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Child Development

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205355044

ISBN10:
0205355048
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $111.00
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Summary

Long considered the gold standard, the sixth edition of this best-selling topical approach to child development continues its tradition of being the most current and comprehensive text available. Laura Berk, renowned professor and researcher in the field of child development, has revised the text with new pedagogy, a heightened emphasis on the interplay between biology and environment, expanded coverage of culture, and an enhanced focus on education, health, and social issues. Students are provided with an especially clear and coherent understanding of the sequence and underlying processes of child development, and the effective topical organization emphasizes to students the interrelatedness of all domains of development physical, cognitive, emotional, and socialthroughout the text narrative and in special features. While carefully considering the complexities of child development, Berk presents classic and emerging theories in an especially clear, engaging writing style, with a multitude of research-based and real-world examples. Strengthening the connections between application and theory or research, this edition's extensive revision brings forth the most recent scholarship in the field, representing the changing field of child development.

Author Biography

Laura E. Berk is a distinguished professor of psychology at Illinois State University, where she teaches child development to both undergraduate and graduate students.

Table of Contents

A Personal Note to Students xiv
Preface for Instructors xv
PART I: THEORY AND RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT 2(66)
History, Theory, and Applied Directions
2(38)
Child Development as a Scientific, Applied, and Interdisciplinary Field
4(2)
Domains of Development
5(1)
Periods of Development
5(1)
Basic Issues
6(5)
Continuous or Discontinuous Development?
6(2)
One Course of Development or Many?
8(1)
Nature or Nurture as More Important?
8(1)
A Balanced Point of View
9(1)
Biology & Environment: Resilient Children
10(1)
Historical Foundations
11(5)
Medieval Times
11(1)
The Reformation
11(1)
Philosophies of the Enlightenment
11(1)
Darwin: Forefather of Scientific Child Study
12(1)
Scientific Beginnings
13(2)
From Research to Practice: Social Change and the Popular Literature on Parenting
15(1)
Mid-Twentieth-Century Theories
16(6)
The Psychoanalytic Perspective
16(2)
Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory
18(2)
Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory
20(2)
Recent Theoretical Perspectives
22(9)
Information Processing
22(2)
Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
24(1)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
25(2)
Cultural Influences: !Kung Infancy: Acquiring Culture
27(1)
Ecological Systems Theory
27(2)
New Directions: Development as a Dynamic System
29(2)
Comparing Child Development Theories
31(1)
Applied Directions: Child Development and Social Policy
31(7)
The Policy-Making Process
34(2)
Progress in Meeting the Needs of American Children
36(1)
Social Issues: Education: The Access Program: A Community-Researcher Partnership
37(1)
Summary
38(1)
Important Terms and Concepts
39(1)
Research Strategies
40(28)
From Theory to Hypothesis
42(1)
Common Methods Used to Study Children
43(9)
Systematic Observation
44(1)
Self-Reports: Interviews and Questionnaires
45(2)
Psychophysiological Methods
47(1)
The Clinical, or Case Study, Method
48(1)
Methods for Studying Culture
48(1)
Biography & Environment: Case Studies of Prodigies
49(1)
Social Issues: Education: Immigrant Youths: Amazing Adaptation
50(2)
Reliability and Validity: Keys to Scientifically Sound Research
52(1)
Reliability
52(1)
Validity
53(1)
General Research Designs
53(4)
Correlational Design
53(1)
Experimental Design
54(1)
Modified Experimental Designs
55(2)
Designs for Studying Development
57(6)
The Longitudinal Design
57(1)
The Cross-Sectional Design
58(1)
Cultural Influences: Impact of Historical Times on Development: The Great Depression and World War II
59(1)
Improving Developmental Designs
60(3)
Ethics in Research on Children
63(3)
From Research to Practice: Children's Research Risks: Developmental and Individual Differences
65(1)
Summary
66(1)
Important Terms and Concepts
67(1)
PART II: FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT 68(148)
Biological foundations, Prenatal Development, and Birth
68(54)
Genetic Foundations
70(10)
The Genetic Code
70(1)
The Sex Cells
71(2)
Multiple Offspring
73(1)
Boy or Girl?
