
The Hydrogen Atom Spectrum

Experiment 18
Ionic and Covalent Bonding
Conductivity of Solutions of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Study Assignment B
Writing Lewis Structures

Experiment 19
Models of Molecular Shapes
VSEPR Theory and Orbital Hybridization

Experiment 20
How much food dye is in your drink?
A Spectrophotometric Analysis

Experiment 21
Intermolecular Forces
Slime Gel:  Making and Killing Slime

Experiment 22
Liquids and Solids
The Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water
The Enthalpy of Fusion of Water

Experiment 23
Colligative Properties
The Molar Mass of a Soluble Substance by Freezing-Point Depression

Experiment 24
Some Examples of Chemical Equilibria
Le Chậtelier’s Principle

Experiment 25
Determination of an Equilibrium Constant by Spectrophotometry
The Iron(III)-Thiocyanate Complex Ion

Experiment 26
Factors Affecting the Rates of Chemical Reactions

Experiment 27
The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
Chemical Kinetics

Experiment 28
The pH Scale and Acid-Base Titrations
Standardization of NaOH Solution
The Titration of Vinegar and Stomach Antacids

Experiment 29
Determination of the Molar Mass and Ionization Constant of a Weak Acid

Experiment 30 
Preparing and Exploring the Properties of Buffers

Experiment 31
What’s in Your Drinking Water?
Comparing Tap and Bottled Water

Experiment 32
The Solubility Product Constant of Calcium Iodate, Ca(IO3)2

Experiment 33
Identification of the Alkaline Earth and Alkali Metal Ions
Analysis of Cations in Seawater

Experiment 34
The Qualitative Analysis of Some Common Anions
Analysis of Anions in Seawater

Experiment 35
An Introduction to Green Chemistry
Making Biodiesel and Soap from Vegetable Oils and Fats

Experiment 36
Electron Transfer Reactions

Experiment 37
Redox Titrations
The Oxidizing Capacity of a Household Cleanser or Liquid Bleach

Experiment 38
Electrochemical Cells

Experiment 39
Electrochemical Puzzles
Metal Corrosion and Anodic Protection
The Golden Penny Experiment

Experiment 40
The Chemistry of Some Nonmetals:  Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Chlorine

Experiment 41
Equilibria of Coordination Compounds

Experiment 42
 Environmental Aspects of Carbon Dioxide Reactivity

Experiment 43
Natural Radioactivity
 The Half-Life of Potassium-40 in Potassium Chloride

Appendix:  Tables of Data
Table 1. The International System (SI) of Units and Conversion Factors
Table 2. Fundamental Physical and Mathematical Constants
Table 3. Vapor Pressure of Water at Different Temperatures
Table 4. Concentration of Desk Acid and Base Solutions
Table 5. Color Changes and pH Intervals of Some Important Indicators
Table 6. Equilibrium Constants for the Ionization of Acids and Bases (25 ºC)
Table 7. Equilibrium Constants for the Dissociation of Complex Ions, Amphoteric Hydroxides, and Weakly Ionized Salts (25 ºC)
Table 8. Solubility of Some Common Salts and Hydroxides at Approximately 25 ºC
Table 9. Solubility Product Constants (18-25 ºC)
Table 10. Standard Reduction Potentials (25 ºC)
Table 11. International Atomic Masses (Based on C12 = 12 exactly)
Table 12. Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry
Table 13. Graphing using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet


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