On China

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2011-05-17
  • Publisher: Penguin Group USA

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The eminent historian and strategist reflects on how China's past illuminates its twenty-first-century trajectory, drawing on forty years of intimate acquaintance with the country and its leaders. In Untitled on China, Henry Kissinger turns for the first time at book length to the country he has known intimately for decades and whose modern relations with the West he helped shape. Drawing on historical records as well as on his conversations with Chinese leaders over the past forty years, Kissinger examines how China has approached diplomacy, strategy, and negotiation throughout its history and reflects on the consequences for the twenty-first-century world. As Kissinger underscores, the unique conditions under which China developed continue to shape its policies and attitudes toward the outside world. For centuries, China rarely encountered other societies of comparable size and sophistication. China was the "Middle Kingdom," treating the peoples on its periphery as vassal states. At the same time, Chinese statesmen-facing threats of invasion from without and the contests of competing factions within-developed a canon of strategic thought that prized the virtues of subtlety, patience, and indirection over feats of martial prowess. Untitled on Chinaexamines key episodes in Chinese foreign policy, from the earliest days through the twentieth century, with a particular emphasis on the modern era. Kissinger illuminates the inner workings of Chinese diplomacy during such events as the initial encounters between China and modern European powers, the formation and breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance, the Korean War, the opening of relations with the United States, the Tiananmen Square crackdown, and China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The book traces the evolution of Sino-American relations in the past sixty years, following their course from estrangement to strategic partnership and toward an uncertain future. Kissinger analyzes the two towering figures of the People's Republic of China, Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping, and their divergent visions of China's modern destiny. With a final chapter on China's twenty-first-century world role, Untitled on Chinaprovides a sweeping historical perspective on Chinese foreign policy from one of the premier statesmen of the twentieth century.

Author Biography

Henry Kissinger served as national security advisor and then secretary of state under Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford, and has advised many other American presidents on foreign policy. He received the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Medal of Liberty, among other awards. He is the author of numerous books and articles on foreign policy and diplomacy and is currently the chairman of Kissinger Associates, Inc., an international consulting firm.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Note on Chinese Sellingsp. xi
Prologuep. 1
The Singularity of Chinap. 5
The Era of Chinese Preeminencep. 8
Confucianismp. 13
Concepts of International Relations: Impartiality or Equality?p. 16
Chinese Realpolitik and Sun Tzu's Art of Warp. 22
The Kowtow Question and the Opium Warp. 33
The Macartney Missionp. 35
The Clash of Two World Orders: The Opium Warp. 45
Qiying's Diplomacy: Soothing the Barbariansp. 51
From Preeminence to Declinep. 57
Wei Yuan's Blueprint: "Using Barbarians Against Barbarians," Learning Their Techniquesp. 60
The Erosion of Authority: Domestic Upheavals and then Challenge of Foreign Encroachmentsp. 64
Managing Declinep. 69
The Challenge of Japanp. 77
Koreap. 80
The Boxer Uprising and the New Era of Warring Statesp. 86
Mao's Continuous Revolutionp. 91
Mao and the Great Harmonyp. 92
Mao and International Relations: The Empty City Stratagem, Chinese Deterrence, and the Quest for Psychological Advantagep. 97
The Continuous Revolution and the Chinese Peoplep. 106
Triangular Diplomacy and the Korean Warp. 113
Acheson and the Lure of Chinese Titoismp. 118
Kim Il-sung and the Outbreak of Warp. 122
American Intervention: Resisting Aggressionp. 129
Chinese Reactions: Another Approach to Deterrencep. 133
SinoAmerican Confrontationp. 143
China Confronts Both Superpowersp. 148
The First'Taiwan Strait Crisisp. 151
Diplomatic Interlude with the United Statesp. 158
Mao, Khrushchev, and the Sino-Soviet Splitp. 161
The Second Taiwan Strait Crisisp. 172
A Decade of Crisesp. 181
The Great Leap Forwardp. 181
The Himalayan Border Dispute and the 1962 Sino-Indian Warp. 184
The Cultural Revolutionp. 192
Was There a Lost Opportunity?p. 197
The Road to Reconciliationp. 202
The Chinese Strategyp. 203
The American Strategyp. 213
First Steps-Clashes at the Ussuri Riverp. 215
Resumption of Relations: First Encounters with Mao and Zhoup. 236
Zhou Enlaip. 241
Nixon in China: The Meeting with Maop. 255
The Nixon-Zhou Dialoguep. 262
The Shanghai Communiquep. 267
The Aftermathp. 273
The Quasi-Alliance: Conversations with Maop. 275
The "Horizontal Line": Chinese Approaches to Containmentp. 277
The Impact of Watergatep. 292
The End of the Mao Erap. 294
The Succession Crisisp. 294
The Fall of Zhou Enlaip. 297
Final Meetings with Mao: The Swallows and the Coming of the Stormp. 303
The Indestructible Dengp. 321
Deng's First Return to Powerp. 322
The Death of Leaders-Hua Guofengp. 327
Deng's Ascendance-"Reforrn and Opening Up"p. 329
"Touching the Tiger's Buttocks": The Third Vietnam Warp. 340
Vietnam: Confounder of Great Powersp. 341
Deng's Foreign Policy Dialogue with America and Normalizationp. 348
Deng's Journeysp. 356
Deng's Visit to America and the New Definition of Alliancep. 360
The Third Vietnam Warp. 367
Reagan and the Advent of Normalcyp. 377
Taiwan Arms Sales and the Third Communiquép. 381
China and the Superpowers-The New Equilibriump. 387
Deng's Reform Programp. 396
Tiananmenp. 408
American Dilemmasp. 411
The Fang Lizhi Controversyp. 428
The 12- and 24-Character Statementsp. 437
What Kind of Reform? Deng's Southern Tourp. 440
A Roller Coaster Ride Toward Another Reconciliation: The Jiang Zemin Erap. 447
China and the Disintegrating Soviet Unionp. 456
The Clinton Administration and China Policyp. 461
The Third Taiwan Strait Crisisp. 471
China's Resurgence and Jiang's Reflectionsp. 478
The New Millenniump. 487
Differences in Perspectivep. 493
How to Define Strategic Opportunityp. 497
The National Destiny Debate-The Triumphalist Viewp. 503
Dai Bingguo-A Reaffirmation of Peaceful Risep. 508
Epilogue: Does History Repeat Itself?
The Crowe Memorandump. 514
Toward a Pacific Community?p. 527
Notesp. 531
Indexp. 567
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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