74(1)
Patterns of Genetic Inheritance
74(4)
Chromosomal Abnormalities
78(2)
Reproductive Choices
80(5)
Genetic Counseling
80(1)
Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Medicine
81(1)
Social Issues: Health: The Pros and Cons of Reproductive Technologies
82(3)
Prenatal Development
85(6)
Conception
85(1)
Milestones: Prenatal Development
86(1)
The Period of the Zygote
87(1)
The Period of the Embryo
88(1)
The Period of the Fetus
89(2)
Prenatal Environmental Influences
91(10)
Teratogens
91(7)
Other Maternal Factors
98(3)
Childbirth
101(3)
The Baby's Adaptation to Labor and Delivery
102(1)
Biology & Environment: What Controls the Timing of Birth?
102(1)
The Newborn Baby's Appearance
103(1)
Assessing the Newborn's Physical Condition: The Apgar Scale
104(1)
Approaches to Childbirth
104(3)
Natural, or Prepared, Childbirth
105(1)
Home Delivery
106(1)
Labor and Delivery Medication
106(1)
Birth Complications
107(5)
Oxygen Deprivation
107(1)
Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants
108(3)
Understanding Birth Complications
111(1)
Cultural Influences: A Cross-National Perspective on Health Care and Other Policies for Parents and Newborn Babies
112(1)
Heredity, Environment, and Behavior: As Look Ahead
112(7)
The Question, ``How Much?''
114(2)
The Question, ``How?''
116(2)
Biology & Environment: Uncoupling Genetic-Environmental Correlations for Mental Illness and Antisocial Behavior
118(1)
Summary
119(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
121(1)
Infancy: Early Learning, Motor Skills, and Perceptual Capacities
122(46)
The Organized Newborn
124(15)
Newborn Reflexes
124(2)
Newborn States
126(1)
Cultural Influences: Cultural Variation in Infant Sleeping Arrangements
127(3)
Social Issues: Health: The Mysterious Tragedy of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
130(3)
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment
133(1)
Learning Capacities
134(5)
Motor Development in Infancy
139(6)
The Sequence of Motor Development
139(1)
Milestones: Gross and Fine Motor Development in the First 2 Years
140(1)
Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems
140(2)
Fine Motor Development: Reaching and Grasping
142(3)
Perceptual Development in Infancy
145(18)
Touch
145(1)
Taste and Smell
146(1)
Balance and Self-Movement
147(1)
Hearing
148(1)
From Research to Practice: Impact of Early Hearing Loss on Development: The Case of Otitis Media
149(1)
Milestones: Development o f Touch, Taste, Smell, Balance/Self Movement, and Hearing
150(1)
Vision
150(4)
Biology & Environment: Development of Infants with Severe Visual Impairments
154(5)
Intermodal Perception
159(1)
Milestones: Visual Development in Infancy
160(1)
Understanding Perceptual Development
161(2)
Early Deprivation and Enrichment: Is Infancy a Sensitive Period of Development?
163(2)
Summary
165(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
167(1)
Physical Growth
168(48)
The Course of Physical Growth
170(11)
Changes in Body Size
170(1)
Changes in Body Proportions
171(1)
Changes in Muscle-Fat Makeup
172(1)
Changes in Gross Motor Skills
173(1)
Skeletal Growth
173(1)
Milestones: Gross Motor Development in Early and Middle Childhood
174(1)
Hormonal Influences on Physical Growth
175(1)
From Research to Practice: Sex Differences in Gross Motor Development
176(2)
Worldwide Variations in Body Size
178(2)
Secular Trends
180(1)
Asynchronies in Physical Growth
180(1)
Development of the Brain
181(5)
Development of Neurons
181(1)
Development of the Cerebral Cortex
182(3)
Other Advances in Brain Development
185(1)
Brain Growth Spurts and Sensitive Periods of Development
185(1)
Factors Affecting Physical Growth
186(7)
Heredity
186(1)
Nutrition
187(4)
Infectious Disease
191(1)
Emotional Well-Being
192(1)
Puberty: The Physical Transition to Adulthood
193(3)
Milestones: Pubertal Development in North American Boys and Girls
194(1)
Sexual Maturation in Girls
194(1)
Sexual Maturation in Boys
195(1)
Individual and Group Differences in Pubertal Growth
195(1)
The Psychological Impact of Pubertal Events
196(6)
Is Puberty an Inevitable Period of Storm and Stress?
