9780521530828

Chinese: A Linguistic Introduction

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780521530828

  • ISBN10:

    0521530822

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-09-11
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

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Summary

Chinese is spoken by more people than any other language in the world, and has a rich social, cultural and historical background. This is a comprehensive guide to the linguistic structure of Chinese, providing an accessible introduction to each of the key areas. It describes the fundamentals of its writing system, its pronunciation and tonal sound system, its morphology (how words are structured), and its syntax (how sentences are formed) - as well as its historical development, and the diverse ways in which it interacts with other languages. Setting the discussion of all aspects of Chinese firmly within the context of the language in use, Chinese: A Linguistic Introduction will be of great benefit to learners wishing to extend their knowledge and competence in the language, and their teachers. It will also be a useful starting point for students of linguistics beginning work on the structure of this major world language.

Author Biography

Chaofen Sun is Associate Professor of Chinese in the Department of Asian Languages, Stanford University, and Adjunct Professor at East China Normal University, Shanghai

Table of Contents

List of maps viii
List of tables ix
List of figures x
Preface xi
Major chronological divisions of Chinese history xiii
Major periods of the Chinese language xiv
Introduction 1(12)
1 Historical background of the language 13(21)
1.1 Prehistoric time
13(1)
1.2 Oracle-bone and bronze scripts
14(1)
1.3 Old Chinese (771 BCE to 220 CE)
15(2)
1.4 Middle Chinese (220 CE to 960)
17(1)
1.5 Early modern Chinese (960 to 1900)
18(2)
1.6 Modern Chinese (1900 to present)
20(3)
1.7 Modern Chinese grammar and its lexicon
23(3)
1.8 Simplification of Chinese script
26(2)
1.9 Formation of Chinese dialects
28(6)
1.9.1 Northern Chinese (Mandarin)
29(1)
1.9.2 Southern dialects
30(4)
2 Phonetics of standard Chinese 34(11)
2.1 Initials
35(1)
2.2 Finals
36(2)
2.2.1 Medials (on-glide)
37(1)
2.2.2 Main vowels
37(1)
2.2.3 Syllabic terminals (off-glide)
38(1)
2.3 Rhotacization
38(1)
2.4 Tones
39(1)
2.5 Tone-sandhi
40(5)
3 Chinese morphology 1 45(30)
3.1 Compounding
49(7)
3.2 Derivation-like affixes
56(8)
3.2.1 Prefixes
56(2)
3.2.2 Suffixes
58(2)
3.2.3 Potential markers -de- and -bu- as infixes
60(4)
3.3 Inflection-like affixes
64(9)
3.3.1 Perfective marker -le
64(4)
3.3.2 Experiential marker -guo
68(2)
3.3.3 Imperfective marker -zhe
70(3)
3.4 Summary
73(2)
4 Chinese morphology 2 75(26)
4.1 Clitics
75(13)
4.1.1 Sentence-final particles
75(6)
4.1.2 Locative particles
81(7)
4.2 Reduplication
88(7)
4.2.1 Classifiers
88(1)
4.2.2 Informal kinship terms
89(1)
4.2.3 Adjectives
90(2)
4.2.4 Verbs
92(3)
4.3 Beyond morphology
95(4)
4.4 Summary
99(2)
5 Chinese writing 101(14)
5.1 Chinese characters
101(2)
5.2 The history of Chinese script
103(4)
5.3 The strokes of Chinese writing
107(3)
5.4 Simplified standard script
110(5)
6 Chinese language and culture 115(32)
6.1 Cultural beliefs and Chinese expressions
116(17)
6.1.1 Philosophical beliefs and Chinese expressions
116(6)
6.1.2 Metaphors the Chinese live by
122(4)
6.1.3 Politeness
126(7)
6.2 Language contacts and borrowings
133(8)
6.3 Neologisms and morpheme-syllable script
141(4)
6.4 Summary
145(2)
7 Chinese syntax 1 147(37)
7.1 Linear order, lexical categories. subcategorization, and semantic roles
148(5)
7.2 Other lexical categories
153(5)
7.3 Constituency
158(6)
7.4 Selectional restrictions
164(2)
7.5 Chinese pronouns and demonstratives
166(4)
7.6 Negation
170(2)
7.7 Sentence types
172(12)
7.7.1 Interrogative
172(9)
7.7.2 Imperative
181(3)
8 Chinese syntax 2 184(36)
8.1 Nominalization
186(2)
8.2 Relative clauses
188(1)
8.3 Cleft sentences
189(2)
8.4 Adverbials
191(9)
8.4.1 The word order and semantics of some common Chinese adverbs
191(6)
8.4.2 Adverbial clauses
197(3)
8.5 Serial-verb constructions
200(6)
8.5.1 Three types of serial-verb constructions
200(5)
8.5.2 Causative construction
205(1)
8.6 Prepositions
206(12)
8.6.1 Flexible prepositional phrases
206(3)
8.6.2 The comparative, passive, and ba constructions
209(9)
8.6.2.1 Comparative
209(2)
8.6.2.2 Passive
211(1)
8.6.2.3 The ba construction
212(6)
8.7 Summary
218(2)
Appendix 1 Phonetic symbols 220(3)
Appendix 2 Capitalized abbreviations 223(2)
References 225(4)
Index 229

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