196(1)
Reactions to Pubertal Changes
196(1)
Pubertal Change, Emotion, and Social Behavior
197(1)
Cultural Influences: Adolescent Initiation Ceremonies
198(3)
Early versus Late Maturation
201(1)
Puberty and Adolescent Health
202(11)
Eating Disorders
203(1)
Sexuality
204(3)
Biology & Environment: Homosexuality: Coming Out to Oneself and Others
207(1)
Sexually Transmitted Disease
208(1)
Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood
208(2)
Social Issues: Health: Like Mother, Like Child: Intergenerational Continuity in Adolescent Parenthood
210(2)
A Concluding Note
212(1)
Summary
213(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
215(1)
PART III: COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 216(176)
Cognitive Development: Piagetian, Core Knowledge, and Vygotskian Perspectives
216(52)
Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory
218(2)
Basic Characteristics of Piaget's States
219(1)
Piaget's Ideas About Cognitive Change
219(1)
The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 Years)
220(9)
Sensorimotor Development
220(2)
Follow-up Research on Infant Cognitive Development
222(5)
Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage
227(1)
Milestones: Some Cognitive Attainments Infancy
228(1)
The Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years)
229(12)
Advances in Mental Representation
230(4)
Limitations of Preoperational Thought
234(1)
Follow-up Research on Preoperational Thought
235(4)
Evaluation of the Preoperational Stage
239(1)
Milestones: Some Cognitive Attainments of Early Childhood
240(1)
The Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years)
241(4)
Concrete Operational Thought
241(1)
Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought
242(1)
Follow-up Research on Concrete Operational Thought
243(1)
Milestones: Some Cognitive Attainments of Middle Childhood and Adolescence
244(1)
The Formal Operational Stage (11 Years and Older)
245(4)
Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning
245(1)
Propositional Thought
246(1)
Consequences of Abstract Thought
246(1)
Follow-up Research on Formal Operational Thought
247(2)
Piaget and Education
249(1)
Overall Evaluation of Piaget's Theory
250(1)
Is Piaget's Account of Cognitive Change Clear and Accurate?
250(1)
Does Cognitive Development Take Place in Stages?
250(1)
Piaget's Legacy
251(1)
The Core Knowledge Perspective
251(5)
Infancy: Physical and Numerical Knowledge
252(1)
Children as Naive Theorists
253(1)
Evaluation of the Core Knowledge Perspective
254(1)
Biology & Environment: Children's Understanding of Health and Illness
255(1)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
256(4)
Children's Private Speech
257(1)
Social Origins of Cognitive Development
258(1)
Vygotsky's View of Make-Believe Play
259(1)
From Research to Practice: Social Origins of Make-Believe Play
260(1)
Vygotsky and Education
260(3)
Reciprocal Teaching
261(1)
Cooperative Learning
262(1)
Evaluation of Vygotsky's Theory
263(2)
Cultural Influences: Young Children's Life in a Yucatec Mayan Village
264(1)
Summary
265(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
267(1)
Cognitive Development: An Information-Processing Perspective
268(42)
The Information-Processing Approach
270(1)
General Models of Information Processing
270(4)
The Store Model
271(2)
Connectionism
273(1)
Developmental Theories of Information Processing
274(4)
Case's Neo-Piagetian Theory
274(2)
Siegler's Model of Strategy Choice
276(2)
From Research to Practice: Speech-Gesture Mismatches: Using the Hand to Read the Mind
278(1)
Attention
278(4)
Selectivity and Adaptability
279(1)
Planning
280(2)
Biology & Environment: Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
282(1)
Memory
282(12)
Strategies for Storing Information
282(3)
Retrieving Information
285(3)
The Knowledge Base and Memory Performance
288(1)
Scripts: Basic Building Blocks of Structured Knowledge
289(1)
Autobiographical Memory
289(3)
Social Issues: Health: Children's Eyewitness Memory
292(2)
Metacognition
294(4)
Metacognitive Knowledge
294(2)
Cognitive Self-Regulation
296(1)
Milestones: Development of Information Processing
297(1)
Applications of Information Processing to Academic Learning
298(7)
Reading
298(2)
Social Issues: Education: Teaching First Graders to Read Instruction That Works
300(1)
Mathematics
301(1)
Scientific Reasoning
302(1)
Cultural Influences: Asian Children's Understanding of Multidigit Addition and Subtraction
303(2)
Evaluation of the Information-Processing Approach
305(1)
Summary
306(3)
Important Terms and Concepts
309(1)
Intelligence
310(42)
Definitions of Intelligence
312(4)
Alfred Binet: A Holistic View
312(1)
The Factor Analysts: A Multifaceted View
313(3)
Recent Advances in Defining Intelligence
316(4)
Combining Psychometric and Information-Processing Approaches
316(1)
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
317(1)
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
318(2)
From Research to Practice: Social and Emotional Intelligence
320(1)
Representative Intelligence Tests for Children
320(3)
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
322(1)
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
322(1)
Infant Intelligence Tests
322(1)
The Computation and Distribution of IQ Scores
323(1)
What and How Well Do Intelligence Tests Predict?
324(4)
Stability of IQ Scores
324(1)
IQ as a Predictor of Academic Achievement
325(1)
Cultural Influences: Does Schooling Influence IQ?
326(1)
IQ as a Predictor of Occupational Attainment
327(1)
IQ as a Predictor of Psychological Adjustment
327(1)
Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in IQ
328(2)
Differences in General Intelligence
329(1)
Differences in Specific Mental Abilities
329(1)
Explaining Individual and Group Differences in IQ
330(12)
Genetic Influences
330(4)
Ethnicity: Genetic or Cultural Groupings?
334(1)
Test Bias
334(1)
Biology & Environment: The Flynn Effect: Massive Generational Gains in IQ
335(2)
Reducing Test Bias
337(1)
Home Environment and IQ
338(1)
From Research to Practice: Authentic Assessment
339(3)
Early Intervention and Intellectual Development
342(3)
Benefits of Early Intervention
342(2)
Social Issues: Education: The Carolina Abecedarian Project: A Model of Early Intervention
344(1)
The Future of Early Intervention
345(1)
Development of Creativity
345(4)
The Psychometric View
346(1)
A Multifaceted View
346(3)
Summary
349(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
351(1)
Language Development
352(40)
Components of Language
354(1)
Theories of Language Development
355(8)
The Behaviorist Perspective
355(1)
Cultural Influences: Children Invent Language: Homesign and Hawaiian Creole English
356(1)
The Nativist Perspective
356(5)
The Interactionist Perspective
361(1)
Biology & Environment: Language Development in Children with Williams Syndrome
362(1)
Prelinguistic Development: Getting Ready to Talk
363(5)
Receptivity to Language
363(2)
First Speech Sounds
365(1)
Becoming a Communicator
365(2)
From Research to Practice: Parent-Child Interaction: Impact on Language and Cognitive Development of Deaf Children
367(1)
Phonological Development
368(1)
The Early Phase
368(1)
Appearance of Phonological Strategies
368(1)
Later Phonological Development
369(1)
Semantic Development
369(7)
The Early Phase
370(3)
Later Semantic Development
373(1)
Ideas About How Semantic Development Takes Place
374(2)
Grammatical Development
376(6)
First Word Combinations
376(1)
From Simple Sentences to Complex Grammar
377(1)
Development of Complex Grammatical Forms
378(1)
Later Grammatical Development
379(1)
Ideas About How Grammatical Development Takes Place
380(2)
Pragmatic Development
382(3)
Acquiring Conversational Skills
382(1)
Communicating Clearly
383(1)
Sociolinguistic Understanding
384(1)
Development of Metalinguistic Awareness
385(2)
Milestones: Language Development
386(1)
Bilingualism: Learning Two Languages in Childhood
387(3)
Social Issues: Education: Bilingual Education
389(1)
Summary
390(1)
Important Terms and Concepts
391(1)
PART IV: PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 392(164)
Emotional Development
392(42)
The Functions of Emotions
394(3)
Emotions and Cognitive Processing
394(1)
Emotions and Social Behavior
395(1)
Emotions and Health
395(1)
From Research to Practice: Maternal Depression and Child Development
396(1)
Other Features of the Functionalist Approach
397(1)
Development of Emotional Expression
397(7)
Happiness
398(1)
Anger and Sadness
399(1)
Fear
399(1)
Self-Conscious Emotions
400(1)
Emotional Self-Regulation
401(2)
Acquiring Emotional Display Rules
403(1)
Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others
404(4)
Social Referencing
404(1)
Emotional Understanding in Childhood
405(2)
Empathy and Sympathy
407(1)
Temperament and Development
408(9)
Milestones: Emotional Development
409(1)
The Structure of Temperament
410(1)
Measuring Temperament
411(1)
Biology & Environment: Biological Basis of Shyness and Sociability
412(1)
Stability of Temperament
412(2)
Genetic and Environmental Influences
414(1)
Temperament as a Predictor of Children's Behavior
415(1)
Temperament and Child Rearing: The Goodness-of Fit Model
416(1)
Development of Attachment
417(11)
Bowlby's Ethological Theory
417(2)
Measuring the Security of Attachment
419(1)
Stability of Attachment
420(1)
Cultural Variations
421(1)
Factors That Affect Attachment Security
422(3)
Multiple Attachments: The Father's Special Role
425(1)
Attachment and Later Development
426(1)
Cultural Influences: Father-Infant Relationships Among the Aka
427(1)
Attachment, Parental Employment, and Child Care
428(3)
Social Issues: Health: Does Child Care in Infancy Threaten Attachment Security and Later Adjustment?
428(3)
Summary
431(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
433(1)
Self and Social Understanding
434(40)
Emergence of Self and Development of Self Concept
436(11)
Self-Awareness
437(2)
The Categorical and Remembered Selves
439(1)
The Inner Self: Young Children's Theory of Mind
439(1)
Cultural Influences: Cultural Variations in Personal Storytelling Implication for Early Self-Concept
440(3)
Biology & Environment: ``Mindblindness'' and Autism
443(1)
Self-Concept
444(1)
Cognitive, Social, and Cultural Influences on Self Concept
445(2)
Milestones: Emergence of Self and Development of Self-Concept
447(1)
Self-Esteem: The Evaluative Side of Self-Concept
447(9)
One Self-Esteem or Many?
448(1)
Changes in Level of Self-Esteem: The Role of Social Comparisons
449(1)
Influences on Self Esteem
449(1)
From Research to Practice: How Should Parents Boost Their Children's Self-Esteem?
450(2)
Achievement-Related Attributions
452(3)
Milestones: Development of Self-Esteem
455(1)
Constructing an Identity: Who Should I Become?
456(6)
Paths to Identity
457(1)
Social Issues: Health: Adolescent Suicide: Annihilation of the Self
458(1)
Identity Status and Psychological Well-Being
458(2)
Influences on Identity Development
460(1)
Cultural Influences: Identity Development Among Ethnic Minority Adolescents
461(1)
Thinking About Other People
462(6)
Understanding Intentions
462(1)
Person Perception
463(2)
Perspective Taking
465(3)
Thinking About Relations Between People: Understanding Conflict
468(3)
Social Problem Solving
469(1)
Development of Social Problem Solving
470(1)
Training Social Problem Solving
470(1)
Summary
471(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
473(1)
Moral Development
474(44)
Morality as Rooted in Human Nature
476(1)
Morality as the Adoption of Societal Norms
477(7)
Psychoanalytic Theory
478(2)
From Research to Practice: Temperament and Moral Internalization in Young Children
480(1)
Social Learning Theory
481(2)
Limitations of ``Morality as the Adoption of Societal Norms'' Perspective
483(1)
Morality as Social Understanding
484(14)
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development
485(1)
Evaluation of Piaget's Theory
485(2)
Kohlberg's Extension of Piaget's Theory
487(3)
Research on Kohlberg's Stages
490(2)
Are There Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning?
492(1)
Influences on Moral Reasoning
493(2)
Moral Reasoning and Behavior
495(1)
Social Issues: Education: Development of Civic Responsibility-
496(1)
Further Questions about Kohlberg's Theory
497(1)
Moral Reasoning of Young Children
498(4)
Distinguishing Moral, Social-Conventional, and Personal Domains
498(2)
Social Issues: Education: Children's Environmental Moral Reasoning
500(1)
Distributive Justice
501(2)
Milestones: Internalization of Moral Norms and Development of Moral Understanding
503
Development of Self-Control
502(5)
Beginnings of Self-Control
503(1)
Development of Self-Control in Childhood and Adolescence
504(2)
Milestones: Development of Self-Control and Aggression
506(1)
The Other Side of Self-Control: Development of Aggression
507(8)
Emergence of Aggression
507(1)
Aggression in Early and Middle Childhood
507(1)
Aggression and Delinquency in Adolescence
508(1)
Stability of Aggression
508(1)
The Family as Training Ground for Aggressive Behavior
509(1)
Biology & Environment: Two Routes to Adolescent Delinquency
510(1)
Social-Cognitive Deficits and Distortions
511(1)
Community and Cultural influences
512(1)
Cultural Influences: Impact of Ethnic and Political Violence on Children
513
Helping Children and Parents Control Aggression
512(3)
Summary
515(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
517(1)
Development of Sex Differences and Gender Roles
518(38)
Gender Stereotypes and Gender Roles
520(6)
Gender Stereotyping in Early Childhood
522(1)
Gender Stereotyping in Middle Childhood and Adolescence
523(1)
Individual and Group Differences in Gender Stereotyping
524(1)
Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Role Adoption
525(1)
Influences on Gender Stereotyping and Gender-Role Adoption
526(11)
The Case for Biology
526(1)
Cultural Influences: Sweden's Commitment to Gender Equality
527(3)
Biology & Environment: David: A Boy Reared as a Girl
530(1)
The Case for Environment
530(7)
Gender Identity
537(7)
Emergence of Gender Identity
538(1)
Gender Identity During Middle Childhood
539(1)
Gender Identity During Adolescence
540(1)
Gender Schema Theory
540(2)
From Research to Practice: Reducing Gender Schematic Thinking with Cognitive Interventions
542(1)
Milestones: Gender Typing
543(1)
To What Extent Do Boys and Girls Really Differ in Gender-Stereotyped Attributes?
544(9)
Mental Abilities
545(1)
Biology & Environment: Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities
546(2)
Personality Traits
548(4)
Developing Non-Gender-Stereotyped Children
552(1)
Summary
553(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
555(1)
PART V: CONTEXTS FOR DEVELOPMENT 556(1)
The Family
556(2)
Evolutionary Origins
558(1)
Functions of the Family
559(1)
The Family as a Social System
559(1)
Direct Influences
560(1)
Indirect Influences
560(1)
From Research to Practice: The Transition to Parenthood
561(1)
Adapting to Change
562(1)
The Family System in Context
562(1)
Socialization Within the Family
563(1)
Styles of Child Rearing
563(3)
What Makes the Authoritative Style Effective?
566(1)
Adapting Child Rearing to Children's Development
567(1)
Biology & Environment: Do Parents Really Matter?
568(1)
Socioeconomic and Ethnic Variations in Child Rearing
569(3)
Cultural Influences: The African-American Extended Family
572(1)
Family Lifestyles and Transitions
573(1)
From Large to Small Families
573(2)
One-Child Families
575(1)
Adoptive Families
576(1)
Gay and Lesbian Families
577(1)
Never-Married Single-Parent Families
577(1)
Divorce
578(3)
Blended Families
581(2)
Maternal Employment and Dual-Earner Families
583(1)
Child Care
584(2)
Self-Care
586(1)
Vulnerable Families: Child Maltreatment
587(1)
Incidence and Definitions
587(1)
Origins of Child Maltreatment
587(1)
Social Issues: Health: Child Sexual Abuse
588(3)
Consequences of Child Maltreatment
591(1)
Preventing Child Maltreatment
591(2)
Summary
593(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
595(1)
Peers, Media, and Schooling
596(2)
The Importance of Peer Relations
598(1)
Development of Peer Sociability
599(1)
Infant and Toddler Beginnings
599(1)
The Preschool Years
599(1)
Middle Childhood and Adolescence
600(1)
Influences on Peer Sociability
601(1)
Direct Parental Influences
602(1)
Indirect Parental Influences
602(1)
Age Mix of Children
603(1)
Cultural Values
603(1)
Friendship
604(1)
Thinking About Friendship
604(1)
Characteristics of Friendships
605(3)
Friendship and Adjustment
608(1)
Peer Acceptance
609(1)
Origins of Acceptance in the Peer Situation
609(2)
Biology & Environment: Peer Victimization
611(1)
Helping Rejected Children
612(1)
Peer Groups
613(1)
First Peer Groups
613(1)
Cliques and Crowds
614(1)
Peer Relations and Socialization
615(1)
Peer Reinforcement and Modeling
615(1)
Peer Conformity
615(1)
From Research to Practice: Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse
616(2)
Milestones: Development of Peer Relations
618(1)
Television
619(1)
How Much Television Do Children View?
619(1)
Development of Television Literacy
619(1)
Television and Social Learning
620(2)
Television, Academic Learning, and Imagination
622(1)
Regulating Children's Television
623(1)
Computers
624(1)
Computers and Academic Learning
624(1)
Computers and Social Learning
625(1)
Schooling
626(1)
Class and Student Body Size
626(1)
Educational Philosophies
627(1)
Social Issues: Education: When Are Children Ready for School? Academic Redshirting and Early Retention
628(1)
School Transitions
629(3)
Teacher-Student Interaction
632(1)
Grouping Practices
633(1)
Teaching Students with Special Needs
634(1)
Parent-School Partnerships
635(1)
How Well Educated Are American Young People?
636(1)
Cross-National Research on Academic Achievement
636(1)
Cultural Influences: Education in Japan, Taiwan, and the United States
636(2)
Making the Transition from School to Work
638(2)
Summary
640(2)
Important Terms and Concepts
642


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